Browsing by Subject "persoonallisuuspiirteet"

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  • Martikainen, Silja (Helsingfors universitet, 2010)
    This thesis examines the associations between personality traits and sleep quantity and quality in young adults. Additionally the possible effects of birth status on these associations are examined. The data used in this thesis is part of a birth cohort study (Helsinki Study of Very Low Birth Weight Adults). The personality traits are based on the five-factor model of personality. The sleep quantity and quality are based on actigraphy assessments. Four hypothesis were made about the personality and sleep associations: (1) neuroticism is related to a lesser quality of sleep, (2) there will be more significant associations between personality traits and sleep quality than between personality traits and sleep quantity, (3) the Very Low Birth Weight (VLBW) as well as, (4) the Small for Gestational Age (SGA) status will affect the associations. Linear regressions were used to study the associations between personality traits and sleep quality and quantity. Whenever an association was significant, it was tested whether this association was moderated first, by the VLBW and second, by the SGA status of the participant. The results were mostly in line with previous research especially demonstrating the negative association between neuroticism and the quality of sleep and suggesting that vulnerability to stress decreases sleep quality. Also it was found that agreeableness and conscientiousness were associated with better sleep quality and extraversion was associated with lower sleep quantity. In addition SGA status moderated the personality and sleep associations. It is proposed that there are two factors behind the interaction. First, prenatally developing mechanisms have an effect on the development of sleep as well as personality. Second, differences in the postnatal environment, for instance the parenting practices, can account for this finding. Future research could focus especially on what kind of prenatal disturbances SGA infants have in the development of mechanisms related to sleep and personality. Also focusing on the differences in parental interaction might shed more light on the results.
  • Aronen, Aino (Helsingfors universitet, 2015)
    The purpose of the study was to examine the associations between the Big Five personality traits (neuroticism, extroversion, conscientiousness, openness to experience and agreeableness) and insomnia symptoms. The insomnia symptoms were difficulties to initiate sleep, awakenings during sleep, waking up too early and feeling tired after a night's sleep. According to theories on insomnia and to empirical research, high neuroticism, low extroversion, low conscientiousness and low agreeableness may be associated with insomnia. In empirical research, high neuroticism has consistently been associated with insomnia but also low extraversion, low conscientiousness and low agreeableness have been associated with it. It was therefore hypothesized that high neuroticism, low extraversion, low conscientiousness and low agreeableness are associated with insomnia symptoms. The participants, aged 30-45, were derived from the Young Finns study. The sample size was 1708. The Big Five personality traits were assessed with the NEO-FFI measure and insomnia symptoms with Jenkins's sleep problems scale. Ordinal regressions were used in analyzing the data. All of the Big Five personality traits were associated with at least some of the insomnia symptoms. In general, high neuroticism and high openness to experience were associated with more insomnia symptoms, whereas low extroversion, low conscientiousness and low agreeableness were associated with better sleep. High neuroticism had the strongest associations with most of the insomnia symptoms. When it comes to the trait openness to experience, the results of this study were inconsistent with previous studies, and therefore more information on the subject would be needed. The results of this study could be used in planning interventions for insomnia sufferers.
  • Mrena, Maria Kristiina (Helsingfors universitet, 2014)
    Objectives – The objective of this study was to examine whether there is a connection between the Big Five personality traits and the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in Finnish adults. The MetS is a rapidly increasing syndrome among the Finnish population, which predisposes to type 2 diabetes and cardiac diseases. Previous research suggests that single personality traits may be connected to the MetS and its risk factors. However, only a few studies have examined theoretically well based personality models in relation to the MetS. Identifying the psychosocial risk factors for the MetS is important in predicting and preventing its occurrence. The following hypotheses were made based on previous research: (1) high neuroticism and (2) low agreeableness are positively associated with the MetS. Methods – This is a cross-sectional study of The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study from the year 2007. There were 1 580 Finnish adults aged 30–45 participating in the study, of which 919 were women and 661 were men. The participants answered a personality questionnaire, the Finnish version of the NEO-FFI (Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness, Five-Factor Inventory), which measured the Big Five personality traits (neuroticism, extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and openness). The MetS is diagnosed when at least three of the following five factors are present: (1) central obesity, (2) raised fasting glucose, (3) raised triglycerides, (4) lowered high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and (5) hypertension. The associations between personality traits and the MetS were examined using logistic regression analyses. Results and Conclusions – In men, low agreeableness was statistically significantly associated with higher risk of having the MetS (OR=.70, 95 % CI=.57–.87, p=.001), adjusting for age and level of education. There were no statistically significant associations found between any of the personality traits and the MetS in women. On the basis of these results, it can be proposed that men with low agreeableness, that is, men low in cooperation, empathy, and kindness, might comprise a risk group for the MetS. This study was cross-sectional by design, which precludes conclusions about cause and effect relationships. Mechanisms linking personality to the MetS were not examined in the current study, and thus, future research should examine the direction of the associations and the mechanisms linking such associations.
