Browsing by Subject "pedagoginen ajattelu"

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  • Aarnihuhta, Minna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    Objectives. The purpose of this thesis is to get a view on one teacher's pedagogical thinking in the stage of interaction and post-interaction (teaching and reflection) inside the cycle of the instructional process of a teacher. The goal is to find out on which pedagogical levels of thinking (action level, object theories, meta theory) does the thinking of the teacher in question set and what reasons does she state for her pedagogical decisions. Previous studies have shown that teacher's thinking is usually quite directed on the teaching action itself without many justifications, eg. distinct learning theories. This master's thesis is an extension to my bachelor's thesis on the same teacher's pedagogical thinking in lesson-planning. Methods. The subject of this thesis was one classroom teacher from Southern Finland. The research material composed of five lesson videos and the teacher's own thoughts on them. The material was collected by stimulated recall method: the videos were watched together with the teacher and discussed upon. The material was analysed by categorizing the teacher's thoughts under the different thinking levels of the Pedagogical Level Thinking Model (Kansanen et al., 2000). Results and conclusions. In accordance with previous studies it is possible to deduce from the results of this thesis that pedagogical thinking during the interactive and post-interactive stages of the instructional process of teaching is very oriented towards the teaching content and goal-setting and it can be categorized on the action level and level of object theories of the Pedagogical Level Thinking Model. While the thinking is very goal-directed it is strongly directed only on the action itself. It seems that some of the pedagogical thinking and knowledge of the teacher in question is tacit. The teacher taking part in this study justified her pedagogical decisions mostly with reasons relating to her own knowledge and her own practical theories in teaching. Not many differences can be found in the teacher's thinking between different school subjects.
  • Vihonen, Kaisu (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    The purpose of this study was to examine what are the knowledge practices in preschool groups that do not use study books. The research further investigates how child participation manifests in these preschool groups. Based on prior research teacher's pedagogical thinking always interacts with the practices shown in a group or class. Due to this also the interaction between teacher's pedagogical thinking and knowledge practices were examined. This study was conducted by observing preschool activities in three different preschool groups at the Helsinki Metropolitan area. In addition five preschool teachers were interviewed during the research process. The aim of these interviews was to examine how teacher's pedagogical thinking and knowledge affect their knowledge practices. To further analyse child participation also six children from one of the day care centers (center 2) were interviewed. These documents complemented each other. The analysis methodology for the sample was theory-based. In non-study book preschool groups knowledge was produced together in social practices. Children also worked independently with knowledge and information was transferred from an adult to a child, too. In addition there were equipment and materials that supported learning and working with knowledge. Child participation occurred when children communicated their ideas to the adults and when the adults acknowledged these thoughts. In the beginning of the preschool year children in day care center 2 also told what they would like to do during the year and this was taken into account in day-to-day activities. Teacher's pedagogical thinking was linked to the knowledge practices of the group while the teachers said that they choose used methods based on children's needs.
  • Hellström, Noora (Helsingfors universitet, 2015)
    The objects of this study were short-term substitute teachers. Substitute teacher is a person who is called to school when the actual teacher is out. As a research theme a substitute teacher is quite rare. Also the literature on this topic is limited. There were two research problems: what the pupils expect from the substitute teacher and what is a good substitute teacher like? The research data was collected from a fifth grade class in a primary school at metropolitan area in spring 2015. The focus was in hearing the pupils because they have a legal right to be consulted in matters regarding themselves. The students are, in fact, the only ones who know what really happens when a substitute teacher leads a class. In addition data was compiled with the answers of the guardians of the students', their class teacher and the school's headmaster. Altogether 32 people were heard: 19 students, 11 parents, the class teacher and the school's headmaster. The data was collected with an open questionnaire: the children gave their answers in a paper form and adults in an electronic form. The data was analyzed by data-driven based content analysis method. The students' answers divided in 13 different content categories. Most of the perceptions were placed in the following content categories: atmosphere, the substitute teacher's personality, teaching and learning, subjects, teaching skills, substitute teachers bad behavior and maintaining order in the classroom. The results of the study were summarized in to "10 Commandments" for a substitute teacher.
  • Kukkamäki, Katriina (Helsingfors universitet, 2007)
    The purpose of this study was to describe and get a deep understanding of pedagogical change process. The phases of pedagogical change process and the nature and the role of teacher's pedagogical thinking in it were mapped. The change process as a whole was also modeled. The previous research of teaching change process has had been scarce on an individual teacher level, but on a school level it has been investigated abundantly. The theoretical background of this study consists of theories of teacher's pedagogical thinking and action and how their thinking and action change and develop. Teacher change has been researched from the point of view of both school change and professional development. The basic principle in the theoretical frame is that change in teacher's thinking leads to change in action. Three men teachers and a woman teacher who have put change into practice took part in this study. The data consisted of two parts: teachers' essays of their change process and interviews that were based on the essays. The data was analysed by content analysis. The categorizations of both parts of the data were made separately but they were interpreted together. In this way a deep understanding of pedagogical change process could be reached. The results of this study were descriptions of the phases of pedagogical change process and the nature and the role of teacher's pedagogical thinking in it. In addition a model of pedagogical change process was presented. Pedagogical change process started up because of disorder in teacher's pedagogical thinking and action. The disorder leads to an absolute necessity to change the activities. Change activities stabilize throughout intuitive experiments and reflection-on-action. The change in a teacher's thinking is a prerequisite for the start of the process but also, a teacher's thinking develops as a result of the process. Thus, the whole process results in a real, deep level change in instruction and in the teacher's thinking. That is why pedagogical change processes are visible, significant and they have wide and extensive effects. The study gives out information of controlling the change processes. Consequently, the results of this study encourage teachers to confront change and put their new ideas into practice.
