Browsing by Subject "participation"

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  • Virkkunen, Matleena (2008)
    This research paper examines the subject positions of the Nicaraguan peasant women who participated in development projects. The women are a part of the target group of the projects. The concept of subject position refers in this research to the women's socially constructed position in the development projects. I also analyse the discourses of development and poverty that the Nicaraguan women produce. The discourses of the women are compared to the so called hegemonic discourses of development. The hegemonic discourses and their critique are introduced during the research. The theoretical framework of the research is constructed by social constructionism and critical discourse analysis. I have approached the subject positions of the Nicaraguan women with the help of textual analysis and narratology. This research can be conceptualised as a part of the ethnographic development research. I have investigated two development projects funded by foreign donors. The research material consists of the private and group interviews of the Nicaraguan women. In the women's narratives, four different subject positions were found. One of them represents active participation in the development project. The rest of the subject positions represent passive positions. The fatalistic subject position was especially strong. The poverty discourses of the women emphasized the lack of education (or knowledge) and the condition of a house and clothes. Poverty was also seen for instance as social inequality and as happiness. The strongest development discourse the women emphasized was education, work and a good salary. On the other hand, development was seen as the social services produced by the state. Research shows that the discourses produced by the Nicaraguan women are many times in conflict with the discourses that emphasize the economical well-being in development. On the other hand, the results of this research are similar with those of so called participatory poverty research. The research also shows the conflict between the hegemonic development discourses and the positioning of the development project's target group. The main argument of the research is that the target group's passive (or even fatalistic) subject position may threat the aims of a development project. On the other hand, becoming aware of the target group's subject positions may help the project to achieve its aims.
  • Shange, Bosaze Rufinga (Helsingfors universitet, 2013)
    This research focused on sustainable community forest management and policy implications for the biosphere reserve of Luki in the DR- Congo. The purpose of this research was to find out opportunities and options to develop sustainable community forest management at the biosphere reserve of Luki. The research was conducted in the biosphere reserve of Luki located in the southwest of DR- Congo. The human activities threat the biosphere reserve of Luki to be under significant pressure of unsustainable management. The research revealed a number of options and opportunities to establish sustainable community forest management and policies needed to sustain forest ecosystem in the biosphere of Luki. The research uses a qualitative research methods, both primary and secondary data were collected during field work in 2010 through interviews and other various participatory methods. The interviewee includes different local forestry authorities and local community. The results of the research showed that, sustainable community forest management cannot be established in an environment where no effective policy instruments or law enforcement being in place. The results show that, due to political conditions in DR- Congo, the government has not been able to put certain measure to resolve tenure rights. This has remained a difficult issue and challenge that the government has not been able to find an immediate solution. The research recommends the need to develop a sustainable community forest management at the biosphere reserve of Luki. The government needs to clarify the forest code by clearly stating what government wants to do with its vast forest resources, especially in regard to the forest dependent people. A policy framework should be put in place as soon as possible in order for forest institutions to be able to function. The management strategy should be an inclusive process in order to promote equity and multiple use of forest resource at local community level.
  • Weckström, Elina; Lastikka, Anna-Leena; Havu-Nuutinen, Sari (2022)
    The aim of this research was to explore a socially sustainable culture of participation in which all members of the community can be heard, make initiatives, express their opinions, and alter their practices. We conducted the study by analysing three separate sets of empirical research data in which participation was investigated in an early childhood education and care (ECEC) context and in club activities for children aged 4-12 and the elderly. The data include children's perspectives regarding participation, ECEC practitioners' perspectives on a culture of participation, and children's and ECEC practitioners' shared project-based practices. The results show that children and ECEC practitioners were willing to commit to new practices and construct a collective 'we-narrative'. A we-narrative created a foundation for the conceptual model of a socially sustainable culture of participation, including the prerequisites of participation in adult practices, the goal of participation in children's and adults' shared activities, and a tool for strengthening participation. According to the results, a socially sustainable culture of participation is holistic and dynamic, and children can have an effect on daily activities, including basic care situations, as well as part of the educational activities.
