Browsing by Subject "person-oriented approach"

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  • Mannerström, Rasmus; Hietajärvi, Lauri; Salmela-Aro, Katariina (2021)
    It has been suggested that dual-cycle models of identity formation do not fit well with Erikson’s identity theory and the identity status paradigm due to 1) contradictory statuses, 2) problems with discerning past exploration and 3) ambiguity or limitations of the life domains covered. The present study extended the Dimensions for Identity Development Scale (DIDS) with three additional dimensions suggested previously, examined identity profiles and their transitions over time, their links with psychological well-being and what life domain was associated with “future plans” (N=1294; T1: age=17, 60% female; T2: age=18, 65% female). The results showed that 1) the eight-dimensional model fit the data well longitudinally; 2) six previously reported profiles emerged at both time points with expected links to psychological well-being; 3) as previously speculated, individuals in the (early) closure status had undertaken identity exploration in the past; 4) the previously encountered high commitment-high exploration status (i.e., searching moratorium) seems to be “superficially committed”; and 5) future plans are commonly associated with work life/occupation. Future research would benefit from employing qualitative research to better understand the subjective meanings attached to high commitment-high exploration and by developing new ways to account for quality and different levels of commitment.
  • Polso, Kukka-Maaria (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Aims. In the context of computing education, the vast majority of prior research examining achievement goal orientations has been conducted using variable-centred methods. In order to deepen understanding of the student population and achievement motivation, this Master’s Thesis employed person-oriented perspectives. The interplay of different goal orientations was explored by identifying prevalent motivational profiles and investigating profile differences in performance. Normative and appearance performance goals were handled as separate clustering variables in addition to mastery goals for the first time. Methods. The participants were 2059 introductory programming MOOC students. Data were collected by a questionnaire and from automatically assessed programming assignments and final exam. An exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was conducted for the achievement goal orientation items to examine the factor structure. Using TwoStep cluster analysis, the students were classified into clusters according to their achievement goal orientations. Cross tabulations and analyses of variance (ANOVA) were conducted to investigate profile characteristics and differences in performance. Results and Conclusions. Five distinct achievement goal orientation profiles were identified: Approach-Oriented (31.2%), Performance-Oriented (18.9%), Combined Mastery and Performance Goals (18.0%), Low Goals (17.6.%) and Mastery-Oriented (14.3.%). Students with Combined Mastery and Performance Goals performed significantly better than students with Low Goals regarding two metrics. Consistent with previous findings, the results highlight the positive link between multiple goal pursuit and performance. Further studies are needed to investigate motivational profiles in relation to other educational outcomes in the context of computing education. This kind of knowledge is valuable for designing interventions and new courses. The article ‘Achievement Goal Orientation Profiles and Performance in a Programming MOOC’, which is based on the present thesis, will be presented at ITiCSE 2020 (Conference on Innovation and Technology in Computer Science Education) conference and published in conference proceedings.
  • Renvik (Mähönen), Tuuli Anna; Manner, Joel; Vetik, Raivo; Sam, David; Jasinskaja-Lahti, Inga (2020)
    This survey study utilized a person-oriented approach to explore the patterns of socio-political integration among Russian-speaking minority group members in three neighboring countries in the Baltic area: Estonia (n = 482), Finland (n = 252), and Norway (n = 215). Three profiles were obtained in all countries: critical integration, separation, and assimilation. In the whole sample, critical integration was the most common acculturation profile. After the profiles were established, they were examined vis-a-vis citizenship and integration context to see, whether and to what extent, the objective (i.e., citizenship) and subjective (i.e., perceived social status and sense of belonging) socio-political integration of Russian-speakers corresponded with each other. Critical integration and separation were the most common profiles among participants holding national citizenship of the country of residence, while foreign citizenship was not related to any specific profile. Separation was rare among participants holding dual citizenship, but it was the most common profile among participants with undetermined citizenship. Also, intergroup context was associated with socio-political integration: critical integration and separation were the most common profiles of Russian-speakers in Estonia, critical integration and assimilation profiles in Finland, and assimilation profile in Norway. The results are discussed in relation to previous variable-oriented research and official integration policies of the countries studied.
  • Manner, Joel (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    This thesis explores the integration of the Russian-speaking minorities in Norway (n = 215), Finland (n = 252), and Estonia (n = 482) through the use of person-oriented methods encompassing socio-political measures central to several forms of integration. Economic situation, socio-demographics as well as variables tapping the perceived social status and sense of belonging of referents were used in multiple-correspondence and cluster analysis, producing three profiles of distinctive kinds of integration, namely: critical integration, separation, and assimilation. The citizenship status of cases within these profiles were then examined in order to find patterns corresponding with differing contexts of integration. Across national contexts, critical integration was the most common profile, and was connected along with the separation profile to those possessing citizenship of their respective nation. In the separation cluster, undetermined citizenship was most common, and dual citizenship most rare and almost exclusively associated with the critical integration profile. National contexts showed differences among proportions of cases in the identified profiles, with the critical integration and assimilation profiles being most common in Norway and Finland, and critical integration and separation profiles in Estonia.
  • Mannerstrom, Rasmus; Hietajarvi, Lauri; Muotka, Joona; Salmela-Aro, Katariina (2018)
    Developing a stable personal identity is considered a more precarious task in today's society than hitherto. Skilful digital engagement may, however, constitute a valuable asset in necessary identity exploration and commitment. Applying a person-oriented approach, we examined for the first time how identity profiles are associated with digital engagement, operationalized as digital competence, gaming seriousness, type of internet activity and excessive ICT use. After controlling for gender, life satisfaction and parental SES, this study of a Finnish high school sample (N = 932) revealed that adolescents with future commitments and some exploration of options (achievement, searching moratorium) were the most advanced in digital skills and, in the former case, least prone to excessive ICT use. By contrast, adolescents desperately trying to solve the identity task (ruminative moratorium) scored highest on friendship-driven internet activity and excessive ICT use, whereas diffused individuals had the weakest digital competence. No differences between the profiles emerged regarding gaming and interest-driven internet activity. The results suggest that the digital world and related devices are purposeful tools for shaping and maintaining healthy identity commitments.
  • Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Hietajärvi, Lauri; Lonka, Kirsti (2019)
    The focus of the current study was to examine teachers’ well-being in terms of work engagement and burnout by using a person-oriented approach. The participants (n = 149, 70.5% female) were subject-matter teachers from 22 schools from metropolitan Helsinki area in Finland. The first aim was to examine the kinds of profiles we can identify based on work burnout and engagement among teachers. The second aim was to study how the identified profiles differed in job-related demands and resources and personal resources in terms of resilience. Based on the demands-resources model, we expected to find profiles that differ in terms of key resources and demands. The sample was acquired as a convenience sample and the data was collected using online self-report questionnaires. The measures were work engagement, work burnout, work demands/resources (workload and control) and resilience as the personal resource. In addition, changes and effects of the economic circumstances were accounted for with two binary variables assessing the effect on class sizes and material resources. We identified two profiles among teachers: engaged (30%) and engaged-burnout (70%) profiles. We found that those in the engaged profile group had more job and personal resources, such as control and resilience, whereas those in the engaged-burnout profile group experienced more work demands, such as workload.