Browsing by Subject "palkokasvit"

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  • Simpura, Lyyra (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Background: Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) are common diseases characterized by disturbing gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms in the absence of structural or biochemical changes in GI tract. Well identified group of compounds responsible for GI symptoms are FODMAPs (fermentable oligo-, di- and monosaccharides and polyols). Legumes contain α-galacto-oligosaccharides (α-GOS), unabsorbed, osmotically active and rapidly fermented fibres, known for colonic gas formation. The role of phytic acid (PA) and its effects on GI symptoms as complex-forming agent is not fully understood. These antinutrients can be removed by enzymatic treatments. However, usefulness of these treatments on reducing GI symptoms is not known. Aims: The aim of this research was to investigate whether two different enzymatic treatments of pea-based products have an impact on experienced GI symptoms. α-GOS and PA content was reduced in the test products. Material and methods: This was a 3–week randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled cross-over-designed study. Participants (n=26) were healthy males and females aged 21–70 who claimed to experience GI symptoms after consuming legumes. Each participant received weekly two portions of either α-galactosidase-treated, double-enzyme-treated or control, spoonable pea-based product. They reported severity of nine GI symptoms within 72–hour time period via web-based survey using visual analog scale (VAS). Maximum values, the time for experiencing the maximum values, maximum values in 8 time points and symptom sum scores were analyzed. To study differencies in GI symptoms caused by the study products, data was analyzed statistically using mainly non-parametric Friedman’s test. Dependence of baseline symptoms and symptom scores were examined using crosstabulation and analyzed statistically with Fisher’s exact test. Results: Participants’ median symptom scores were rather low throughout the intervention, indicating that the participants were after all not very sensitive for legume GOS. Maximum pain score was significantly higher with the double-enzyme-treated product compared to the control product (p=0,038). At time point 5 bloating score was significantly higher with the α-galactosidase-treated product than with the double-enzyme-treated product (p=0,051), and flatulence score was significantly higher with the α-galactosidase-treated product than with the control product (p=0,021). There were no statistically significant differencies in any other examined variables between the study products. Although there was a slight trend towards more severe symptoms with the enzyme-treated products compared to the control product. Conclusions: The enzyme-treated pea-based products were not better tolerated than the control product, but that may be due to the fact that the experienced GI symptoms were rather mild in general. There are some evidence on the use of α-galactosidase supplement to alleviate GOS-induced GI symptoms. In future, the products should be tested in specifically α-GOS- and/or PA sensitive population.
  • Kuusisto, Katja (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    The aim of this study was to investigate the ensilability of field pea and faba bean bi-crop with spring wheat when ensiled as whole-crop with different additives. In this study we attempted to clarify use of pea – wheat and faba bean – wheat bi-crop in organic farming. Forages was sown at 4th to 7th of June in Luonnonvarakeskus (Luke) Ruukki and forages were ensiled in laboratory silos at 26th of August 2013. Silages were ensiled without additive (PR), with formic acid (MH) and with two different heterofermentative inoculants (B1 and B2) as additive. Each treatment were made three replicants. Silos were opened after 106 ensiling days at 9th of December in Luke Jokioinen. Chemical and microbiological compositions were determined from samples of herbage. From silage samples were analysed fermentation quality, microbiological composition and aerobic stability. All samples were wet. Faba bean – wheat bi-crop was a little wetter than field pea – wheat bi-crop. Field pea – wheat forage contained more crude protein, water-soluble carbohydrates, starch and had stronger buffering capacity than faba bean – wheat. Faba bean – wheat bi-crop contained more neutral-detergent fiber (NDF) and had also lower digestibility. Both of crops were easy to ensile and growth stage were different between crops. All samples included lot of micro-organism especially yeast, moulds and epiphytic lactic acid bacteria. Field pea – wheat silage contained more fermentation products than faba bean – wheat silage. MH- treated silages had better fermentation quality than other silages although there were higher pH values in MH silages. MH silages contained less lactic and acetic acids and ammonium nitro-gen. Inoculant treated silages mostly did not differ from PR treatment in fermentation parameters. That is probably due to high epiphytic lactic acid bacteria account in herbage. Silages contained only a little butyric acid. Microbiological quality of silages predisposed them to aerobic deteriora-tion because there were considerable high amounts of yeasts and moulds. Field pea –wheat silages were more aerobically stable than faba bean - wheat. This is probably due to higher concentration of fermentation acids in field pea-wheat silages. MH treatment was the most aerobically stable of field pea – wheat silages. B2 treatment was the most stable of field pea – wheat silages. Mixed ration of these silages were more prone to aerobically deterioration than silages.