  • Lehtiniemi, Tuukka; Haapoja, Jesse (2020)
    Data activism has emerged as a response to asymmetries in how data and the means of knowledge production are distributed. This article examines MyData, a data activism initiative developing principles for a new technical and commercial ecosystem in which individuals control the use of personal data. Analyzing material collected at a formative event shaping MyData activism, we examine how more just data arrangements are framed to enhance equal participation. Our analysis shows agreement on what is ultimately at stake: individual data agency and fair competition in the data economy. However, two alternatives are offered for what participation involves. Collaboration with commercial actors favors framing participation as agency in data markets, thereby potentially limiting the scope of what is at stake. The alternative framing presents a rights-based understanding of economic and civic agency, potentially leading to a broader understanding of participation in a datafied society.
  • Hietala, Reija; Ijäs, Asko; Pikner, Tarmo; Kull, Anne; Printsmann, Anu; Kuusik, Maila; Fagerholm, Nora; Vihervaara, Petteri; Nordström, Paulina; Kostamo, Kirsi (Springer Nature, 2021)
    Journal of Coastal Conservation 25 (2021), 47
    The Maritime Spatial Planning (MSP) Directive was ratified (2014/89/EU) along the Strategy of the European Union (EU) on the Blue Economy to contribute to the effective management of maritime activities and resources and incorporate the principal elements of Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) (2002/413/EC) into planning at the land-sea interface. There is a need to develop the ICZM approach throughout Europe to realise the potential for both socio-economic and environmental targets set by the EU and national legislations. In this study, we co-developed different approaches for land-sea interactions in four case areas in Estonia and Finland based on the defined characteristics and key interests derived from local or regional challenges by integrating spatial data on human activities and ecology. Furthermore, four ICZM drafts were co-evaluated by stakeholders and the public using online map-based assessment tools (public participatory GIS). The ICZM approaches of the Estonian cases ranged from the diversification of land use to the enhancement of community-based entrepreneurship. The Finnish cases aimed to define the trends for sustainable marine and coastal tourism and introduce the ecosystem service concept in land use planning. During the project activities, we found that increased communication and exchange of local and regional views and values on the prevailing land-sea interactions were important for the entire process. Thereafter, the ICZM plans were applied to the MSP processes nationally, and they support the sustainable development of coastal areas in Estonia and Finland.
  • Lyytimäki, Jari; Antikainen, Riina; Hokkanen, Joonas; Koskela, Sirkka; Kurppa, Sirpa; Känkänen, Riina; Seppälä, Jyri (Wiley & Sons, 2018)
    Sustainable Development 26(1): 51-64
    Greening the economy has been widely discussed as a new strategy for simultaneously reducing environmental pressures, promoting economic growth and enhancing social well-being. Indicators are one tool that can be used to describe the development of green growth. This paper presents and evaluates the process of attempting to build a set of policy-relevant key indicators of green growth for Finland. The challenges of developing a cross-scale indicator set integrating different sectors and levels of society are identified and discussed. It is argued that both the experts preparing the indicators and the potential users will benefit from a collaborative process that aims not only to build a shared awareness of the key issues of green growth but also to foster a realistic understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of the indicator approach. Key challenges include data availability, right balance between different indicator selection criteria, systemic understanding of the relationships between indicators, and the variable usage contexts of the indicators.
  • Hannikainen, Pietari (2020)
    This article examines an emerging "community movement" in the national Evangelical-Lutheran Church in Finland. Emerging from the local level, with links to wider renewal networks across Protestant Churches, the movement consists of a variation of 30-40 worship communities that are based on strong roles for laymen, challenging the traditional models of church life. Many communities are expanding and drawing young adults, in contrast to general developments in the Church. This article asks: What kinds of patterns of participation exist among the members and how are they related to experiences of membership? The results of a quantitative survey (N=529), conducted 2017, revealed three types of participation: "traditional," "community-oriented" and "experiential." The main finding is the distinct community process typical to these communities, which is connected to a strong sense of membership, commitment, and contentment, and which is actualized through lay participation. The article sheds light on the developments in a specific Nordic majority church in response to a changing cultural environment.
