Browsing by Subject "peripheral electrical stimulation"

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  • Shulga, Anastasia; Lioumis, Pantelis; Kirveskari, Erika; Savolainen, Sarianna; Mäkelä, Jyrki P. (2021)
    In recent decades, a multitude of therapeutic approaches has been developed for spinal cord injury (SCI), but few have progressed to regular clinical practice. Novel non-invasive, cost-effective, and feasible approaches to treat this challenging condition are needed. A novel variant of paired associative stimulation (PAS), high-PAS, consists of non-invasive high-intensity transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and non-invasive high-frequency electrical peripheral nerve stimulation (PNS). We observed a therapeutic effect of high-PAS in 20 patients with incomplete SCI with wide range of injury severity, age, and time since injury. Tetraplegic and paraplegic, traumatic, and neurological SCI patients benefited from upper- or lower-limb high-PAS. We observed increases in manual motor scores (MMT) of upper and lower limbs, functional hand tests, walking tests, and measures of functional independence. We also optimized PAS settings in several studies in healthy subjects and began elucidating the mechanisms of therapeutic action. The scope of this review is to describe the clinical experience gained with this novel PAS approach. This review is focused on the summary of our results and observations and the methodological considerations for researchers and clinicians interested in adopting and further developing this new method.
  • Tolmacheva, Aleksandra; Savolainen, Sarianna; Kirveskari, Erika; Lioumis, Pantelis; Kuusela, Linda; Brandstack, Nina; Ylinen, Aarne; Mäkelä, Jyrki P.; Shulga, Anastasia (2017)
    A large proportion of spinal cord injuries (SCI) are incomplete. Even in clinically complete injuries, silent non-functional connections can be present. Therapeutic approaches that can strengthen transmission in weak neural connections to improve motor performance are needed. Our aim was to determine whether long-term delivery of paired associative stimulation (PAS, a combination of transcranial magnetic stimulation [TMS] with peripheral nerve stimulation [PNS]) can enhance motor output in the hands of patients with chronic traumatic tetraplegia, and to compare this technique with long-term PNS. Five patients (4 males; age 38-68, mean 48) with no contraindications to TMS received 4 weeks (16 sessions) of stimulation. PAS was given to one hand and PNS combined with sham TMS to the other hand. Patients were blinded to the treatment. Hands were selected randomly. The patients were evaluated by a physiotherapist blinded to the treatment. The follow-up period was 1 month. Patients were evaluated with Daniels and Worthingham's Muscle Testing (0-5 scale) before the first stimulation session, after the last stimulation session, and 1 month after the last stimulation session. One month after the last stimulation session, the improvement in the PAS-treated hand was 1.02 +/- 0.17 points (p <0.0001, n = 100 muscles from 5 patients). The improvement was significantly higher in PAS-treated than in PNS-treated hands (176 +/- 29%, p = 0.046, n = 5 patients). Longterm PAS might be an effective tool for improving motor performance in incomplete chronic SCI patients. Further studies on PAS in larger patient cohorts, with longer stimulation duration and at earlier stages after the injury, are warranted.