Browsing by Subject "photography"

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  • Livholts, Mona Birgitta (2021)
    Exhaustion is not about being tired. It is an intense feeling of restlessness, of insomnia, and awakening when I ask myself: have I exhausted all that is possible? Such a state of restlessness and wakefulness represents a turning point for having enough, and opens for new possibilities to act for social change. This reflexive essay departs from the notion that the language of exhaustion offers a wor(l)dly possibility for social work(ers) to engage in critical analytical reflexivity about our locations of power from the outset of our (g)local environment worlds. The aim is to trace the transformative possibilities of social change in social work practice through the literature of exhaustion (eg. Frichot, 2019; Spooner, 2011). The methodology is based on uses of narrative life writing genres such as poetry, written and photographic diary entrances between the 4th of April and 4th of June. The essay shows how tracing exhaustion during the pandemic, visualises a multiplicity of forms of oppression and privilege, an increasing attention and relationship to things, and border movements and languages. I suggest that social work replace the often-used terminology of social problems with exhaustive lists to address structural forms of racism, sexism, ableism, ageism, which has been further visualized through death, illness, violence, and poverty during the pandemic. I argue that the language of exhaustion is useful for reflexivity and action in social workpractice through the way it contributes to intensified awareness, attention, engagement, listening, and agency to create social justice.
  • Kankaanpää, Outi (Helsingfors universitet, 2013)
    Loss of biodiversity in the Finnish agricultural environment has increased during the last decades due to the agricultural intensification. Accurate, efficient and repeatable sampling methods are important to follow the impacts of the measures to enhance biodiversity. This study focuses on the assessment of vegetation structure and species diversity. Vegetation cover is one of the most common measures to assess vegetation biodiversity. Cover data is usually collected by a point intercept method, a line intercept method or by visual estimation in quadrats. Traditional methods have been found to be laborious, time-consuming and subjective, and having poor repeatability. The main objective of this study was to find out if it is possible to improve vegetation surveys with digital photographs and an object-based image analysis. To answer this question, a visual method (VM) was compared with a photographic method (PM). The VM was based on ocular estimation of the total vegetation cover. In the PM, pictures of the top cover were taken vertically downward from 1.5 meters above the ground. Using a software program called Definiens, the photographs were divided into segments, which were then classified into bare ground, litter, monocots and dicots to estimate the covers for each category. The data was collected during the summer 2010 from environmental fallows and set-asides. There was a clear correlation between the cover measures in the VM and the PM, so it can be assumed that the PM is suitable for the assessment of the vegetation cover. However, using only the PM, it is not possible to get a reliable estimate of the vegetation structure or species diversity. It was faster to collect the data in the field with the PM than with the VM. The computer used in this survey was inefficient, thus the image analysis took more time than expected and as a result the PM was in its entirety slower than the VM. The study gave important theoretical and practical information about the photographic method, its strengths and weaknesses. Photographic methods are still under development and further research is needed but they hold promise for the future.
  • Pullinen, Jussi (2007)
    The thesis analyses the differences in the ways key stakeholder groups are pictured in corporate photography of fifteen multinational corporations in three different sectors of economy. The data is extracted from annual reports of the corporations for the year 2005. The focus of the work is on corporate public relations, not advertising. The thesis applies the social semiotic theory of Gunther Kress and Theo van Leeuwen to corporate photographs. It combines the Kress and van Leeuwen framework with the Peircean concepts of firstness, secondness and thirdness, first proposed in the context of photography by Merja Salo. The method of the work, a variant of quantitative content analysis, is developed from Anssi Männistö’s image analysis method. The thesis shows that there are significant differences in the ways different corporate stakeholder groups are represented in corporate photography. The key differences are shown to be between representations of corporate management and other groups. The study shows that the representations of international corporate management are extremely uniform, and that there seem to be tight limits for the representations of corporate management. The management is uniformly pictured as engaging the reader in the style of a traditional portrait. There are also tight limits for the expression of emotion and feeling in corporate photography. The only emotional states that are present in the data are smiles or relatively neutral facial expressions. Negative emotion is not displayed by any stakeholder groups. There study shows that there is much more fluctuation in the ways employees and customers are represented, compared with the management. Corporate employees and customers are used as anonymous illustrations to the report, and they are given meaning through their vocational position at best, instead of their individual identities. The thesis suggests that the pictorial representations of the various stakeholder groups constitute a metanarrative, defined in the work as a presentation by the management to the shareholders, in which employees and customers act as evidence of the efficiency of the corporation. The metanarrative is compared to John Berger’s theory of the narrative of oil painting, which describes a continuity between advertising and classical oil painting. According to Berger, the key function of oil painting was to picture the commissioner of the painting surrounded by his estate and possessions, and act in this way as evidence of the commissioner’s wealth. The thesis suggests that the corporation presented in the annual report, as well as its employees and customers as stakeholders, can be understood, adapting the narrative of oil painting, as the estate and possessions of the management. They are then used to convince the shareholders, acting as the audience, of the efficiency and value of the corporation.
  • Holmikari, Johanna (Helsingfors universitet, 2012)
    Goals: This study examines different meanings of preschool environment through pictures children have taken, and by children's stories associated to these pictures. The study committed to multidisciplinary childhood study approach which sees children as competent active actor in their own right and as a constructor of their own childhood. Theoretically the study focuses on studies of child perspective, children's geographies, and meanings. The study assumes that preschool environment appears differently to children that it does to adults, and that adults should pay more attention to how the preschool environment appears to children. Methods: The study is a part of Academy of Finland research project "Children tell of their well-being - who listens? Listening to children's voices and receiving their stories" (TelLis project number 1134911) The project is led by Adjunct professor Liisa Karlsson in University of Helsinki. Material for the study is collected from a Kouvola-area child safety project. The project focused on children's point of view. As part of the project children photographed places they considered nice or boring in their preschool environment. The children were then asked to tell about the pictures using a method called Storycrafting. The pictures and stories were used as information source by the experts from different fields who participated in this project. Pictures and narration materials produced by 28 preschoolers are analysed in this study. The material consisted of 40 picture and story combinations. Method of the study was a qualitative study and the material was analysed using content analysis. Results and conclusions: Four significant dimensions were found from the material: operation, social interaction, play, and aesthetic character. The study found that meaningful environment for children is cosy, and offers different activities, social interactions, and also possibility to play. The pictures taken by the children and the stories they relate to them contain information which helps to understand how children react to their environment and how they take advantage of affordances environment produce. The results of this study can be utilized by the experts who are working among children and design environments for children.