  • Ronkainen, Rina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    The framework for this study comes from Carol Dweck’s (2000, 2006) findings. Dweck has separated mindsets between two categories, the growth mindset and the fixed mindset. A person with a growth mindset believes that human qualities (ability, intelligence, personality) are malleable whereas a person with a fixed mindset believes that human qualities are stable. Previous studies have shown various effects on how a different mindset can effect the teaching-studying-learning process. There have been a great deal of quantitative studies done on mindsets. However there have been fewer qualitative studies concerning a single teacher’s growth mindset appearing. This qualitative case study examined Mary, a first grade teacher, and her growth mindset as it appeared in her teaching and in reflection in Helsinki University Viikki Normal School. Mary was selected in this study based on the mindset survey. According to the survey Mary represented growth mindset when it came to the perspectives about intelligence and giftedness. The scale of the survey was scored between 1-6, with Mary scoring 5 on both topics. The data used to conduct this study were observation, videotaping and stimulated recall interviews. The analysis was done using a deductive content analysis. Based on these results, Mary’s growth mindset appeared in her teaching and reflection the way she gave a process feedback, instruction related to growth mindset and with pedagogigal decision supported by growth mindset. It is essential to have more qualitative studies done on the effects of mindsets effects on teaching-studying-learning process in order to properly evaluate impacts of a growth mindset in relation to teacher’s action.
  • Vottonen, Elisa (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    The aim of this study is research teachers’ pedagogical thinking in oral health education. The study was interested in what contents classroom teachers consider important in relation to oral health, and what kind of teaching methods and materials they use when teaching these to their students. In addition, the challenges and opportunities for creative class teachers in oral health education were examined. The theoretical frame of reference for the study was Kansanen’s (1993b) Model of Pedagogical Thinking and the Herbartian Didactical Triangle. Teachers’ pedagogical thinking was approached from the arguments they shared. In this case study, eight classroom teachers were interviewed, seven of whom were currently teaching in primary school. In the interview situations, the I love mouth video of the Finnish Dental Association was used as a stimulus. The data were analyzed by inductive as well as deductive content analysis, also utilizing the quantification of the data. Class teachers considered it important to teach students content related to dental care, nutrition, intoxicants, and oral health and well-being. The most popular teaching materials in oral health education were textbooks, model teeth, and videos. Oral health was taught in everyday situations as well as through concreteness and functionality, group work and teaching discussions. Oral health care visits were considered desirable and their lack was regretted. As challenges in oral health education, classroom teachers saw a small role for oral health in curriculum content. In addition, there was a lack of teaching materials and one's own knowledge was not perceived as very strong. Directing students to a healthier life was seen as an opportunity. As in previous studies, the pedagogical thinking in this study also focused on the action level. Teachers justified the teaching of oral health based on, for example, their own experiences and everyday observations. The main emphasis in the explanatory memorandum was on the didactic relationship, therefore teachers’ relationship to the student' s learning. Additionally, the pedagogical relationship was almost as evident. Instead, the teachers’ relationship to content remained in the smallest role. Regarding the pedagogical thinking of teachers in the teaching of oral health, it can be stated that teachers should have more theoretical competence in the teaching of oral health.
  • Skaffari, Katariina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    Objectives. The differentiation of teaching is again a topical issue due to the imperative of differentiation of the basics of the curriculum for basic education in 2014. Implementation of the inclusion and the three-step support model also requires the differentiation of the teaching. The purpose of this study was to find out the teaching methods of teaching differentiation. In addition, obstacles to differentiation were studied. Methods. The study was focused on one of the Primary Schools in Vantaa. The research material was collected through a questionnaire. The questionnaire contained both structured and open questions. The questions were drawn on the basis of previous studies and the theory of knowledge. Questionnaires were distributed to the class and subject teachers of that school. The questionnaire was answered by 11 teachers (N = 11). 10 of them were women and one man. The respondents' age distribution was wide. The material was analyzed by means of deductified content analysis. Results and Conclusions. As many previous studies on pedagogical differentiation showed, pedagogical differentiation makes it possible to take the student into a heterogeneous group. With the development of teacher's pedagogical thinking, it is growing courage to experiment with a variety of pupil-centered pedagogical methods at a practical level. The results of this study showed that teachers differentiated their teaching throughout the learning process in many different ways. Teachers felt the need for differentiation in teaching. Particular attention was paid to the separation of inferior students. Their attitudes were almost invariably positive, though many of them found separation as a teaching strategy demanding due to inadequate training, limited resources, and the scarcity of appropriate teaching materials.