  • Cambou, Dorothee; Poelzer, Greg (Routledge, 2021)
    Routledge Research in Polar Regions
    Chapter 10 explores the extent to which Indigenous communities participate in the transition to renewable energy in the Arctic region. Using the concept of energy justice, this chapter provides legal and empirical arguments to demonstrate the need to consider energy justice in order to ensure that the transition to renewable energy in the Arctic region addresses the rights of Indigenous peoples. In so doing, the authors outline the importance of renewable energy as a means to achieving sustainable development and to fulfilling human rights in accordance with the international commitments of Arctic states adopted under the auspices of the 2030 Agenda and the Sustainable Development Goals in 2015. Second, the chapter outlines the broader contexts and corresponding patterns of renewable energy development in the Arctic. Against this backdrop, the chapter examines the actual state of play of the energy transition and its impact on Indigenous peoples in the Arctic based on illustrative examples. For this purpose, the chapter includes examples from Canada, Alaska, Russia, and in the Nordic countries of Norway and Sweden. Based on this appraisal, the authors offer recommendations for policy makers and business leaders to achieve greater justice for the Arctic Indigenous peoples during this current period of global energy transition.
  • Grönholm, Sam; Jalonen, Pauliina (Finnish Environment Institute, 2009)
    Reports of the Finnish Environment Institute 5/2009
  • Kivilahti, Riina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2022)
    Participatory budgeting is a democracy innovation that has become popular around the world during the past decades. The capital of Finland is one of the many actors running participatory budgeting. The Helsinki participatory budgeting initiative – called MyCity – defines equal opportunities for participation as one of the main principles and improving parity as one of the key goals for the initiative. This MA Thesis focuses on themes of parity in Helsinki participatory budgeting. The attention is on different parity goals set for the initiative as well as the realization of these principles. According to the literature, inclusion is vital for all democracy innovations, and can be approached in two ways: from equality and equity perspectives. The first emphasizes everyone’s right to be treated similarly in society. The latter one acknowledges that fairness in access and contributions can be achieved only when tuning into each individual’s background differences. The data for the study is twofold, it consists of public documents and interviews. Through document analysis of key policy documents, different equality and equity goals and actions are identified. Further analysis on how these goals complement and contradict is taken. In addition, five qualitative interviews of MyCity cooperation organization representatives were conducted. The methods used are qualitative. Both the policy documents and interviews are analyzed with content analysis. The analysis of the study demonstrates a harmony of equality and equity actions in the recruitment, ideation and co-creation phases of MyCity. In the latter two phases of the process, voting and implementation, equality and equity actions are contradictory. Equality holds the main emphasis in the cost of equity. The study discusses two scenarios for the result: firstly, dismissal of equity goals and the downsides of it: risking tokenism and increasing inequalities. And secondly, an alternative explanation is discussed: unintended lack of clarity in parity priorities. The cooperation organization interviews present the reality of participation for the least privileged citizens: participatory budgeting is largely inaccessible. Main themes identified from the interviews are: employee supported participation was possible for the least privileged, fears on majority citizen’s preferences surpassing the less privileged voices and superficial equality projects as hindrance. In the end, three recommendations to improve equity in MyCity are made: renewal of equity guidelines for the initiative; forming stronger cooperation alliances with the minority organizations; and adjusting the rules and scope of MyCity.
  • Perkinen, Annika; Valtonen, Juha; Ruismäki, Heikki (2022)
    Purpose and problem statement: Sports clubs have a positive impact on many children and adolescents, yet teenagers are increasingly quitting their sports club participation when they reach adolescence. The drop-out phenomenon has been widely studied. Conversely, the factors supporting the continuation of the sports club participation have been examined less. Our research question was: How is the experience of involvement related to continuing to participate in sports club activities? In this study, the concept of sports club participation means training in a football team. Involvement, for its part, consists of belongingness, inclusion, and togetherness. Approach: Eight female footballers were interviewed in this retrospective case study. Guided by the theoretical background, the classification body of the four components of involvement; communality, creating space for youth voice, participating in a sport that suits oneself, and environmental factors, was formed. The interview material was transcribed and placed in the categories of involvement components according to the content analysis. Consequently, the resulting subcategories were formed and discussed. Results: The main results of the research suggest that according to the interviewees, communality was built at both the club and the team level and within each adolescent’s positive social relationships. Creating space for youth voice included the dialogue between the club and the player, the coach and the player and the player's role in the team. The factors that made a sport suit