  • Hautsalo, Juho (Helsingfors universitet, 2013)
    The objective of this study was to develop functional method for producing doupled-haploid plants for faba bean. Microspore culture is an advanced method to produce doubled-haploids and it is based on the totipotent nature of plant cells, since even a microspore, which is an immature pollen cell with haploid genome, can develop into a plant. This plant is either haploid or doupled haploid depending on whether there has been chromosome doubling or not and because the chromosomes either do not have pairs or the pairs are pure copies of each other, the plant is completely homozygous. Doubled haploids are already used in breeding programs with several crops such as wheat, barley and oilseed rape. Faba bean is an important legume for food, feed and crop rotation. Together with other legumes it has the potential to replace soybean imports entirely in Finland. Faba bean yield stability and anti-nutritional factors restrain its use and active breeding is required to improve the crop. In Finland, where pea and faba bean are the only grain legumes actively cultivated, the breeding of faba bean has been recently reactivated and its objectives are earliness, higher yield, protein content and improved quality factors. Big bottle neck in faba bean breeding is the creation of pure homozygote lines because the partial cross-breeding in the species sets restrains for the procedure. In this study promising pea and chick pea protocols that were developed in 2009 and an efficient rapeseed protocol were applied with faba bean. The interaction of various stress treatments and two different induction media with five genotypes of faba bean on microspore culture were analysed. Pro-embryos and cell divisions were observed from the cultures. Heat shock was the most effective stress treatment. Effects of density and induction medium were high and cultivar’s low tannin content seemed to impact positively to induction efficiency. These results suggest that for faba bean microspore culture is as suitable method as anther culture is and that there is hope to produce doubled-haploid faba beans in the future.
  • Lukkari, Emmi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Plant proteins have excellent nutritional quality and their use in food is constantly increasing. Plant protein powders are widely used as raw material for plant protein products. Characterization of the sensory properties of plant protein powders is important for product development. Aim of the study was to study the sensory properties of six different plant protein powders using a descriptive analysis. The aim was to obtain new information about the sensory properties of plant pro-teins. Study was conducted during the COVID-19 pandemic. The intensities of the sensory properties of the plant protein concentrates, i.e., faba bean, brown pea, yellow pea, hemp, flaxseed and pea protein isolate were studied by a generic descriptive analysis. The trained panel created a vocabulary for the sensory properties of plant proteins and sensory profile of 17 properties was formed. The profile included six smell, four texture, two flavor, and five taste-related properties together with suitable reference samples. Assessors evaluated the samples in three separate sessions. The results showed that the brown and yellow peas had very similar profiles. Their typical smell properties were grassy, smell and flavor of fresh pea, sweetness, bitterness and mouth-drying sensation. The bitterness and mouth-drying sensation of the faba bean were strongest of all and it also contained more grain and musty smell compared to the peas. The properties of the pea protein isolate differed from brown and yellow peas because in umami taste and pea-like properties. Oilseeds, i.e., hemp and flaxseed were dominated by a grain and musty smell, as well as rough-ness and sandiness. The smell and flavor properties of the cooked peas were mild in the plant pro-tein samples because the properties of cooked peas are created during the production of plant protein products. Due to the high protein concentration of pea protein isolate it differed most from all the other samples.
