Browsing by Subject "phylogeny"

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  • Spirin, Viacheslav; Malysheva, Vera; Trichies, Gérard; Savchenko, Anton; Põldmaa, Kadri; Nordén, Jenni; Miettinen, Otto; Larsson, Karl-Henrik (2018)
    The taxonomy of the corticioid fungi from the class Atractiellomycetes (Pucciniomycotina, Basidiomycetes) currently addressed to the genus Helicogloea, is revised based on morphological and nuclear ribosomal DNA (ITS and LSU) data. The genus is restricted to 25 species with semitranslucent, gelatinous basidiocarps lacking differentiated cystidia and clamps on hyphae, of which 11 are described as new to science. The asexual genus Leucogloea is placed as a synonym of Helicogloea s. str. Since the type species of Saccoblastia, S. ovispora, is combined to Helicogloea, a new genus, Saccosoma, is introduced to encompass Saccoblastia farinacea and six related species, one of which is described as new. In contrast to Helicogloea in the strict sense, the basidiocarps of Saccosoma are arid, not gelatinized, and hyphae are clamped. The third lineage of the corticioid Atractiellomycetes is represented by the Bourdotigloea vestita complex. Species of Bourdotigloea are devoid of clamps but often possess well-differentiated cystidia, as well as long, cylindrical-fusiform basidiospores. Bourdotigloea encompasses nine species, of which six are described here as new.
  • Oksanen, Ilona (University of Helsinki, 2000)
  • Virtanen, Jenni; Smura, Teemu; Aaltonen, Kirsi; Moisander-Jylhä, Anna-Maria; Knuuttila, Anna; Vapalahti, Olli; Sironen, Tarja (2019)
    Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) is the causative agent of Aleutian disease (AD), which affects mink of all genotypes and also infects other mustelids such as ferrets, martens and badgers. Previous studies have investigated diversity in Finnish AMDV strains, but these studies have been restricted to small parts of the virus genome, and mostly from newly infected farms and free-ranging mustelids. Here, we investigated the diversity and evolution of Finnish AMDV strains by sequencing the complete coding sequences of 31 strains from mink originating from farms differing in their virus history, as well as from free-ranging mink. The data set was supplemented with partial genomes obtained from 26 strains. The sequences demonstrate that the Finnish AMDV strains have considerable diversity, and that the virus has been introduced to Finland in multiple events. Frequent recombination events were observed, as well as variation in the evolutionary rate in different parts of the genome and between different branches of the phylogenetic tree. Mink in the wild carry viruses with high intra-host diversity and are occasionally even co-infected by two different strains, suggesting that free-ranging mink tolerate chronic infections for extended periods of time. These findings highlight the need for further sampling to understand the mechanisms playing a role in the evolution and pathogenesis of AMDV.
  • Castel, Guillaume; Couteaudier, Mathilde; Sauvage, Frank; Pons, Jean-Baptiste; Murri, Severine; Plyusnina, Angelina; Pontier, Dominique; Cosson, Jean-Francois; Plyusnin, Alexander; Marianneau, Philippe; Tordo, Noel (2015)
    Puumala virus (PUUV) is the agent of nephropathia epidemica (NE), a mild form of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in Europe. NE incidence presents a high spatial variation throughout France, while the geographical distribution of the wild reservoir of PUUV, the bank vole, is rather continuous. A missing piece of the puzzle is the current distribution and the genetic variation of PUUV in France, which has been overlooked until now and remains poorly understood. During a population survey, from 2008 to 2011, bank voles were trapped in eight different forests of France located in areas known to be endemic for NE or in area from where no NE case has been reported until now. Bank voles were tested for immunoglobulin (Ig)G ELISA serology and two seropositive animals for each of three different areas (Ardennes, Jura and Orleans) were then subjected to laboratory analyses in order to sequence the whole S, M and L segments of PUUV. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that French PUUV isolates globally belong to the central European (CE) lineage although isolates from Ardennes are clearly distinct from those in Jura and Orleans, suggesting a different evolutionary history and origin of PUUV introduction in France. Sequence analyses revealed specific amino acid signatures along the N protein, including in PUUV from the Orleans region from where NE in humans has never been reported. The relevance of these mutations in term of pathophysiology is discussed.