oneself were the holistic consideration of the adolescent’s life, the experiences of finding one’s own place in the sport and the meaningfulness of the sport. The environmental factors were linked to the club’s structures, and both the location and the costs of the sport. Due to the limited nature of the research data, the results of the study cannot be generalised but can be considered to be indicative. Conclusions: Based on the study, involvement could provide a diverse approach to the development of sports clubs. By identifying the factors leading to meaningful sport, and by adapting participation according to the components of involvement, it is possible to motivate adolescents to continue their sports club participation longer, develop the sense of belonging and hence their well-being. Further studies should examine the component of creating space for youth voice in sports clubs, as it has been less studied
  • Muurman, Tuulikki (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Background: Poor health literacy (HL) is associated to increased hospitalization and decreased seeking for screenings. Shared decision making can increase patient knowledge, decrease anxiety over the care process, improve health outcomes and reduce health care costs. Little is known about factors influencing health literacy and participation in treatment decision making in different population groups. Objectives: To investigate factors predicting HL and participation in the treatment decision making. Methods: A cross-sectional population online survey conducted in Finland in 2019 by Finnish Medicines Agency. Both health literacy and participation in the decision making were assessed by three statements that sum variables were created with score 1-5 (Cronbach’s alpha value 0.584 and 0.810). Age, gender, education, household income and most common chronic diseases were chosen as possible predicting factors. Two-variable Pearson’s chi-squared test was first used to find significant factors followed by logistic regression analysis to take into account several variables. Results: Of all the respondents (n=2104) 76.5% had good HL and 73.4% had willingness to participate in the treatment decision making. In the two-variable test older age (p<0.001), lower education (p<0.001), lower household income (p=0.001), higher number of chronic diseases (p=0.003), having cardiovascular diseases (p=0.003), diabetes (p=0.029) and cancer (p=0.001) predicted poorer health literacy. Male gender (p=0.001), not having chronic diseases (p=0.001), not having a musculoskeletal disorder (p=0.050) or mental health disorders (p<0.001) predicted poorer participation in the treatment decision making. In the logistic regression analysis older age and having cancer predicted poorer health literacy. Male gender and not having mental health disorders predicted less willingness to participate in the decision making. Conclusions: Older age and cancer predicts poorer health literacy and male gender poorer willingness to participate in the decision making. Further research should focus on investigating more in detail the contributing factors to these findings, and how health literacy in elderly and men’s involvement to the decision making could be improved.
  • Sirén, Hanna (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    This study focuses on citizen and interest group public engagement for deliberating on societal challenges, especially in an academic research planning context. The studied participatory event is the first Future Earth Townhall Meeting organized in Helsinki in May 2015. Using an extended case method and a theory-driven approach combined with mixed methods, this study aims to shed light on social and theoretical aspects framing the studied participatory event. The extended case study method was selected to support and direct inquiry as well as to enable reconstructing existing theory. This study combines participant observation, textual content analysis, word frequency analysis and visual analysis. In the social sciences demands to better take into account environmental issues have increased after the Second World War. The study’s ethnographic grassroots perspective situates the studied event into a wider framework of participation and political sociology. Analysis is organized through main frames local publics and global challenges. Local publics especially addresses the following research questions: How were local publics constructed? What voiced concerns frame participation? Global challenges in turn focuses on: How were thematic aims developed and articulated? The key concept global change awareness guides analysis of interdisciplinary work. Four planning stages of idea development (cf. Lempiälä 2011) illustrate main front end stages connected to the key challenges and activities. In the studied case the process has moved from international to local level. For global challenges, ARGIL is introduced to highlight a difference between broader Adaptation and socially coordinated Resources. Oskar Negt and Alexander Kluge’s (1972) concept new public sphere of production is used as theoretical backbone on participation. Because the event was advertised as open to anyone interested in addition to experts, the studied event’s meeting hall sessions can be seen as front stage activities (cf. Goffman 1956; Lempiälä 2011). Participatory activities taking place after general concept approval can limit participants’ critical potential. At the same time, international grand challenges are widely used in various contexts, and increased awareness can thus be beneficial for participants. The studied event is situated at an intersection of global and local networks of influence. Future Earth aims to combine a focus on various levels, cooperating with different stakeholders and actors. The studied event’s thematic focus touches upon the UN’s sustainable development goals and the EU’s grand societal challenges.
