Browsing by Subject "photoionization"

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  • Flink, Anu (Helsingfors universitet, 2011)
    Here, we demonstrate the application of desorption atmospheric pressure photoionization (DAPPI) as a screening method at the Criminal Laboratory of the Finnish National Bureau of Investigation for samples confiscated by the Finnish criminal police. DAPPI is a fast mass spectrometric technique to analysis compounds directly from the sample surface in ambient atmosphere. In DAPPI, the sample is thermally desorbed from the sample surface using hot solvent vapor, after which the analytes are ionised in the gas-phase by photon-initiated gas-phase reactions. DAPPI was applied to the direct analysis of confiscated drugs, anabolic steroids and explosives of various matrices without any sample preparation. Confiscated drug samples included e.g. tablets, powders, herbal mixtures, herbal products [Catha edulis (khat) leaves, opium, Cannabis sativa, Psilocybe mushrooms] and ampules and tablets containing anabolic steroids. Powders were sprinkled on a 2-sided tape on a microscope slide, after which the excess powder was shaken away from the tape surface. Liquid samples were analysed from a kitchen paper, after application of 1 Äl of oil from ampules. Other samples were analysed by simply placing them on the DAPPI sampling stage and by directing the solvent plume on the sample surface. DAPPI proved to be a fast and specific analysis technique to this type of forensic analysis. DAPPI does not require any sample preparation, which therefore is well suited for fast forensic analysis, especially for plant samples and oily anabolic steroids, which are considered very challenging with conventional methods. Contamination of the mass spectrometer could be avoided by adjustment of the distance of the sample from the mass spectrometer inlet. Memory effects or contamination of the MS instrument were not observed even after several weeks of DAPPI measurements. DAPPI was also used for trace detection of the explosives trinitrotoluene (TNT), nitroglycol (NK), nitroglycerine (NG), penitrit (PETN), cyclonite (RDX), octogen (HMX) and picric acid. These organic explosives are nitrated compounds, which are divided based on their chemical structure into nitroaromatics (TNT and picric acid), nitroamines (RDX and HMX) and nitrate esters (PETN, NG and NK). Explosive dilutions were analysed with DAPPI from a polymer surface [poly(methyl methacrylate), PMMA] after application and drying of 1 Äl of sample. Also forensic analysis of post-blast residues from different matrices were done. DAPPI was effective in the ionisation of nitroamines and nitrate esters as their adducts with anions such as nitrate, acetate, formate and acetate. TNT used to form negative molecular ions through electron capture and picric acid formed deprotonated molecules through proton transfer. A DAPPI-MS method was developed for all explosives but the identification of the very low concentration explosive traces from wild variety of matrices proved to be difficult.
  • Lindfors, Pia (Helsingfors universitet, 2010)
    The most important part in bioanalysis is the sample cleanup process which is usually the most laborious and time consuming part of the analysis and very susceptible to errors. A functional bioanalysis has to be quick, easily automated, sensitive, selective and stable. It also needs to be suitable for high throughput analysis. Desorption atmospheric pressure photoionization (DAPPI) is a novel direct desorption/ionization technique for mass spectrometry that enables direct analysis of solids from surfaces or liquid samples from a suitable sample plate often without any sample preparation. The suitability of DAPPI-MS for biological samples was investigated by measuring the limits of detection for selected opioids and benzodiazepines and screening them from authentic urine samples. Limits of detection were measured for standard solutions and spiked urine. Opioids and benzodiazepines were analyzed from post mortem urine samples with an optimized DAPPI-MS method. Post mortem urine samples were analyzed with and without sample preparation. Sample preparation improved the sensitivity of the method remarkably. About 50 % of the analytes were detected without sample preparation and almost 100 % after sample cleanup. It is however difficult to estimate the suitability of DAPPI-MS as a screening method because not all analyte concentrations of the urine samples were known. Therefore we cannot be certain weither the results obtained without sample preparation are caused by the suppression of the urine matrix or if the concentrations of the analytes are below the limits of detection. The reliability of the method can further be improved by investigating the metabolites of the analytes and improving the system towards automation. On grounds of this research DAPPI-MS should be used cautiously as a screening method for urine samples without sample preparation and with only high enough analyte concentrations. DAPPI-MS shows promise as a screening method for opioids and benzodiazepines from urine when the sample cleanup is used before the analysis.
  • Aalto, Henni (Helsingfors universitet, 2011)
    Lipids are fat soluble compounds that are derived from living tissues. Lipids have many important physiological functions. Developing methods for efficient lipid analysis is important since lipids can function as biomarkers in diseases. Additionally these methods can be used for the discovery of the biological processes of disease development. Lipids comprise of molecules with different polarity and structure. Several mass spectrometric ionization methods have been used in the analysis of lipids but they usually require sample preparation prior to the analysis. Desorption electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) and desorption photoionization-mass spectrometry (DAPPI-MS) are novel ionization methods that allow sample analysis straight from the matrix, such as tissue, usually without any sample preparation. DESI-MS has already been used in the analysis of different lipids, but DAPPI-MS has only been used in the analysis of steroids. The ionization of a range of lipid compounds (phospholipids, triglycerides, fat soluble vitamins, fatty acids, and steroids) by DAPPI-MS and DESI-MS was studied. Analysis conditions were optimized for all the different lipid classes with both DAPPI and DESI using standard samples. Some lipids were also analysed straight from pharmaceutical preparations. There were differences in the suitabilities of DAPPI-MS and DESI-MS for the ionization of different lipid classes. DAPPI-MS worked well for the ionization of nonpolar lipids like triglycerides, vitamins and fatty acids, but the phospholipids fragmented in the DAPPI-MS process and showed no molecular ion. Previous studies have shown that DESI-MS works well in the ionization of phospholipids, and this study showed that it works reasonably well for other lipid groups as well, with the exception of some of the nonpolar lipids. New knowledge was acquired especially about the suitability of DAPPI-MS for the analysis of different lipids. Based on the results it can be said that DAPPI-MS works equally well or better than DESI-MS in the ionization of most lipid classes. The DAPPI method should still be further developed so that phospholipids, which are very important lipids in human physiology, could be analysed by DAPPI-MS. As lipids were not analysed straight from a tissue sample, there are no conclusions about the suitability of DAPPI-MS for the analysis of lipids straight from tissue samples.