  • Le Tortorec, Anniina H.; Tahvanainen, Pia; Kremp, Anke; Simis, Stefan G. H. (2016)
    The toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium ostenfeldii is the only bioluminescent bloom-forming phytoplankton in coastal waters of the Baltic Sea. We analysed partial luciferase gene (lcf) sequences and bioluminescence production in Baltic A. ostenfeldii bloom populations to assess the distribution and consistency of the trait in the Baltic Sea, and to evaluate applications for early detection of toxic blooms. Lcf was consistently present in 61 Baltic Sea A. ostenfeldii strains isolated from six separate bloom sites. All Baltic Sea strains except one produced bioluminescence. In contrast, the presence of lcf and the ability to produce bioluminescence did vary among strains from other parts of Europe. In phylogenetic analyses, lcf sequences of Baltic Sea strains clustered separately from North Sea strains, but variation between Baltic Sea strains was not sufficient to distinguish between bloom populations. Clustering of the lcf marker was similar to internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences with differences being minor and limited to the lowest hierarchical clusters, indicating a similar rate of evolution of the two genes. In relation to monitoring, the consistent presence of lcf and close coupling of lcf with bioluminescence suggests that bioluminescence can be used to reliably monitor toxic bloom-forming A. ostenfeldii in the Baltic Sea.
  • Hill, Matthew J.; Heino, Jani; White, James C.; Ryves, David B.; Wood, Paul J. (2019)
    Biological Conservation 237: 348-357
    Understanding the spatial patterns and environmental drivers of freshwater diversity and community structure is a key challenge in biogeography and conservation biology. However, previous studies have focussed primarily on taxonomic diversity and have largely ignored the phylogenetic and functional facets resulting in an incomplete understanding of the community assembly. Here, we examine the influence of local environmental, hydrological proximity effects, land-use type and spatial structuring on taxonomic, functional and phylogenetic (using taxonomic relatedness as a proxy) alpha and beta diversity (including the turnover and nestedness-resultant components) of pond macroinvertebrate communities. Ninety-five ponds across urban and non-urban land-uses in Leicestershire, UK were examined. Functional and phylogenetic alpha diversity were negatively correlated with species richness. At the alpha scale, functional diversity and taxonomic richness were primarily determined by local environmental factors while phylogenetic alpha diversity was driven by spatial factors. Compositional variation (beta diversity) of the different facets and components of functional and phylogenetic diversity were largely determined by local environmental variables. Pond surface area, dry phase length and macrophyte cover were consistently important predictors of the different facets and components of alpha and beta diversity. Our results suggest that pond management activities aimed at improving biodiversity should focus on improving and/or restoring local environmental conditions. Quantifying alpha and beta diversity of the different biodiversity facets facilitates a more accurate assessment of patterns in diversity and community structure. Integrating taxonomic, phylogenetic and functional diversity into conservation strategies will increase their efficiency and effectiveness, and maximise biodiversity protection in human-modified landscapes.
  • Chen, Chi-Chuan; Hyvönen, Jaakko; Schneider, Harald (2020)
    The microsoroid ferns are one of the largest subfamilies of the Polypodiaceae with over 180 species mainly found in the humid forests of tropical Australasia. The phylogenetic relationships are still unclear, especially the delimitation of the genus Microsorum which has been recognized to be non-monophyletic. We analysed the microsoroid ferns using six chloroplast DNA regions (rbcL, rps4+rps4-trnS, trnL+trnL-trnF, atpA, atpB and matK) in order to present a robust hypothesis of their phylogeny. Our results suggest that they comprise up to 17 genera; of them, 12 agree with a previously accepted generic classification. Five tribes are proposed based on the phylogenetic relationships. Most of the species traditionally included in the genus Microsorum are found in six genera belonging to two tribes. In addition to the commonly used DNA markers, the additional atpA and matK are helpful to provide information about the phylogenetic relationships of the microsoroid ferns.
