Browsing by Subject "pediatric cancer"

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  • Li, Hao; Hohenstein, Peter; Kuure, Satu (2021)
    The adult mammalian kidney is a poorly regenerating organ that lacks the stem cells that could replenish functional homeostasis similarly to, e.g., skin or the hematopoietic system. Unlike a mature kidney, the embryonic kidney hosts at least three types of lineage-specific stem cells that give rise to (a) a ureter and collecting duct system, (b) nephrons, and (c) mesangial cells together with connective tissue of the stroma. Extensive interest has been raised towards these embryonic progenitor cells, which are normally lost before birth in humans but remain part of the undifferentiated nephrogenic rests in the pediatric renal cancer Wilms tumor. Here, we discuss the current understanding of kidney-specific embryonic progenitor regulation in the innate environment of the developing kidney and the types of disruptions in their balanced regulation that lead to the formation of Wilms tumor.
  • Haavisto, Anu; Mathiesen, Sidsel; Suominen, Anu; Lähteenmäki, Päivi; Sorensen, Kaspar; Ifversen, Marianne; Juul, Anders; Nielsen, Malene Mejdahl; Müller, Klaus; Jahnukainen, Kirsi (2020)
    There are many known endocrine complications after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in childhood including increased risk of biochemical hypogonadism. However, little is known about sexuality in adulthood following childhood HSCT. In this multicenter study, sexual functions and possible risk factors were assessed comprehensively in two national cohorts (Finland and Denmark) of male adult survivors of childhood HSCT. Compared to a healthy control group (n= 56), HSCT survivors (n= 97) reported less sexual fantasies, poorer orgasms, lower sexual activity with a partner and reduced satisfaction with their sex life, even in the presence of normal erectile functions and a similar frequency of autoerotic acts. Of the HSCT survivors, 35% were cohabitating/married and 66% were sexually active. Risk factors for poorer self-reported sexual functions were partner status (not cohabitating with a partner), depressive symptoms, CNS and testicular irradiation. Sexual dysfunction increased by age in the HSCT group with a pace comparable to that of the control group. However, because of the lower baseline level of sexual functions in the HSCT group, they will reach the level of clinically significant dysfunction at a younger age. Hence, male survivors of childhood HSCT should be interviewed in detail about their sexual health beyond erectile functions.
  • Eloranta, Katja; Nousiainen, Ruth; Cairo, Stefano; Pakarinen, Mikko P.; Wilson, David B.; Pihlajoki, Marjut; Heikinheimo, Markku (2021)
    The neuropilins NRP1 and NRP2 are multifunctional glycoproteins that have been implicated in several cancer-related processes including cell survival, migration, and invasion in various tumor types. Here, we examine the role of neuropilins in hepatoblastoma (HB), the most common pediatric liver malignancy. Using a combination of immunohistochemistry, RNA analysis and western blotting, we observed high level expression of NRP1 and NRP2 in 19 of 20 HB specimens and in a majority of human HB cell lines (HUH6 and five cell lines established from patient-derived xenografts) studied but not in normal hepatocytes. Silencing of NRP2 expression in HUH6 and HB-282 HB cells resulted in decreased cell viability, impaired cytoskeleton remodeling, and reduced cell motility, suggesting that NRP2 contributes to the malignant phenotype. We propose that neuropilins warrant further investigation as biomarkers of HB and potential therapeutic targets.