Browsing by Subject "perfektionismi"

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  • Muilu, Eetu (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Tutkielman tavoite on esittää argumentti, joka vastaa tyypilliseen liberalismia vastustavaan argumenttiin. Vasta-argumentti liberalismille nousee yleensä viitekehyksestä, jota voi kuvata konservatismiksi, kommunitarismiksi tai perfektionismiksi. Työssä käsitellään Thomas Hobbesin, John Stuart Millin, Isaiah Berlinin, Gerald MacCallumin, Quentin Skinnerin ja Joel Feinbergin vapauskäsityksiä. Analyysin ja argumentoinnin kautta esitetään oma vapauden käsite. Tämä käsitys vapaudesta määrittelee samalla sitä, millainen on neutraali liberalistinen yhteiskunta. Neutraalilla tarkoitetaan sitä, ettei tällaisessa yhteiskunnassa ohjata tai pakoteta ihmisiä tietynlaiseen käsitykseen hyvästä elämästä, tiettyihin hyvän elämän arvoihin. Robert Audin artikkelin kautta käsitellään liberalistisen valtion suhdetta erilaisiin maailmankatsomuksiin. Tässä todetaan, että Audin argumentti keskittyy arkikäsityksen mukaisesti uskonnoiksi ymmärrettyihin maailmankatsomuksiin. Tämän huomioidaan johtavan ristiriitaan Audin itsensä esittämän neutraliteetin periaatteen kanssa. Tutkielmassa argumentoidaankin, että uskonnon käsitettä ei tarvitse lainkaan yhteiskuntafilosofisessa keskustelussa. Jos uskonnon luokittelukäsitettä käytetään jollain tavalla, rajataan jotain ilmiöitä pois uskonnon luokasta. Tämä aiheuttaisi ihmisten eriarvoisen aseman, mikä ei ole mahdollista neutraalissa yhteiskunnassa. Jos vain tietyllä tavalla uskonnoksi luokitellut maailmankatsomukset saisivat erityisen aseman, loukattaisiin muunlaisia elämänkatsomuksia arvostavien ihmisten vapautta. Tutkielmassa käsitellään Steven Wallin perfektionistista argumenttia rajoitetun neutraaliuden periaatteesta. Tämän todetaan vetoavan tyypilliseen liberalismia vastustavaan argumenttiin, jonka mukaan autonomiaa eli vapautta arvostava yhteiskunta ei ole neutraali. Työssä argumentoidaan, että neutraalius kaikkien arvojen suhteen ei voi määritelmällisesti olla mahdollista, mikäli on jokin yhteiskunta, johon on valittu joitakin elementtejä. Näitä valittuja elementtejä tutkielman pääargumentissa kutsutaan konstitutiivisiksi arvoiksi. Konstitutiivisten arvojen tarkoitus on mahdollistaa neutraali liberalismi: tarjota ihmisille kyvyt ja valmiudet mahdollisimman itsenäisesti muodostaa käsitystään hyvästä elämästä ja tavoitella sen mukaista elämää; suojata ihmisiä sorrolta ja pakottamiselta, kaikelta, mikä estää vapautta halutunlaiseen toimintaan. Pääargumentissa viitataan Heta Gyllingin argumenttiin, jonka tavoite on osoittaa, että liberalismi on kaikille toiseksi paras vaihtoehto.
  • Kuusi-Naumanen, Anna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Multidimensional perfectionism is characterised by a combination of two individual tendencies: perfectionistic strivings, which refer to striving for excessively high personal standards, and perfectionistic concerns, which refer to evaluating overly critically one’s own accomplishments. Achievement goal orientations refer to individuals generalized tendencies to favour certain types of goals in achievement settings. Together these frameworks address both the level and the quality of goals students set for themselves. The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationships between perfectionism and achievement goal orientations among upper secondary school students. This study ultilized a group-based approach and classified students based on their patterns of perfectionistic strivings and perfectionistic concerns. In previous studies, subgroups of perfectionists have differed in their achievement goal orientations. Here, it was further investigated whether these subgroups show meaningful differences also in their subject-specific (i.e., mathematics and English) achievement goal orien-tations. The participants in the present study were 434 general upper secondary school students from Southern Finland, who completed online questionnaires. Students were classified by using TwoStep cluster analysis, and group differences in achievement goal orientations in two different school subjects were examined through analyses of variance. Four distinct perfectionism profiles (perfectionists 21,3%, ambitious 23,8%, concerned 35,6% and non-perfectionists 19,2%) were identified. The ambitious students highlighted mastery-intrinsic, mastery-extrinsic, and performance-approach orientations, while the concerned highlighted relatively more performance-avoidance and avoidance orientations. The perfectionists displayed high values in all orientations, while the non-perfectionists had relatively low value in all orientations, except for the avoidance orientation. Differences in subject-specific orientations were rather similar in both subjects, yet small differences were found. High concerns seemed to be linked with performance- and avoidance orientations. Especially the perfectionists, but also the concerned, are at the risk of adopting maladaptive goals and it might be useful to consider this in teaching and student counselling.