  • Liu, Li-Na; Razaq, Abdul; Atri, Narender Singh; Bau, Tolgor; Belbahri, Lassaad; Bouket, Ali Chenari; Chen, Lai-Ping; Deng, Chu; Ilyas, Sobia; Khalid, Abdul Nasir; Kitaura, Marcos Junji; Kobayashi, Takahito; Li, Yu; Lorenz, Aline Pedroso; Ma, Yuan-Hao; Malysheva, Ekaterina; Malysheva, Vera; Nuytinck, Jorinde; Qiao, Min; Saini, Munruchi Kaur; Scur, Mayara Camila; Sharma, Samidha; Shu, Li-Li; Spirin, Viacheslav; Tanaka, Yoshikazu; Tojo, Motoaki; Uzuhashi, Shihomi; Valerio-Junior, Claudio; Verbeken, Annemieke; Verma, Balwant; Wu, Ri-Han; Xu, Jian-Ping; Yu, Ze-Fen; Zeng, Hui; Zhang, Bo; Banerjee, Arghya; Beddiar, Arifa; Bordallo, Juan-Julian; Dafri, Ahlem; Dima, Balint; Krisai-Greilhuber, Irmgard; Lorenzini, Marilinda; Mandal, Raghunath; Morte, Asuncion; Nath, Partha Sarathi; Papp, Viktor; Pavlik, Jozef; Rodriguez, Antonio; Sevcikova, Hana; Urban, Alexander; Voglmayr, Hermann; Zapparoli, Giacomo (2018)
    Eight new species presented are Calostoma areolatum collected in Wuyishan National Park (China), Crinipellis bidens from Hubei Province (China), Lactifluus sainii from Himalayan India, Inocybe elata from Yunnan (China), Inocybe himalayensis from Pakistan. Specimens previously identified as Massalongia carnosa represent a new species, namely M. patagonica restricted to southern South America. Saprolegnia maragheica is a new oomycete species of fresh water in Maraghe (Iran). Uncispora wuzhishanensis is a new aquatic hyphomycete species. A type specimen of Raddetes turkestanicus was studied and based on this the new combination Conocybe turkestanica, is proposed. Argyranthemum frutescens is a new host for Alternaria alternata and Syzygium cumini for Phyllosticta capitalensis in India. Crepidotus ehrendorferi is confirmed for Hungary and Pluteus leucoborealis for Central Europe, and for the phytogeographical region of Carpaticum. Pseudopithomyces palmicola is shown to occur on grapevine and it is validated by adding a unique identifier. Terfezia fanfani is reported first from Algeria.
  • Miraldo, Andreia; Duplouy, Anne (2019)
    Determining the drivers of diversity is a major topic in biology. Due to its high level of micro-endemism in many taxa, Madagascar has been described as one of Earth's biodiversity hotspot. The exceptional Malagasy biodiversity has been shown to be the result of various eco-evolutionary mechanisms that have taken place on this large island since its isolation from other landmasses. Extensive phylogenetic analyses have, for example, revealed that most of the dung beetle radiation events have arisen due to allopatric speciation, and adaptation to altitudinal and/or longitudinal gradients. But other biotic factors, that have yet to be identified, might also be at play. Wolbachia is a maternally transmitted endosymbiotic bacterium widespread in insects. The bacterium is well-known for its ability to modify its host reproductive system in ways that may lead to either discordance patterns between the host mitochondrial and nuclear phylogenies, and in some cases to speciation. Here, we used theMultiLocus Sequence Typing system, to identify and characterize five Wolbachia strains infecting several species within the Nanos clypeatus dung beetle clade. We discuss the implications of these Wolbachia strains for the evolution and diversification of their dung beetle hosts in Madagascar.