  • Hirvelä, Satu (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    Objective: Depression and anxiety disorders are mood disorders which may result from a number of psychological, social and biological reasons. Dysregulation of HPA-axis, such as hypercortisolism and hypocortisolism, is thought to be connected to depression and anxiety. On the other hand depression and anxiety are also connected to the personality characteristics like high neuroticism. The aim of this study was to examine the connections of personality characteristics and evening cortisol to depression, anxiety and their comorbidity. These have not been previously studied together. Methods: This study used data from the second wave of the MIDUS (Midlife in the United States) longitudinal study. The data was collected by the Institute on Aging at the University of Wisconsin-Madison during 2004-2006. Personality characteristics were assessed by the short personality scale of MIDUS, where respondents assessed the suitability of 25 adjectives to themselves in a four-step scale. Depression and anxiety were measured by MASQ (Mood and Anxiety Symptom Questionnaire) which had been modified for MIDUS. Cortisol was measured from saliva at four different time points during four days. ANOVA, linear regression and multi-nominal logistic regression were used for data analysis. Results and conclusions: Low evening cortisol level appears to be predictive of anhedonic depression in low educated young people. The personality characteristics of high neuroticism and low conscientiousness predicted all symptom groups, which is in line with previous studies. High neuroticism was the biggest risk for comorbid depression and anxiety. In addition to high neuroticism and low conscientiousness, female sex, middle and low level education also predicted somatic anxiety and hypocortisolism, female sex, low extraversion and middle and low level education predicted anhedonic depression. Furthermore, a low level of education was positively associated with comorbidity. Neuroticism is a risk for mood disorders and understanding its development in childhood requires further research. Neuroticism should be taken in account in clinical practice. Psychotherapy might be effective to reduce neuroticism.
  • Sinnemäki, Milla (2010)
    Persoonallisuuspiirteiden ja lastenhankinnan yhteydestä ei vielä ole juurikaan tutkimustuloksia muutamia poikkeuksia lukuun ottamatta. Tässä kvantitatiivisessa tutkimuksessa haluttiinkin selvittää neljän eri persoonallisuuspiirteen vaikutusta lastenhankinta-aikeisiin. Persoonallisuuspiirteistä ekstroversio, dominanssi ja neuroottisuus muodostettiin McCraen ja Costan Five Factor Modelin teorian mukaisesti ja neljäs piirre, kyynisyys, muodostettiin Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventoryn mukaisesti. Ensiksi tutkimuksessa selvitettiin miten persoonallisuuspiirteet vaikuttavat lastenhankinta-aikeisiin. Seuraavaksi tarkasteltiin välittyykö persoonallisuuspiirteiden vaikutus lastenhankinta-aikeisiin lastenhankintaihanteiden kautta. Viimeiseksi selvitettiin onko persoonallisuuspiirteiden vaikutus lastenhankinta-aikeisiin erilainen parisuhdetilanteesta riippuen. Tutkimuksessa käytettiin faktorianalyysiä, lineaarista regressioanalyysiä, välittäjäanalyysiä eli mediaatiota sekä interaktioanalyysiä. Itsenäisissä analyyseissä ekstroversio ja dominanssi lisäsivät lastenhankinta-aikeita, kun taas neuroottisuus ja kyynisyys vähensivät niitä iän ja sukupuolen ollessa mukana analyyseissä. Ollessaan samassa analyysissä, vain ekstroversio ja kyynisyys tulivat tilastollisesti merkitseviksi muuttujiksi. Ekstroversio lisäsi lastenhankinta-aikeita ja kyynisyys vähensi niitä. Ekstroversion ja kyynisyyden vaikutus lastenhankinta-aikeisiin välittyi osittain lastenhankintaihanteiden kautta, mutta dominanssin ja neuroottisuuden vaikutus ei välittynyt lastenhankintaihanteiden kautta. Parisuhdetilanteen ja persoonallisuuspiirteiden interaktiot eivät tulleet tilastollisesti merkitseviksi. Parisuhdetilanteella oli kuitenkin positiivinen yhteys lastenhankinta-aikeisiin niin , että parisuhteessa elävät henkilöt aikoivat hankkia enemmän lapsia kuin yksin elävät henkilöt. Parisuhdetilanteen vaikutus kuitenkin hävisi, kun analyysissä huomioitiin ikä ja sukupuoli. Tuloksissa saatiin lisätietoa ja vahvistusta siitä, että persoonallisuuspiirteillä ja lastenhankinta-aikeilla on tilastollisesti merkitsevä yhteys.
  • Sorsa, Heidi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    Goals Personality traits are related to a person’s wellbeing and important events in life, such as an intimate relationship. Most people have an intimate relationship or relationships during their lifetime. Personality traits play an important role in a functioning relationship because a person’s relationship satisfaction is affected by his/her own personality traits and those of his/her spouse’s. Satisfaction has remarkable consequences since it correlates to, for instance, life satisfaction. The relation between personality and relationship satisfaction has been a subject to a plenty of research but, for example, the relation between extroversion or openness to experience and relationship satisfaction is still unclear. The goal of my study is to clarify the relations between the Big Five personality traits of two intimate partners and their relationship satisfaction, and whether gender, relationship status or relationship length moderate these relations. In addition, I study the relation between the similarity of a couple’s personality traits and their relationship satisfaction. Methods Fifty-nine test subjects and their spouses participated in the study, totalling 118 people. A majority of the test subjects consisted of women (n = 55), and most of the spouses were men (n = 50). The average age of a test subject was 25,6 years and that of a spouse was 27,4 years. The average relationship length was 2–5 years. The test subjects and their spouses self-assessed their own personality traits and relationship satisfaction. In addition, the spouses assessed the personality of the respective test subject. Connections between personality traits and relationship satisfaction were studied using Person’s correlation coefficients and multilevel modelling. Results and conclusions Emotional stability, extroversion and openness to experience were perceived to be in connection with relationship satisfaction. Gender and relationship length modified the perceived relations. My study helped to clarify previously contradictory connections between extroversion, openness to experience and relationship satisfaction.