  • Kivipelto, Johanna (Helsingfors universitet, 2014)
    Objectives: In my thesis, I studied the fourth, the fifth and the sixth graders views about the conceptions of the influence at school. In the thesis it was also surveyed what kind of matters the pupils wanted to influence at school. Furthermore, it was studied what kind of influencing skills pupils thought they have. The theory part of the thesis consisted in an overview to the children's and youth's different kind of needs for participation as well as an overview to the curriculum system which forms the base of the school work was studied. In addition, in the theory part of the thesis the democracy expressed at school and the awakening of the children's interest in civic matters were studied. Methods: The thesis was a survey-research and structured questionnaires were used when information was collected. The research group consisted of 112 pupils who studied at the fourth, the fifth and the sixth grades in the primary school situated in the Southern part of Finland. The data was analyzed with the quantitative research program SPSS. At first different numbers such as averages and standard deviations were examined and after that factor analyses were used. Correlation examination was also used. Results and conclusions: The results showed that the pupils had a positive image about their own influencing skills and they trusted their own opinions. They felt that it was important to have influence on they own matters as well as on the common matters at school. However many of the pupils felt that they didn't have possibilities to influence what happens at school during the school day. In addition, the pupils didn't want the teachers or the headmaster to decide solely how the work at school was carried out. The things that the pupils wanted to influence the most were the lunch and the snack at school, the seating arrangement in the classroom, the visits carried out at school and the optional subjects. According to the results it's possible to draw a conclusion that the pupils' participation at school is necessary. The pupils value the possibilities to take part in and seem to understand that it is needed them to contribute themselves so that it is possible to enjoy more the time spend at school. It's also possible to draw a conclusion that although the possibilities to participate are valued there is a lack of real enthusiasm to participate. This is why it seems that there is a need for different kinds of ways to participate since the current ways to participate at school lack to motivate many pupils. Also the work of student body needs to be improved since many of the pupils didn't want to participate to the work of student body although they thought the work done by the student body was important.
  • Janusz, Bernadetta; Matusiak, Feliks; Peräkylä, Anssi (2021)
    The study demonstrates how asymmetries in therapists' affiliations with spouses emerge and are addressed in couple therapy. A total of 4 video-recorded couple therapy first sessions were subjected to conversation analysis. The moment-by moment interactions that contribute to one sided affiliation, as well as the therapists' ways of managing such asymmetry, are described in detail. Asymmetries of affiliation regularly co-occur with the exclusion of 1 spouse from the interaction. Asymmetries of affiliation and participation can be addressed by 2 types of action by the therapist: (a) In counterbalancing moves, the therapist shifts their affiliation back to the spouse that was neglected. (b) In systemic couple-directed interventions, the therapist creates symmetry of affiliation and participation not only by attending to the individual spouses but also by addressing the couple as a single social unit. The observations are discussed in the light of the concept of split alliance and alliance ruptures, as well as in the context of research into affiliation as a generic property of social interaction.
  • Mattila, Tuomas J.; Hagelberg, Eija; Söderlund, Sanna; Joona, Juuso (Elsevier, 2022)
    Soil and Tillage Research
    Soil carbon sequestration is a recognized climate mitigation method, but it involves changes in the practices of more than 0.5 billion farms worldwide. Regionally customized carbon-farming programs are one way to tailor soil carbon storage to local conditions. We conducted farmer participatory research on 105 Finnish farms to investigate how farmers approach carbon (C) sequestration. We conducted training for farmers in the basics of carbon-farming and instructed them to make a Carbon Farming Plan for one of their fields. The plans were evaluated by a team of experts and through soil C balance calculations. In addition, potential nutrient limitations and the existing C stock were identified from soil tests. Although the existing C stocks were relatively high, an assessment of the plans indicated high potential for additional C storage (median 320 kg C ha−1year−1). The plans did not show any sensitivity to the existing C stock, with similar C inputs planned for low organic matter (OM) and high OM soils. The farmers either did not know their C stock or were not familiar with the C balance concept. Most soil samples showed considerable nutrient deficiencies (P, S, B and Mn), which can limit C storage. The quality of most plans was adequate for research with minor modifications. The largest C storage potential was estimated for measures with large additions of nutrient-poor amendments or in grazing. Most farmers chose measures with relatively low C storage benefits but high potential benefits for soil structure and productivity (cover crops, nutrient-rich amendments, grassland management). The C gain from some measures (subsoiling, diversity in grasslands) could not be estimated with current methodologies. The magnitude of planned C storage over 5 years on most farms was so small (<0.5% OM), that it is challenging to measure it through soil sampling. This finding supports the earlier conclusions that a combination of modeling and soil sampling is needed to verify the C storage.