  • Ferreira, Lucas Salomao de Sousa; Butarelli, Ana Carolina de Araujo; Sousa, Raissa da Costa; Oliveira, Mariene Amorim de; Moraes, Pablo Henrique Goncalves; Ribeiro, Igor Santana; Sousa, Pedro Felipe Rodrigues; Dall'Agnol, Hivana Melo Barbosa; Lima, Alex Ranieri Jeronimo; Goncalves, Evonnildo Costa; Sivonen, Kaarina; Fewer, David; Riyuzo, Raquel; Piroupo, Carlos Morais; da Silva, Aline Maria; Setubal, Joao Carlos; Dall'Agnol, Leonardo Teixeira (2021)
  • Vaattovaara, Aleksia Fanni Maria; Leppälä, Johanna Maria; Salojärvi, Jarkko Tapani; Wrzaczek, Michael Alois (2019)
    The use of draft genomes of different species and re-sequencing of accessions and populations are now a common tool for plant biology research. The de novo assembled draft genomes make it possible to identify pivotal divergence points in the plant lineage and provide an opportunity to investigate the genomic basis and timing of biological innovations by inferring orthologs between species. Furthermore, re-sequencing facilitates the mapping and subsequent molecular characterization of causative loci for traits including plant stress tolerance or development. In both cases high quality gene annotation, the identification of protein-coding regions, gene promoters and 5’ and 3’ untranslated regions, is critical for investigation of gene function. Annotations are constantly improving but automated gene annotations still require manual curation and experimental validation. This is particularly important for genes with large introns, genes located in regions rich with transposable elements or repeats, large gene families and segmentally duplicated genes. In this opinion paper we highlight the impact of annotation quality on evolutionary analyses, genome-wide association studies and the identification of orthologous genes in plants. Furthermore, we predict that incorporating the accurate information from manual curation into databases will dramatically improve the performance of automated gene predictors.
  • Olkkola, Satu; Rossi, Mirko; Jaakkonen, Anniina; Simola, Maria; Tikkanen, Jouni; Hakkinen, Marjaana; Tuominen, Pirkko; Huitu, Otso; Niemimaa, Jukka; Henttonen, Heikki; Kivistö, Rauni (2021)
    Small mammals are known to carry Campylobacter spp.; however, little is known about the genotypes and their role in human infections. We studied intestinal content from small wild mammals collected in their natural habitats in Finland in 2010-2017, and in close proximity to 40 pig or cattle farms in 2017. The animals were trapped using traditional Finnish metal snap traps. Campylobacter spp. were isolated from the intestinal content using direct plating on mCCDA. A total of 19% of the captured wild animals (n = 577) and 41% of the pooled farm samples (n = 227) were positive for C. jejuni, which was the only Campylobacter species identified. The highest prevalence occurred in yellow-necked mice (Apodemus flavicollis) and bank voles (Myodes glareolus) which carried Campylobacter spp. in 66.3 and 63.9% of the farm samples and 41.5 and 24.4% of individual animals trapped from natural habitats, respectively. Interestingly, all house mouse (Mus musculus) and shrew (Sorex spp.) samples were negative for Campylobacter spp. C. jejuni isolates (n = 145) were further characterized by whole-genome sequencing. Core genome multilocus sequence typing (cgMLST) clustering showed that mouse and vole strains were separated from the rest of the C. jejuni population (636 and 671 allelic differences, 94 and 99% of core loci, respectively). Very little or no alleles were shared with C. jejuni genomes described earlier from livestock or human isolates. FastANI results further indicated that C. jejuni strains from voles are likely to represent a new previously undescribed species or subspecies of Campylobacter. Core-genome phylogeny showed that there was no difference between isolates originating from the farm and wild captured animals. Instead, the phylogeny followed the host species-association. There was some evidence (one strain each) of livestock-associated C. jejuni occurring in a farm-caught A. flavicollis and a brown rat (Rattus norvegicus), indicating that although small mammals may not be the original reservoir of Campylobacter colonizing livestock, they may sporadically carry C. jejuni strains occurring mainly in livestock and be associated with disease in humans.
