Browsing by Subject "participatory planning"

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  • Luhtaniemi, Maria (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    Citizen participation in urban planning has increased in recent decades. In Finland, it is one of the primary objectives of the national Land Use And Building Act (Maankäyttö- ja rakennuslaki), which means participatory planning required in all land use planning. General plan is a document that provides general guidelines for land use and assigns land for different purposes to form a basis for detailed planning and construction. In Helsinki, the latest general plan was accepted by the City Council in 2016. One of the topics that received the largest attention throughout the process was the city's decision to turn its highway-like entry routes into city boulevards that favour pedestrians, cyclist and public transport. This Master's Thesis examines citizen participation in the Helsinki general plan in 2016 with the focus on the city boulevard question. It examines the discussion which took place between the city planners and three groups: other public officials, neighbouring municipalities and individual citizens.The data for this thesis comes from the document called interaction report, in which the planners summarise the comments from these stakeholders and respond to criticism. Through the method of rhetorical analysis, the thesis will seek to answer how the planning decisions are justified, how the planners respond to criticism and how is the planning situation framed for different interest groups. The analysis shows that the main ways to justify the city boulevards were the city's jurisdiction to make this decision, and the collaboration and investigations that had gone into the process. The city boulevard were framed as a city development project that brings growth and benefits everyone. This thesis, more generally, explores the questions of general planning and participation, and gives important insight into the citizen participation process in Finland.
  • Sandström, Vilma Christina; Tuomisto, Jouni T; Majaniemi, Sami; Rintala, Teemu; Pohjola, Mikko V (2014)
    Biofuels have raised controversy regarding their environmental, social, and economic sustainability. The complexity of biofuel decisions and investments by both industry and society requires integration of scientific knowledge, public information, and values from a diversity of sources. Environmental assessments can identify multiple impacts of different options. Open and collaborative knowledge creation can support decisions in two ways: by building trust and credibility and by developing more robust understanding of key issues. Open assessment is a decision-support method that allows widespread participation in a transparent and freely accessible process. In this article, we evaluate two open assessment case studies concerning biodiesel production. The evaluation compiles the participants’ views regarding the potential of the assessment process to influence decisions in terms of quality of content, applicability, efficiency, and openness. According to the evaluation, openness can be feasibly implemented and is much appreciated by participants. More experience using broad and active participation is needed for further development of methods and tools. However, the currently common practices of closed and disengaged processes limit decision making. In addition, suitable tools and practices, as well as the inclusion of participants with appropriate skills, are needed to facilitate open collaboration.
  • Mustajoki, Arto; Mustajoki, Henriikka (Taylor & Francis Group (Routledge), 2017)
    A New Approach to Research Ethics is a clear, practical and useful guide to the ethical issues faced by researchers today. Examining the theories of ethical decision-making and applying these theories to a range of situations within a research career and process, this text offers a broader perspective on how ethics can be a positive force in strengthening the research community. Drawing upon a strong selection of challenging case studies, this text offers a new approach to engage with ethical issues and provides the reader with: - a broader view on research ethics in practice, capturing both different stages of research careers and multiple tasks within that career, including supervision and research assessments - thoughts on questions such as increasing globalisation, open science and intensified competition - an increased understanding of undertaking research in a world of new technologies - an extension of research ethics to a multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary approach - an introduction to a ‘guided dialogue’ method, which helps to identify and engage with ethical issues individually and as a research community. A New Approach to Research Ethics allows for self-reflection and provides guidance for professional development in an increasingly competitive area. Full of valuable guidance for the researcher and ethical decision-maker, this is an essential text for postgraduate students, senior academics and developers of training courses on ethics for researchers.
  • Heikkilä, Juuso (Helsingfors universitet, 2013)
    Due to urbanization the importance of forests surrounding cities and municipal centers has grown significantly among residents. Increased use of recreational forests has led to the state where decisionmakers have started to pay more and more attention to forest management goals and participatory methods. In many cases municipalities and cities have started to incorporate resident’s perspectives to management plans and planning processes have developed towards strategic planning. The aim of this study was to determine, how well the participation was incorporated to planning process and, were the planners able to include stakeholder’s perspectives into the Puijo’s management plan. The data for this study was collected with internet based survey from stakeholder and steering group members that participated to the planning. The data was analyzed with Q-method. Qualitative analysis based on Tuler and Webler’s (1999) normative principles of participation was also carried out to assess the planning process. According to Q-analysis respondents formed four different perspective groups that described the planning process and its outcomes The groups were as follows: group disappointed to possibilities to affect planning, cooperation skeptics, supporters of systematic planning and the plan of the silent majority. All the groups felt that the planning process did not improve cooperation between stakeholders. Also, the availability of information was generally considered as a weak part of the process. The practical arrangements and the opportunity to participate to planning were considered successful areas by all the perspective groups. The group’s perspectives varied the most with issues concerning the ability to affect planning and its outcomes. Puijo’s planning process was a good example of, how a number of different participation methods can be incorporated seamlessly into the planning process. Simple formula for successful planning process could not be determined because participatory methods and their scope must be arranged according to the planning problem and the influence of the parties involved. However, the results provided valuable information for planners developing and carrying out participatory planning. In future participation processes stakeholders should be made clear, what are their abilities to affect the outcomes because over optimistic expectations can easily lead to disappointment. Also, the objectives of the planning process should be paid more attention. Objectives should be shaped to more concrete form. This way intersecting objectives could be easily addressed before conflicts develop. The use of decision support methods should also be increased because they offer more transparent way to justify decisions to stakeholders.
  • Ropponen, Aino (Helsingfors universitet, 2017)
    This thesis offers views on the resident interests and participation in energy refurbishment processes by qualitatively analysing nine thematic resident interviews. Urban areas and buildings largely contribute to energy consumption and carbon emissions. The ageing building stock across Europe offers a window of opportunity for large scale energy refurbishments. Urban sustainability and participatory planning, the framework theories of this thesis, are both threaded by the lack of social focus, reflected in the lack of residential focus in housing refurbishments. Residents' main interests include economic reasoning, quality of life, and energy and environment. Economic reasoning includes concern of costs, interest in energy bill savings and stable living costs, and property value increase, indicating a rising market demand. Quality of life includes building condition, comfort, visual aspects, ease of maintenance, interest in technology, and preference on either shared or private systems. Environmental motivations vary and seem to correlate with one's faith in the effect of individuals and communities in solving climate issues. Good process practices facilitating trust include: activation of different information channels when refurbishments are approaching, personal and technical planning support, and a strong house strategy communicating residents the justifications and their areas of interest. Neighbourhood examples motivate residents and help them plan their own projects. As refurbishments make residents more proudly develop their houses and neighbourhoods, resident ambassadors can be used to replicate the experiences. Sharing and networking are already in place, but lack of promoting the sense of community may hinder such development. Existing co-planning reflects residents' strong position as stakeholders. Differences in participation power are found between housing cooperative boards and other residents. The boards dominate planning, justifying it with technical expertise and the difficulty of including everyone. This is accepted if an open communication culture is on place, as house meetings offer other residents a place to get informed and participate in decision making. The idea of including residents into planning is emerging. Participation benefits include residents offering good ideas, gaining knowledge, and achieving a stronger sense of community. Information and inclusion make residents more engaged to the development, speeding up decision making. A process model for participatory refurbishments is presented. Apart from the resident drivers active in house and neighbourhood levels, four challenging resident groups are identified: the unsocial, the objectors, the uninformed, and the unheard. Resident segmentation offers a good tool for identifying motivators to engage residents, as well as identify their needs as project participants.