Browsing by Subject "pension"

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  • Shiri, Rahman; Falah-Hassani, Kobra; Lallukka, Tea (2020)
    The aim of this study was to determine the associations of body mass index (BMI) with all-cause and cause-specific disability retirement. Literature searches were conducted in PubMed, Embase and Web of Science from their inception to May 2019. A total of 27 (25 prospective cohort and 2 nested case-control) studies consisting of 2 199 632 individuals qualified for a meta-analysis. Two reviewers independently assessed the methodological quality of the included studies. We used a random effects meta-analysis, assessed heterogeneity and publication bias, and performed sensitivity analyses. There were a large number of participants and the majority of studies were rated at low or moderate risk of bias. There was a J-shaped relationship between BMI and disability retirement. Underweight (hazard ratio (HR)/risk ratio (RR)=1.20, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.41), overweight (HR/RR=1.13, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.19) and obese individuals (HR/RR=1.52, 95% CI 1.36 to 1.71) were more commonly granted all-cause disability retirement than normal-weight individuals. Moreover, overweight increased the risk of disability retirement due to musculoskeletal disorders (HR/RR=1.26, 95% CI 1.15 to 1.39) and cardiovascular diseases (HR=1.73, 95% CI 1.24 to 2.41), and obesity increased the risk of disability retirement due to musculoskeletal disorders (HR/RR=1.66, 95% CI 1.42 to 1.94), mental disorders (HR=1.29, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.61) and cardiovascular diseases (HR=2.80, 95% CI 1.85 to 4.24). The association between excess body mass and all-cause disability retirement did not differ between men and women and was independent of selection bias, performance bias, confounding and adjustment for publication bias. Obesity markedly increases the risk of disability retirement due to musculoskeletal disorders, cardiovascular diseases and mental disorders. Since the prevalence of obesity is increasing globally, disease burden associated with excess body mass and disability retirement consequently are projected to increase. Reviewregistrationnumber: CRD42018103110.
  • Maunu, Tallamaria (2010)
    This licentiate thesis studies the accuracy of the pension expectations of Finnish workers and the distribution of pension wealth in Finland. The Finnish pension system was reformed in 2005. The aims of the reform were to make the earnings-related pension scheme more sustainable, to increase labour force participation of older workers, and to make the system more equitable. In the old system, pension rights were calculated based on the average earnings of the ten last years in each job, so earnings in the other years were ignored. From 2005 on, pension rights will be based on all earnings between ages 18 to 68. The reform meant that for each worker, the earned pension rights until the end of year 2004 had to be calculated. So the registers in the Finnish pension system contain information on actual earned pension rights for every worker. This data is used in this licentiate thesis to study the accuracy of pension benefit expectations of Finnish workers and the distribution of pension wealth in Finland. Börsch-Supan (2005) has evaluated the Finnish 2005 pension reform. His conclusion is that the reform is a step in the right direction, but more steps will be needed in the future. The reform has tightened the relation between earnings and pension benefits, which is important. However, even though the reform was aimed to increase labour force participation of older workers, there still are incentives to retire early. The system is also unnecessarily complicated, which increases to cost of acquiring information that individuals need in order to make retirement decisions. This licentiate thesis consists of two essays, one on the accuracy of pension benefit expectations of Finnish workers, and the other on the distribution of pension wealth in Finland. The essays use the same data set, a combination of survey and register data. The individuals in the sample are 45 years old or older...
  • Khmelnitskaya, Marina (Routledge, 2018)
    The chapter examines the process of the development of the Russian budget for the social sphere during 2015-2016. The analysis demonstrates the key contribution of the bureaucratic actors and the competition among different parts of the executive in the process of policy elaboration.