  • Peng, Mao; Aguilar-Pontes, Maria V.; de Vries, Ronald P.; Mäkelä, Miia R. (2018)
    Aspergillus niger is one of the most widely used fungi to study the conversion of the lignocellulosic feedstocks into fermentable sugars. Understanding the sugar uptake system of A. niger is essential to improve the efficiency of the process of fungal plant biomass degradation. In this study, we report a comprehensive characterization of the sugar transportome of A. niger by combining phylogenetic and comparative transcriptomic analyses. We identified 86 putative sugar transporter (ST) genes based on a conserved protein domain search. All these candidates were then classified into nine subfamilies and their functional motifs and possible sugar-specificity were annotated according to phylogenetic analysis and literature mining. Furthermore, we comparatively analyzed the ST gene expression on a large set of fungal growth conditions including mono-, di- and polysaccharides, and mutants of transcriptional regulators. This revealed that transporter genes from the same phylogenetic clade displayed very diverse expression patterns and were regulated by different transcriptional factors. The genome-wide study of STs of A. niger provides new insights into the mechanisms underlying an extremely flexible metabolism and high nutritional versatility of A. niger and will facilitate further biochemical characterization and industrial applications of these candidate STs.
  • Kulyyassov, Arman; Kalendar, Ruslan (2020)
    High-throughput sequencing technologies have greatly accelerated the progress of genomics, transcriptomics, and metagenomics. Currently, a large amount of genomic data from various organisms is being generated, the volume of which is increasing every year. Therefore, the development of methods that allow the rapid search and analysis of DNA sequences is urgent. Here, we present a novel motif-based high-throughput sequence scoring method that generates genome information. We found and identified Utf1-like, Fgf4-like, and Hoxb1-like motifs, which are cis-regulatory elements for the pluripotency transcription factors Sox2 and Oct4 within the genomes of different eukaryotic organisms. The genome-wide analysis of these motifs was performed to understand the impact of their diversification on mammalian genome evolution. Utf1-like, Fgf4-like, and Hoxb1-like motif diversity was evaluated across genomes from multiple species.
  • Karlsson, Magnus; Durling, Mikael Brandstrom; Choi, Jaeyoung; Kosawang, Chatchai; Lackner, Gerald; Tzelepis, Georgios D.; Nygren, Kristiina; Dubey, Mukesh K.; Kamou, Nathalie; Levasseur, Anthony; Zapparata, Antonio; Wang, Jinhui; Amby, Daniel Buchvaldt; Jensen, Birgit; Sarrocco, Sabrina; Panteris, Emmanuel; Lagopodi, Anastasia L.; Poeggeler, Stefanie; Vannacci, Giovanni; Collinge, David B.; Hoffmeister, Dirk; Henrissat, Bernard; Lee, Yong-Hwan; Jensen, Dan Funck (2015)
  • Ling, Jiaxin; Smura, Teemu; Lundström, Jan O.; Pettersson, John H-O; Sironen, Tarja; Vapalahti, Olli; Lundkvist, Åke; Hesson, Jenny C. (2019)
    Bird-hosted viruses have the potential to be transported over large areas of the world and to be transmitted in distant geographical regions. Sindbis virus (SINV) is a mosquito-borne alphavirus that is locally amplified in a bird-mosquito enzootic cycle and distributed all over the Old World and Australia/Oceania. Sindbis virus genotype I (SINV-I) is the cause of disease outbreaks in humans in South Africa as well as in northern Europe. To trace the evolutionary history and potential strain-disease association of SINV-I, we sequenced 36 complete genomes isolated from field material in Europe, as well as in Africa and the Middle East, collected over 58 years. These were analyzed together with 30 additional published whole SINV-I genomes using Bayesian analysis. Our results suggested that SINV-I was introduced only once to northern Europe from central Africa, in the 1920s. After its first introduction to Sweden, it spread east and southward on two separate occasions in the 1960s and 1970s. Another introduction from central Africa to southern/central Europe seems to have occurred, and where these two introductions meet, one recombination event was detected in central Europe. In addition, another recombinant strain was found in central Africa, where the most divergent SINV-I strains also originated. IMPORTANCE This study shows that only a single introduction of SINV into a new geographical area is required for spread and establishment, provided that the requisite vector(s) and reservoir(s) of epizootological and epidemiological importance are present. Furthermore, we present the first report of recombination between two strains of SINV in nature. Our study increases the knowledge on new introductions and dispersal of arboviruses in general and of SINV in particular.