  • RECAP-WP6 QS Work Grp; Marques, Sandra C. S.; Doetsch, Julia; Brodsgaard, Anne; Kajantie, Eero; Barros, Henrique (2020)
    Background: Cohort studies represent a strong methodology for increasing one's understanding of human life-course development and etiological mechanisms. Retention of participants, especially during long follow-up periods, is, however, a major challenge. A better understanding of the motives for participation and attrition in cohort studies in diverse sociogeographic and cultural settings is needed, as this information is most useful in developing effective retention strategies. Objective: This study aims to improve our understanding of participation and attrition phenomena in a European cohort study of very preterm/very-low-birth-weight (VPT/VLBW) infants from various sociogeographic and cultural settings to better understand variability and ultimately contribute to developing novel and more "in-context" strategies to improve retention. Methods: This study uses a triangulation of multisituated methods to collect data on various cohorts in the Research on European Children and Adults Born Preterm (RECAP) network, which include focus group discussions, individual semidriven interviews, and a collaborative, reflexive visual methodology (participant-generated VideoStories) with relevant key actors involved with these cohort studies such as adult participants, parents (caregivers), cohort staff, health care professionals, and academic researchers. The methodological strategy aims to provide a shared flexible framework of various qualitatively driven methods to collect data on VPT/VLBW adult and child cohorts, from which research partners may choose and combine those most pertinent to apply in their own specific contexts. Data from all sources and sites will be submitted to a triangulation of phenomenological thematic analysis with discourse analysis. Results: As of January 2020, in this study, we enrolled 92 participants variously involved with child and adult RECAP partnering cohorts from six countries. Multisite enrollment and data collection are expected to be completed in all seven study settings by June 2020. Findings will be reported in future publications. Conclusions: Qualitative research methods are a useful complement for enriching and illuminating quantitative results. We expect that opting for a multisituated study approach addressing the interplay of the lived experience of individuals in both researcher and researched stances of particular cohort study settings will contribute to filling some gaps in the understanding of participation variability and effectiveness of different implemented strategies in context. Moreover, health research subjects have traditionally been positioned as passive objects of study rather than active participants, even though they have the greatest stake in improving health care policies and practices. Including collaborative methods allows us to counteract the "top-down" model by handing over some research control to the very people who are providing the data on which research findings will be based while also acknowledging the value of their involvement.
  • Selenius, Emma (Helsingfors universitet, 2013)
    The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change devised the Kyoto Protocol in 1997, but this agreement was to be just the starting phase in restricting emissions, and a more comprehensive agreement would come right after the first term of the Protocol. The Copenhagen Summit in December 2009 was to be the meeting where a new agreement would be adopted. However, preliminary negotiations leading up to the Summit revealed that consensus was very hard to reach. Despite these disagreements, the Copenhagen Summit was rallied to be the one where the world shows commitment to the cause and unites to fight climate change. By the time the Summit started, the gap between expectations and reality was enormous. The Summit was not a success. Developing countries were adamant that the main negotiating track had to be a second term for the Kyoto Protocol. The US President Barack Obama was under domestic pressure to make sure that the US only commits to an agreement that includes all the largest polluters. China was holding on to the principle of 'common but differentiated responsibilities' and refused to agree to binding emission restrictions and international monitoring. The deadlock did not unravel until the Chair of the Summit gathered an informal negotiation group as a last minute plea. This high-level group drafted an Accord that was not based on the work of the UNFCCC working groups and presented it to the Plenary meeting on the last night of the Summit. Various developing countries announced immediately that they would not accept the Accord and so the Summit compromised to 'take note' of the Accord instead of adopting it. No binding agreement was reached. The aim of this Thesis is to examine the Copenhagen Summit as a failure and to discuss the most evident problems of the Summit in relation to theories of power, participation and compliance. All the subsidiary and working groups of the Summit are examined individually in order to get a comprehensive idea of the structure and the proceedings of the UNFCCC negotiating process. Major disagreements are discussed in relation to the structural level, and the dramatic events of the last days are examined in detail in order to get an idea of what finally sunk the possibility of a success. The way the Summit ended directs the Thesis towards a discussion about inequality and differentiated responsibilities in relation to participation and compliance in a policy field that could well be seen as a multi-level Prisoner’s Dilemma. As many of the developing countries pleaded to the principle of 'common but differentiated responsibilities', discussion on structural constraints of international environmental policy forms a large part of the analysis. Lukes’ three dimensions of power give a framework for the study of power at the institutional level. The inequality of the UNFCCC participants is explained through the historical development of the world order, using the narrative of the world-systems theory. The Thesis concludes with a discussion addressing the most evident problems of the UNFCCC institution and ends with a suggestion. Climate change is an issue of human security and therefore a full securitisation of climate change might enable the Security Council to get involved in the policy-making process. Although acknowledging the problem of democratic deficit in the Security Council, the Thesis proposes that by using an economy of esteem, the permanent members of the Security Council might feel obliged to use their authority to ensure that human security will not become threatened because of the effects of climate change. This would not be more democratic or transparent but might bring more results than the UNFCCC at its present form.
