Browsing by Subject "particle emission"

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  • Dalla, Silvia; Nolfo, G. A.; Bruno, A.; Giacalone, J.; Laitinen, Totti; Thomas, S.; Battarbee, Markus; Marsh, M. S. (2020)
    Context. Solar energetic particles (SEPs) with energy in the GeV range can propagate to Earth from their acceleration region near the Sun and produce ground level enhancements (GLEs). The traditional approach to interpreting and modelling GLE observations assumes particle propagation which is only parallel to the magnetic field lines of interplanetary space, that is, spatially 1D propagation. Recent measurements by PAMELA have characterised SEP properties at 1 AU for the ∼100 MeV–1 GeV range at high spectral resolution. Aims. We model the transport of GLE-energy solar protons using a 3D approach to assess the effect of the heliospheric current sheet (HCS) and drifts associated to the gradient and curvature of the Parker spiral. We derive 1 AU observables and compare the simulation results with data from PAMELA. Methods. We use a 3D test particle model including a HCS. Monoenergetic populations are studied first to obtain a qualitative picture of propagation patterns and numbers of crossings of the 1 AU sphere. Simulations for power law injection are used to derive intensity profiles and fluence spectra at 1 AU. A simulation for a specific event, GLE 71, is used for comparison purposes with PAMELA data. Results. Spatial patterns of 1 AU crossings and the average number of crossings per particle are strongly influenced by 3D effects, with significant differences between periods of A+ and A− polarities. The decay time constant of 1 AU intensity profiles varies depending on the position of the observer and it is not a simple function of the mean free path as in 1D models. Energy dependent leakage from the injection flux tube is particularly important for GLE energy particles, resulting in a rollover in the spectrum.
  • Morosan, D. E.; Palmerio, E.; Lynch, B. J.; Kilpua, E. K. J. (2020)
    Context. Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) on the Sun are the largest explosions in the Solar System that can drive powerful plasma shocks. The eruptions, shocks, and other processes associated to CMEs are efficient particle accelerators and the accelerated electrons in particular can produce radio bursts through the plasma emission mechanism. Aims. Coronal mass ejections and associated radio bursts have been well studied in cases where the CME originates close to the solar limb or within the frontside disc. Here, we study the radio emission associated with a CME eruption on the back side of the Sun on 22 July 2012. Methods. Using radio imaging from the Nancay Radioheliograph, spectroscopic data from the Nancay Decametric Array, and extreme-ultraviolet observations from the Solar Dynamics Observatory and Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory spacecraft, we determine the nature of the observed radio emission as well as the location and propagation of the CME. Results. We show that the observed low-intensity radio emission corresponds to a type II radio burst or a short-duration type IV radio burst associated with a CME eruption due to breakout reconnection on the back side of the Sun, as suggested by the pre-eruptive magnetic field configuration. The radio emission consists of a large, extended structure, initially located ahead of the CME, that corresponds to various electron acceleration locations. Conclusions. The observations presented here are consistent with the breakout model of CME eruptions. The extended radio emission coincides with the location of the current sheet and quasi-separatrix boundary of the CME flux and the overlying helmet streamer and also with that of a large shock expected to form ahead of the CME in this configuration.
  • Wijsen, N.; Aran, A.; Scolini, C.; Lario, D.; Afanasiev, A.; Vainio, R.; Sanahuja, B.; Pomoell, J.; Poedts, S. (2022)
    Aims. We model the energetic storm particle (ESP) event of 14 July 2012 using the energetic particle acceleration and transport model named 'PArticle Radiation Asset Directed at Interplanetary Space Exploration' (PARADISE), together with the solar wind and coronal mass ejection (CME) model named 'EUropean Heliospheric FORcasting Information Asset' (EUHFORIA). The simulation results illustrate both the capabilities and limitations of the utilised models. We show that the models capture some essential structural features of the ESP event; however, for some aspects the simulations and observations diverge. We describe and, to some extent, assess the sources of errors in the modelling chain of EUHFORIA and PARADISE and discuss how they may be mitigated in the future. Methods. The PARADISE model computes energetic particle distributions in the heliosphere by solving the focused transport equation in a stochastic manner. This is done using a background solar wind configuration generated by the ideal magnetohydrodynamic module of EUHFORIA. The CME generating the ESP event is simulated by using the spheromak model of EUHFORIA, which approximates the CME's flux rope as a linear force-free spheroidal magnetic field. In addition, a tool was developed to trace CME-driven shock waves in the EUHFORIA simulation domain. This tool is used in PARADISE to (i) inject 50 keV protons continuously at the CME-driven shock and (ii) include a foreshock and a sheath region, in which the energetic particle parallel mean free path, lambda(parallel to), decreases towards the shock wave. The value of lambda(parallel to) at the shock wave is estimated from in situ observations of the ESP event. Results. For energies below similar to 1 MeV, the simulation results agree well with both the upstream and downstream components of the ESP event observed by the Advanced Composition Explorer. This suggests that these low-energy protons are mainly the result of interplanetary particle acceleration. In the downstream region, the sharp drop in the energetic particle intensities is reproduced at the entry into the following magnetic cloud, illustrating the importance of a magnetised CME model.
  • Morosan, D. E.; Palmerio, E.; Pomoell, J.; Vainio, R.; Palmroth, M.; Kilpua, E. K. J. (2020)
    Context. Some of the most prominent sources for particle acceleration in our Solar System are large eruptions of magnetised plasma from the Sun called coronal mass ejections (CMEs). These accelerated particles can generate radio emission through various mechanisms. Aims. CMEs are often accompanied by a variety of solar radio bursts with different shapes and characteristics in dynamic spectra. Radio bursts directly associated with CMEs often show movement in the direction of CME expansion. Here, we aim to determine the emission mechanism of multiple moving radio bursts that accompanied a flare and CME that took place on 14 June 2012. Methods. We used radio imaging from the Nancay Radioheliograph, combined with observations from the Solar Dynamics Observatory and Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory spacecraft, to analyse these moving radio bursts in order to determine their emission mechanism and three-dimensional (3D) location with respect to the expanding CME. Results. In using a 3D representation of the particle acceleration locations in relation to the overlying coronal magnetic field and the CME propagation, for the first time, we provide evidence that these moving radio bursts originate near the CME flanks and that some are possible signatures of shock-accelerated electrons following the fast CME expansion in the low corona. Conclusions. The moving radio bursts, as well as other stationary bursts observed during the eruption, occur simultaneously with a type IV continuum in dynamic spectra, which is not usually associated with emission at the CME flanks. Our results show that moving radio bursts that could traditionally be classified as moving type IVs can represent shock signatures associated with CME flanks or plasma emission inside the CME behind its flanks, which are closely related to the lateral expansion of the CME in the low corona. In addition, the acceleration of electrons generating this radio emission appears to be favoured at the CME flanks, where the CME encounters coronal streamers and open field regions.