  • Enroth, Johannes; Shevock, James; Ignatov, Michael (2018)
    Mawenzhangia thamnobryoides gen. et sp. nov. (Bryophyta, Lembophyllaceae) is described based on collections from Yunnan, China. It is known from the Niru River watershed and grows on boulders just above the high water zone but can also be seasonally inundated. According to ITS sequences it is closely related to Nogopterium gracile (Pterogonium g.), but can be distinguished by the loosely patent and elliptic vs. imbricate and ovate leaves; much longer, single costa; thinner-walled and less strongly prorate laminal cells; and much smaller group of alar cells. Mawenzhangia thamnobryoides is illustrated in line drawings and an identification key to Chinese genera of the Lembophyllaceae is provided.
  • Pavlek, Martina; Mammola, Stefano (2021)
    Abstract Aim To disentangle the role of evolutionary history, competition and environmental filtering in driving the niche evolution of four closely related subterranean spiders, with the overarching goal of obtaining a mechanistic description of the factors that determine species' realized distribution in simplified ecological settings. Location Dinaric karst, Balkans, Europe. Taxon Dysderidae spiders (Stalita taenaria, S. pretneri, S. hadzii and Parastalita stygia). Methods We resolved phylogenetic relationships among species and modelled each species' distribution using a set of climatic and habitat variables. We explored the climatic niche differentiation among species with n-dimensional hypervolumes and shifts in their trophic niche using morphological traits related to feeding specialization. Results Climate was the primary abiotic factor explaining our species' distributions, while karstic and soil features were less important. Generally, there was a high niche overlap among species, reflecting their phylogenetic relatedness, but on a finer scale, niche shifts explained the realized distribution patterns. Trophic interaction was another important factor influencing species distributions ? the non-overlapping distributions of three morphologically indistinguishable Stalita species is seemingly the outcome of competitive exclusion dynamics. The distribution of the fourth species, Parastalita stygia, overlaps with that of the other species, with several instances of coexistence within caves. As inferred from the morphology of the mouthparts, the mechanism that minimizes interspecific competition is the shift in the trophic niche of P. stygia towards a more specialized diet. Main conclusions We showed that similarity in niches only partly correlated with the phylogenetic distance among species, and that overlaps in species distributions are possible only when a parallel shift in diet occurs. Our work emphasized how even simplified environments still maintain the potential for diversification via niche differentiation. Ultimately, we provide an ecological explanation for the diversification of life in an important hotspot of subterranean diversity.
  • Zakham, Fathiah; Sironen, Tarja; Vapalahti, Olli; Kant, Ravi (2021)
    Tuberculosis (TB) is an airborne communicable disease with high morbidity and mortality rates, especially in developing countries. The causal agents of TB belong to the complex Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTBc), which is composed of different human and animal TB associated species. Some animal associated species have zoonotic potential and add to the burden of TB management. The BCG ("Bacillus Calmette-Guerin") vaccine is widely used for the prevention against TB, but its use is limited in immunocompromised patients and animals due to the adverse effects and disseminated life-threatening complications. In this study, we aimed to carry out a comparative genome analysis between the human adapted species including BCG vaccine strains to identify and pinpoint the conserved genes related to the virulence across all the species, which could add a new value for vaccine development. For this purpose, the sequences of 183 Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) strains were retrieved from the freely available WGS dataset at NCBI. The species included: 168 sensu stricto MTB species with other human MTB complex associated strains: M. tuberculosis var. africanum (3), M. tuberculosis var. bovis (2 draft genomes) and 10 BCG species, which enabled the analysis of core genome which contains the conserved genes and some virulence factor determinants. Further, a phylogenetic tree was constructed including the genomes of human (183); animals MTB adapted strains (6) and the environmental Mycobacterium strain "M. canettii". Our results showed that the core genome consists of 1166 conserved genes among these species, which represents a small portion of the pangenome (7036 genes). The remaining genes in the pangenome (5870) are accessory genes, adding a high inter-species diversity. Further, the core genome includes several virulence-associated genes and this could explain the rare infectiousness potential of some attenuated vaccine strains in some patients. This study reveals that low number of conserved genes in human adapted MTBc species and high inter-species diversity of the pan-genome could be considered for vaccine candidate development.