  • Lerssi, Maria (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    The purpose of the present study was to examine relationships between achievement goal orientations and perfectionism, and the possible differences between general and sports program students in upper secondary school with respect to these phenomena. Achievement goal orientations refer to individual's generalized tendencies to favor certain type of goals and outcomes in an achievement context. Perfectionism is a personality characteristic, which as a multidimensional construct consists of both positive (high standards) and negative (dissatisfaction with the attainment of the goal) dimensions. Both achievement goal orientations and perfectionism have been linked to individual's well-being, interpretation of the environment, and achievement. There is only a few previous research that have studied the relationship between achievement goal orientations and perfectionism. The assumption in the present study is that students' achievement goal orientations have an effect on what kind of perfectionistic tendencies they display. Examining differences between athletes and non-athletes with respect to achievement motivation and perfectionism is a relative new study subject. By examining these differences, we might get important information whether young athletes have managed to combine the demands of their sports and upper secondary school studies. Finding the balance between these demands is one notable challenge student-athletes confront. The participants in the present study were 424 general upper secondary school students from different parts of Finland. General program was followed by 211 of students, and 213 of students followed sports program. A person-centred approach was applied to the data-analysis. Five distinct achievement goal orientation profiles were extracted by utilizing the TwoStep Cluster analysis. The profiles were named following the previous research, and according to their most dominant orientations (i.e., mastery-, success-, performance-avoidance- and avoidance-oriented, and indifferent). Differences between the profiles with respect to perfectionism were examined through a series of analyses of variance. Differences between general- and sports program students were examined through a series of analyses of variance, and through Cross Tabulation. As expected, students with different orientations towards studying differed from each other according to perfectionism. The mastery-, success- and performance-avoidance oriented students emphasized adaptive perfectionism. However, the success- and performance-avoidance-oriented students emphasized also maladaptive perfectionism. The indifferent students slightly highlighted maladaptive perfectionism. The avoidance-oriented students did highlight neither of the perfectionism dimensions. The findings suggest that students' motivational patterns have an influence on their perfectionistic tendencies. Maladaptive motivational patterns, as well as, maladaptive perfectionistic tendencies seem to accumulate to same students. It would be important to take these results into consideration at teaching and its design, so that students who need support and counseling would receive them. There were not significant differences between general and sports program students according to achievement motivation and perfectionism. The findings indicate that sport-oriented schools have managed to support young athletes to combine their intensive sports training and upper secondary school studies.
  • Ståhlberg, Jenny (Helsingfors universitet, 2015)
    The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationships between multidimensional perfectionism, achievement goal orientations, and distal goal setting. Multidimensional perfectionism is regarded as consisting of both positive and negative dimensions, and it is seen as a significant personality characteristic in individuals in achievement contexts. Achievement goal orientations refer to individuals' generalized tendencies to favour certain types of goals and outcomes in achievement settings. Distal goal setting refers to individuals' long-term goals, which, in the present study, are the grade goals that students have set for themselves. The relationship between perfectionism and achievement goals, as well as between perfectionism and aspiration level has been detected in previous studies. However, there has not been any previous studies concerning the relationship between multidimensional perfectionism and achievement goal orientations, which both play an important role in the adoption of goals and the interpretation of achievement contexts. Thus, the assumption in the present study is that perfectionistic characteristics in students have an effect on the adoption of achievement goal orientations, distal goals, and also on the revision of those goals. The participants in the present study were 156 first-year students (aged 16–17 years) from a general upper secondary school in a small southwestern town in Finland. The students completed two questionnaires: the first in the beginning of each course and the second during the courses. By using TwoStep cluster analysis, three distinct perfectionism profiles (i.e., adaptive, maladaptive, and non-perfectionists) were extracted. The between-group differences on the achievement goal orientations, goal setting, and goal revision were examined through a series of univariate analyses of (co)variance based on the perfectionism profile membership. As expected, the adaptive perfectionists were prone to adopt mastery-intrinsic, mastery-extrinsic, and performance-approach achievement goal orientations. In contrast, the maladaptive perfectionists highlighted performance-avoidance and avoidance goal orientations, while the non-perfectionists did not highlight any of the orientations. The adaptive perfectionists had the highest aspiration level and they also lowered their grade goals the least. The findings suggest that students' perfectionistic characteristics have an influence on their achievement goal orientations, goal setting, and goal revision. The maladaptive and non-perfectionists are at the highest risk of adopting low aspiration levels, maladaptive achievement goal orientations, and have the tendency to revise their goals downwards. It might be useful to take this into consideration at schools and in teaching, and to consider, if counselling needs to be given to those students.