  • Stevanovic, Melisa; Valkeapää, Taina; Weiste, Elina; Lindholm, Camilla (2022)
    Using both statistical methods and conversation analysis, we examined how support workers in a mental health rehabilitation community encourage clients to participate in joint decision-making processes. Drawing on video-recordings of 29 community meetings as data, we considered support workers’ proposals (N = 449) and clients’ responsiveness to them. Support workers’ proposals were coded for their linguistic and other features and clients’ responsiveness was assessed by three independent raters. Multiple linear regression (MLR) analysis was carried out. A significant regression equation with seven predictor variables accounted for 24% of the variance in the data. Four variables predicted a higher level of client responsiveness: the use of explicit recipient address term, “quasi-open” proposal form, support worker’s long work experience, and the average level of client participation during a session. Three variables predicted a lower level of client responsiveness: grammatical complexity of proposal form, modal declarative proposal form, and the presence of only one support worker in a session. The qualitative conversation-analytic investigation highlighted the advantages of the careful fine-tuning of openness vs. closedness of proposal form, the reflexive awareness of which, we argue, may help mental health professionals to encourage clients’ responsiveness in joint decision-making processes and thereby their participation in communal life.
  • Kettunen, Anni (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Environmental problems are usually complex in nature, encompass uncertainties and affect multiple actors and groups of people in multiple ways. Hence, managing these problems requires transparent decision making that takes into consideration diverse values, perceptions and knowledge of those groups. Decisions that are made in a participatory decision-making process are more likely to express public values and local knowledge than decisions made in top-down management processes. Collaboration has become a ubiquitous concept within the context of participatory planning and environmental management. It is used in describing a wide array of participatory approaches and it is often used as a tool in managing wicked problems. However, participatory approaches do not guarantee better success in solving environmental problems. Hence, it is crucial to deliberate what kind of approach is used and what kind of situations it suits. This master’s thesis examines Metsähallitus’ participatory natural resource planning (NRP) process through the concept of collaboration. The study encompasses two mutually supporting parts: a case study about Metsähallitus’ natural resource planning process for Southern Finland 2017-2022 and an equality analysis encompassing altogether four cooperation groups from natural resource planning processes. The aim of the study is to find out how trust building, commitment, social capital and stakeholders’ opportunities to influence decision-making were realized in the NRP process of Southern Finland. In addition, aspects of equality in natural resource planning are examined. Data of the case study consists of seven qualitative semi-structured interviews. Data is analyzed according to the principles of qualitative content analysis. Data of the equality analysis consists of six NRP cooperation groups’ participant lists and the data is analyzed with quantitative content analysis. Based on the results, opportunities to participate actualize most efficiently in the operational level of the cooperation group. The methods used and facilitator’s contribution enhance the realization of equality within the cooperation group. Stakeholders reported a few defects concerning equal processing of values and interests. For example, topics regarding forestry overweighs other topics. The representativeness of stakeholders was considered good. Representatives of public agencies are most frequently participating of all stakeholder groups. Every fifth participant was a woman. What comes to social capital, one of the main results was increased mutual understanding among stakeholders that resulted from learning from each other in the process. Stakeholders’ perceptions of their opportunities to influence decision-making were labeled partly by contentment and realism, but partly by a low level of expectations. Opportunity to influence in decision-making is a remarkable factor for commitment and motivation to participate. The context of NRP-process also affects the planning and its results, but further research on this topic is needed and I propose this as one future research topic. More research is also needed to evaluate on how one of the main principles of collaboration, sharing decision-making power, affects natural resource planning and its results, if adopted.