  • Tuominen, Moona (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    The framework for this study comes from Carol Dweck's (2000, 2006) findings of two different mindsets: growth mindset and fixed mindset. A person with a growth mindset believes human qualities are malleable and a person with a fixed mindset believes skills and intelligence are set. Although there have been lots of studies about mindsets, most of them are quantitative. The aim of this study is to examine how mindsets are presented in teacher's pedagogical thinking and which mindsets actualize in teaching practices in a first grade classroom. This qualitative case study examined a first grade teacher's, Anne's, mindsets in Helsinki University Viikki Normal School. The teacher was selected based on a mindset survey. The data of this study included a preliminary interview, observation, and videotaping and stimulated recall interviews. The analysis was done using a deductive content analysis. The results suggest that Anne's mindset related to learning in her pedagogical thinking was towards a growth mindset but had features of a fixed mindset. In her pedagogical thinking, a growth mindset appeared as seeing contextual factors as main predictors in students learning and recognizing and supporting students as individuals. A fixed mindset appeared in Anne's pedagogical thinking as seeing students' temperament as one predictor in students' learning. Anne's teaching practices emphasized a growth mindset, but had also features of a fixed and a neutral mindset. A growth mindset became apparent in mastery-oriented atmosphere, fostering learning goals and praising processes. A fixed mindset was present in teaching by avoiding failures and highlighting success. A neutral mindset was identified as non-verbal praising in Anne's teaching practices. As the results propose, Anne's mindset varied between situations. This implicates the need of more precise studies of mindsets and their actualization in authentic environments. Only qualitative research will provide the opportunity to deeply understand how mindsets vary between situations and what is the impact on teaching, studying and learning in the classroom.
  • Suhonen, Piia (Helsingfors universitet, 2015)
    Aims. This research is based on the sociocultural background, which sees learning as an interactive process with the community. Learning affects both the community and the individual, who is building his identity through learning and interaction. Previous studies indicate, that sense of belonging increases commitment and agency. In this research I followed pupils for few days in Poikkilaakso elementary school, where the pupils were teaching each other. The event was called 'I Teach' -day. In this research I am pointing out the skills that this kind of event develops in pupils and what are the effects to the pedagogical community. The students were involved planning the event and their own teaching as well as the realization of the lesson. The pupils also gave feedback of the 'I Teach' –day. Methods. The data was collected using simulated recall –method, which was extended by theme interview. There were 13 interviewees, of which four were adults and teachers and nine were pupils aged 9 to 12. The interviews were transcripted and systematically analysed. When all the data was collated I made the analysis and brought some theoretical interpretation to the analysis. Results and conclusions. The event was encouraging pupils to become active agents, who take responsibility for their own learning and others by planning, creating, giving feedback and developing teaching. The frames of the event, which were given pupils by the teachers, gave the possibility to develop skills in agency. The creative culture was prerequisite for developing of pedagogical agency. Pedagogical agent takes responsibility of learning with others, and strives for development of the community of learning.
  • Ahola, Reija (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Previous studies have shown that outdoor activities are important for the child and outdoor environment is in many ways an ideal early childhood education environment. However the appreciation of outdoor playing has gone through inflation in small children's education. The emphasis on safety risks has made playgrounds plain and educators cautious. Children spend the free time more and more inside at the expense of the outdoor activities. It has been speculated that the children's healthy growth and development are at risk as a result of these social changes. Against this background, it is important to consider outdoor activities carried out in institutional early childhood education from the point of view of pedagogy. Day care staff is responsible for the well-being of children, the promotion of development and learning. Studies have given an indication that pedagogical knowledge is not used outside as it could be. The purpose of this study is to analyze the meanings of children's outdoor life and outdoor environment given by the kindergarten teachers, as well as the role of an adult during outdoor supervision. The goal is to survey good practices in promoting outdoor pedagogy. The research method used was theme interview with video tapings. The research environment was municipal day-care center. Outdoor activities was taped on video in the yard of the day-care center. Four kindergarten teachers was interviewed using semi-structured interview frame and video clips. Interview data was analyzed according to the principles of content analysis. Outdoor activities were seen as a vital part of the day and outdoor environment was seen as a good pedagogical environment. However it was felt that in reality the pedagogical skills is not often used outdoors. Safety and control was seen as specific tasks for adults related to outdoor activities. However, this important role was seen also as a limitation for the pedagogical usage of outdoor environment and children's freedom. Outdoor Environment provides a good ground for play, sports, exploration and interaction between children as well as between adult and child. Children's learning is holistic and adults should have similar roles outdoors than inside. Teaching and educational staff commitment to their work and a shared vision of the work community can promote outdoor pedagogy and change courtyard control culture.