  • Kallio, Veronika (Helsingin yliopisto, 2022)
    Palkokasvien siemenet sisältävät erityisen paljon vesiliukoista folaattia ja rasvaliukoisia tokoleja eli tokoferoleja ja tokotrienoleja (α-tokoferoli on E-vitamiinia). Palkokasveista kuten härkäpavusta, herneestä sekä lupiinista valmistetaan jauhoja sekä erittäin proteiinipitoisia konsentraatteja ja isolaatteja. Konsentraatit (proteiiniosuus 60 %) valmistetaan kuivafraktiointitekniikalla ja isolaatit (proteiiniosuus 90 %) märkäfraktioinnilla. Palkokasvien proteiinikonsentraateista ja -isolaateista voidaan valmistaa liha-analogeja märkäekstruusiolla käyttäen pitkää jäähdytyssuutinta. Aikaisemmissa tutkimuksissa oli havaittu kuivaekstruusion aiheuttavan vitamiinien hävikkiä, mutta märkäekstruusion vaikutusta vitamiinien säilymiseen ei ole tutkittu. Tutkielman tavoitteena oli tutkia palkokasvivalmisteita kuten jauhoja, proteiinikonsentraatteja ja -isolaatteja folaatin ja tokolien lähteinä sekä märkäekstruusion vaikutusta folaatin ja tokolien pysyvyyteen. Folaatin määrityksessä näytteet uutettiin, folaatti vapautettiin matriisista entsyymikäsittelyillä, puhdistettiin ja konsentroitiin käyttäen affiniteettikromatografiaa. Uutteesta analysoitiin folaatin eri vitameerit erittäin suuren erotuskyvyn nestekromatografisella menetelmällä (UHPLC). Tokolien määrityksessä näytteiden rasvaliukoinen osa uutettiin nopeutetulla liuotinuutolla (ASE-uuttomenetelmä) ja tokoferolit ja tokotrienolit määritettiin käyttäen normaalifaasinestekromatografista menetelmää (HPLC). Tämä tutkimus osoitti, että palkokasveista valmistetut proteiini-isolaatit ovat usein huonompia folaatin ja tokolien lähteitä kuin vastaavat jauhot tai konsentraatit. Lisäksi osoitettiin hernevalmisteiden sisältävän vain niukasti folaattia. Tämän tutkimuksen tulosten perusteella todettiin myös, että konsentraattien valmistus kuivafraktioinnilla säilyttää rasvaliukoisia tokoleja, mutta isolaattien valmistaminen märkäfraktioinnilla aiheuttaa folaatti- ja tokolipitoisuuksien pienentymistä. Tutkittaessa märkäekstruusion vaikutusta vitamiinien pysyvyyteen märkäekstruusion todettiin aiheuttavan palkokasviraaka-aineseosten folaatti- ja tokolipitoisuuksien pienentymistä. Härkäpapuvalmisteiden ekstruusio pienensi folaattipitoisuuksia 39–58 % ja tokolipitoisuuksia 10–27 %. Herneproteiini-isolaatti-beetaglukaanikonsentraattiseoksen ekstrudaateissa havaittiin 5–60 % pienemmät folaattipitoisuudet ja 4–61 % pienemmät tokolipitoisuudet kuin raaka-aineissa. Lupiinivalmisteiden ekstruusiossa folaattipitoisuudet pienenivät hyvin vähän, 0–4 %, mutta tokolipitoisuudet pienenivät paljon, 40–56 %.
  • Kaljonen, Minna; Ott, Anna; Huttunen, Suvi; Kuusela, Assi-Jutta; Lonkila, Annika (CENDES, 2022)
    International Journal of Sociology of Agriculture and Food
    Legumes receive increasing attention in sustainability transition research as they can contribute to more sustainable food systems. Previous research has established the need for policies relating to both production and consumption to tackle the marginalisation of legumes in European cropping systems and diets. In this paper, we apply the policy mix framework to food system transition and develop it further into an interpretive policy mix framework to evaluate policy mixes for more vital legume value chains. The interpretive policy mix framework facilitates a better understanding of competing policy frames in designing more consistent, coherent, and comprehensive policy mixes for transitions. The paper analyses three competing policy frames promoted by the food system actors, who are engaged in the development of legume production and consumption in Finland. A comparative analysis of the frames highlights that the policy objectives do not align well; currently, there is no shared understanding among food system actors of what kind of policy mix is needed for more vital legume value chains. The results emphasise networking as a key element in building more coherent policy mixes. The paper shows how the interpretive policy mix framework can support in this endeavour by unveiling conflict lines and possible compromises between the different policy frames.
