Browsing by Subject "perusopetuslaki"

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  • Sarkkinen, Eliisa (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Tämän työn tavoitteena on selvittää oikeudellinen viitekehys, jonka puitteissa Suomessa tehdään koulukiusaamisen vastaista työtä ja löytää kehityskohteita, joiden myötä koulukiusaamisen vastainen työ tehostuisi. Koulukiusaaminen on toistuvaa ja tahallista samaan oppilaaseen kohdistuvaa vihamielistä käyttäytymistä. Olennaista on tapahtuman osapuolten epätasaväkisyys. YK:n lapsen oikeuksien sopimuksen mukaan valtion on ryhdyttävä kaikkiin asianmukaisiin lainsäädännöllisiin, hallinnollisiin, sosiaalisiin ja koulutuksellisiin toimiin suojellakseen lasta mm. ruumiilliselta ja henkiseltä väkivallalta. Perustuslain mukaan jokaisella yksilöllä on oikeus mm. henkilökohtaiseen koskemattomuuteen ja maksuttomaan perusopetukseen. Nämä oikeudet ovat vaarassa jäädä toteutumatta kiusatun osalta koulukiusaamisen vuoksi. Perusopetuslain 29 §:n mukaan oppilaalla on oikeus turvalliseen opiskeluympäristöön. Opetuksen järjestäjän tehtävänä on taata jokaiselle oppivelvolliselle samat mahdollisuudet opiskella ilman kiusaamista. Koulun keinot koulukiusaamisen vastaiseen työhön voidaan jakaa ennaltaehkäiseviin ja jälkikäteisiin keinoihin. Perusopetuslaissa on säädetty koulun jälkikäteisistä keinoista. Niitä ovat kasvatukselliset keinot, kurinpitokeinot ja turvaamistoimet. Koulun keinot eivät aina riitä lopettamaan kiusaamista. Tällöin tarvitaan yhteistyötä poliisin ja lastensuojelun kanssa. Koulukiusaamiseen sisältyy lähes aina tekoja, jotka täyttävät jonkun rikoslain tunnusmerkistön. Yleensä tulee kyseeseen pahoinpitely tai kunnianloukkaus. Koulukiusaamista käsitellään harvoin rikosoikeudellisesta näkökulmasta, johtuen mm. tekijän iästä ja koulun keinojen käytön ensisijaisuudesta. Koulukiusaamiseen liittyvät tuomiot ovat olleet lieviä. Koulukiusaaja voi joutua myös vahingonkorvausvastuuseen aiheuttamastaan vahingosta. Suomessa on toteutettu hankkeita, joiden tavoitteena on lisätä viranomaisyhteistyötä kiusaamisen selvittämisessä. Sovittelun käyttöä tulisi myös lisätä. Koulukiusaamisen vastaista työtä tulee tehostaa. Koulukiusaamisen kriminalisointi olisi keino parantaa kiusatun asemaa. Perusopetuslakiin tulisi määritellä tarkemmin vastuut ja velvollisuudet koulukiusaamisen puuttumiseen, ja koulujen keinovalikoimaa tulisi vahvistaa. Koulujen viranomaisvalvontaa pitäisi myös tehostaa. Koulut, poliisi ja lastensuojelu tarvitsevat enemmän resursseja, jotta jokaisen oppilaan oikeus turvalliseen opiskeluympäristöön toteutuu.
  • Ojanen, Linda (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    Objectives. The purpose of this study was to find out primary school teachers toughts about the handcrafts new curriculum (The Finnish National Board of Education 2014) commissioning in school. This study examines handcrafts new curriculums commissioning allowing and complicating factors as primary school teachers describe them. Former studies have shown that curriculums role in directing teaching in classroom is weak. During the reform of curriculum is extremely important to find out reasons why curriculum and teaching in action wont match. Methods. Data collection method is semi-structured theme-based-interview in which participated six primary school teachers. The analysis of the research is done by content-analysis. The study was theory-based and material-based because other of the research questions was formed during data collection and analysis. Results and conclusions. Primary school teachers experience the handcrafts new curriculum commissioning possible by their knowledge of students, their own handcraft skills and personal feature. Handcraft curriculums solid handcraft was seen difficult as teachers handcraft skills were emphasized either in technical work or in textile crafts and also because of schools structure. Teachers thoughts are lead by traditions in history of handcraft. As a conclusion can be noted that teachers education must be taken in practise especially during the curriculum transforming. In addition management of change in all levels from The Finnish National Board of Education to cities and schools is extremely important: by organizing resources, space and renovating. In addition in the conclusions is shown that signal to teachers must be clear: its is time to reform thinking about the handcraft in schools.
  • Tran, Muong (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    In 2020, many social institutions such as educational institutions faced a new challenge due to a global health and social crisic called the COVID-19. The coronavirus pandemic was and still is presented in the news on a daily basis. This master’s thesis examines what exactly was reported about basic education during the first wave of coronavirus in the Finnish media. The goal was to find out what matters and in what way basic education was written about. The study material consists of 68 news articles from the following online news services: Helsingin Sanomat, Yle and Iltalehti. The theoretical section introduces the Finnish school system and school policy and also discusses the curriculum, basic education, the social function of the school institution, social constructionism and the media. The study was made from a qualitative perspective, and discourse analysis was used. The study showed that the news coverage of basic education was versatile and diverse in the Finnish media during the first wave of coronavirus, which is an indication of the significance of basic education and its important role in society. The news coverage was mainly informative, but a significant amount also emphasized opinion, which shows that basic education affects the everyday life of Finns extensively and closely, and which is why it was presented in the media, for example in the form of opinion pieces. The news topics especially highlighted distance learning and teaching arrangements and the related experiences, and these provide relevant topics for further studies.
  • Laakkonen, Marja (Helsingfors universitet, 2014)
    Targets. The beginning of the school is an exciting matter significant to the child and family. In the diabetic child's family the tension will be easily increased by the concern about the child's diabetes care during the school day because the diabetes sets its own challenges to the school attendance. It has been discussed whose responsibility it is to take care diabetic pupils during school day. According to the legislation, the pupil has a right to the safe and equal learning environment and the organizer of the teaching has a responsibility in the arranging of it. In this study an attempt was made to clarify how the objectives appointed by the law rule from the safe and equal school attendance come true in practice on the basis of the diabetic children's parents experiences. Furthermore, an attempt was made to clear the diabetic children's readiness and need for the support in the self-care of the diabetes and what kind of cooperation ways there are need for the support in the self-care of the diabetes and what kind of cooperation ways there are between a home and the school in use in the arranging of the diabetes pupil's school day. Methods. The research material consisted of the answer of the 40 elementary school aged diabetic pupil parent. The material for the thesis was gathered by using an internet questionnaire, which were half structured. The open questions were used in such questions in which one wanted to get the interviewees' own vote belonging. Content analysis was used as an analysis method of the material. Results and conclusions. The results indicate that because there are no common guidelines, children are being treated unequally and their right to study in a safe and equal learning environment does not come true by everybody. All the diabetic pupils will not get care of the illness and the support needed during the school day. The success of the cooperation and ways of action are dependent on the staff and their will. To support the diabetic pupil's self-care and to reach good care balance, basic knowledge of diabetes needs to be increased among persons working with children at schools. The clear national manuals and responsibility definition are also needed to support arranging diabetic children's school attendance.