  • Anttila, Johannes (Helsingin yliopisto, 2022)
    Tausta ja tavoitteet: Punaisen lihan kulutus on maailmanlaajuisesti liian runsasta, millä on merkittäviä epäsuotuisia ympäristö- ja terveysvaikutuksia. Suomessa erityisesti miehet syövät merkittävästi enemmän punaista lihaa kuin ravitsemussuosituksissa suositellaan. Punainen liha on kuitenkin suomalaisten miesten ruokavalioissa merkittävä B12-vitamiinin ja hyvin imeytyvän raudan lähde. Työn tavoitteena oli tutkia punaisen ja prosessoidun lihan osittaisen korvaamisen palkokasveilla vaikutuksia suomalaisten miesten B12-vitamiinin ja raudan saantiin sekä niiden biomarkkereihin. Menetelmät: Tutkimusjaksoa edeltävän seulonnan läpäisyn jälkeen osallistujat (n=102) jaettiin kahteen rinnakkaisryhmään, liharyhmään ja palkokasviryhmään. Liharyhmä sisällytti ruokavalioonsa 760 grammaa punaista lihaa viikossa, kun palkokasviryhmä puolestaan sisällytti ruokavalioonsa 200 grammaa punaista lihaa ja loput punaisesta lihasta (560 g/vk) saatavasta proteiinimäärästä korvattiin palkokasveja sisältävillä elintarvikkeilla. Muu ruokavalio pyydettiin pitämään tavanomaisena, mutta muiden kuin tutkimuksessa jaettujen punaisen lihan ja palkokasvien käyttö kiellettiin. Tulokset: B12 vitamiinin saanti oli suurempaa (p<0,001) liharyhmässä (7,7±4,0 μg/vrk) kuin palkokasviryhmässä (5,0±2,7 μg/vrk). Raudan saanti oli puolestaan pienempää (p<0,001) liharyhmässä (14,0±3,1 mg/vrk) kuin palkokasviryhmässä (21,9±5,7 mg/vrk). Transkobalamiini II sitoutuneen B12-vitamiinin (holoTC) pitoisuus oli suurempi (p=0,022) liharyhmässä (120,4±47,3 pmol/l) kuin palkokasviryhmässä (107,1±45,1 pmol/l). Interventioryhmien välillä ei havaittu eroja veren hemoglobiinissa ja hematokriitissa sekä plasman transferriinireseptorissa, raudassa, ferritiinissä, transferriinissä eikä transferriinin rautakyllästeisyydessä. Johtopäätökset: Punaisen lihan osittainen korvaaminen palkokasveilla vähensi B12-vitamiinin saantia ja johti pienempään veren holoTC-pitoisuuteen. Raudan saanti puolestaan kasvoi palkokasviryhmässä mutta raudan biomarkkereissa ei ollut eroja interventioryhmien välillä.
  • Pietilä, Tuulia Kreetta Matilda (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Background Endogenous formation of possibly carcinogenic N-nitroso compounds may partly explain the association between red and processed meat and colorectal cancer. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of partial replacement of red and processed meat with legumes on the fecal total and heme-originated N-nitroso compounds (NOC) in healthy working-aged Finnish men. Methods The study was a 6-wk parallel design randomized clinical trial with two groups following either a diet supplemented with red and processed meat or a diet supplemented with legumes and red and processed meat. Total and heme-originated NOCs were analyzed from fecal homogenates using Ecomedics CLD 88. Statistical analyses were conducted using IBM SPSS Statistics 27. Independent samples t-test and Chi-Square test were used to assess the differences between the intervention groups at the baseline. Differences in total and heme-originated NOCs between the intervention groups at the endpoint were analyzed using ANCOVA (adjusted for baseline values). For correlations, Pearson correlation was used. Results 102 men completed the study. No significant differences between the groups were reported at the baseline. At the endpoint, fecal concentrations of total NOC (p < 0.0001) and heme-originated NOC (p < 0.0001) were lower in the legume and red meat group than in the red meat group. A moderate negative correlation between stool volume and NOC concentrations was observed. Conclusions The results indicate that even a partial replacement of red and processed meat with legume products can significantly reduce the total and heme-originated NOC concentrations in feces and potentially reduce the risk for the development of CRC.