Browsing by Subject "physical fitness"

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  • Vaara, Jani P.; Santtila, Matti; Vasankari, Tommi; Fogelholm, Mikael; Mäntysaari, Matti; Pihlainen, Kai; Vaara, Elina; Kyröläinen, Heikki (2020)
    Introduction Physical fitness is strongly related to health and may offer valuable information about public health. We investigated trends in physical fitness, leisure-time physical activity (LTPA), and anthropometry of young healthy adult Finnish men in representative population-based samples between 2003 and 2015. Methods Three independent cross-sectional samples of 18- to 35-year-old Finnish men were assessed in 2003 (n = 889), 2008 (n = 803), and 2015 (n = 690). Cardiorespiratory (VO(2)max) and muscular fitness (1-minute sit-ups and push-ups), body mass, and height were measured. Self-reported LTPA was assessed. Results After adjusting for age, education, and smoking, cardiorespiratory fitness was higher in 2003 (mean: 43.5, 95%CI: 42.9-44.1 mL/kg/min) compared to 2008 (41.3, 95%CI: 40.7-41.9 mL/kg/min) and 2015 (40.6, 95%CI: 40.0-41.2 mL/kg/min) (P <.001), whereas no difference was observed between 2008 and 2015. The lowest values in muscular fitness were observed in 2003, while no clear trends were further noticed. The adjusted BMI was higher in 2008 (25.1, 95%CI: 24.9-25.4) and 2015 (25.3, 95%CI: 25.3, 95%CI: 25.0-25.6) compared to 2003 (24.5, 95%CI: 24.3-24.8) (P <.005). In 2015, a higher proportion of individuals exercised at least four times per week compared to 2003 and 2008 (P <.05). Conclusion The decrease in cardiorespiratory fitness that took place between 2003 and 2008 plateaued after 2008. The plateau is in accordance with the previously observed trend of 5-10 years younger Finnish men. Moreover, muscular fitness was for the most part higher in 2008 and 2015 compared to 2003. Efforts directed to promote regular physical activity and improve physical fitness are needed.
  • Malmberg, Maiju; Malmberg, L. Pekka; Pelkonen, Anna S.; Makela, Mika J.; Kotaniemi-Syrjänen, Anne (2021)
    Background The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of body mass index with regard to exercise performance, exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB), and respiratory symptoms in 7- to 16-year-old children. Methods A total of 1120 outdoor running exercise challenge test results of 7- to 16-year-old children were retrospectively reviewed. Lung function was evaluated with spirometry, and exercise performance was assessed by calculating distance per 6 minutes from the running time and distance. Respiratory symptoms in the exercise challenge test were recorded, and body mass index modified for children (ISO-BMI) was calculated for each child from height, weight, age, and gender according to the national growth references. Results Greater ISO-BMI and overweight were associated with poorer exercise performance (P <.001). In addition, greater ISO-BMI was independently associated with cough (P = .002) and shortness of breath (P = .012) in the exercise challenge. However, there was no association between ISO-BMI and EIB or with wheeze during the exercise challenge. Conclusion Greater ISO-BMI may have a role in poorer exercise performance and appearance of respiratory symptoms during exercise, but not in EIB in 7- to 16-year-old children.
  • Malmberg, Maiju; Malmberg, Pekka; Pelkonen, Anna; Mäkelä, Mika; Kotaniemi-Syrjänen, Anne (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Tämän tutkimuksen tarkoitus oli arvioida painoindeksin yhteyttä fyysiseen suorituskykyyn, rasitusastmareaktioon ja rasituksen laukaisemiin hengitystieoireisiin (yskään, vinkunaan ja hengenahdistukseen) kouluikäisillä lapsilla. 1120 ulkojuoksukokeen tulokset käytiin retrospektiivisesti läpi. Nämä ulkojuoksukokeet oli suoritettu Iho- ja allergiasairaalassa osana kouluikäisten lasten tavanomaisia astmaselvittelyjä. Keuhkojen toimintaa arvioitiin spirometrialla. Astmalle diagnostisen rasituksen laukaiseman keuhkoputkien supistumisen eli rasitusastmareaktion rajana pidettiin vähintään 15 prosentin laskua uloshengityksen sekuntikapasiteetissa rasituksen jälkeen. Fyysinen suorituskyky arvioitiin laskemalla todellisesta juoksuajasta ja -matkasta 6 minuutissa juostu matka. Hengitystieoireet ja -löydökset kirjattiin kokeen aikana, ja lasten ikään ja sukupuoleen suhteutettu painoindeksi eli ISO-BMI laskettiin kansallisia kasvuviitearvoja käyttäen. Suurempi ISO-BMI ja ylipaino ennustivat heikompaa fyysistä suorituskykyä. Lisäksi suurempi ISO-BMI oli yhteydessä yskään ja hengenahdistukseen rasituskokeen aikana. Sen sijaan ISO-BMI ei liittynyt rasitusastmareaktioon eikä vinkunaan. Tämän tutkimuksen löydösten perusteella kouluikäisillä lapsilla ylipaino voi ennustaa heikompaa fyysistä suorituskykyä ja rasitusperäisten hengitystieoireiden ilmaantumista, mutta ei rasitusastmareaktiota. Mikäli asianmukaisia keuhkojen toimintatutkimuksia ei suoriteta, voidaan astmadiagnoosi asettaa väärin perustein. Tutkimus on toistaiseksi suurin kouluikäisten lasten ylipainon, rasitusastmareaktion ja fyysisen suorituskyvyn yhteyttä tarkasteleva tutkimus, mutta koska tutkimus oli luonteeltaan retrospektiivinen asiakirjatutkimus, tulokset tulisi jatkossa vahvistaa prospektiivisella seurantatutkimuksella.
  • Aura, Ossi (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2006)
    Economics and Society
    In a framework of Intellectual Capital (IC), the effects and interactions of a Worksite Fitness Program (WFP) policy was studied with a multidisciplinary approach. In a preliminary study, indicators for physical activity (PAI), physical fitness (PFI), activity in WFP on a regular (WFPI) and on a events basis (WFPE) were created in line with positive findings regarding the associations between physical activity and fitness patterns and sick leave, perceived health, and self-assessed work ability. The intensity of physical activity was found to be the most important variable to predict positive associations with the above mentioned wellness parameters. In four case study follow-up settings, the effects and interactions of physical activity and fitness patterns and the company’s WFP-policy on different elements of IC were studied. Qualitative methods were applied in constructing indicators and a descriptive IC measure for each case company. In cross-sectional and follow-up settings, several findings with respect to IC were found regarding physical activity in general and activity in WFP in particular. Findings were relatively strong in health and wellness related indicators in Human Capital, where, as also in Structural Capital indicators such as the company climate and employee-superior relationship, revealed positive associations. Physical activity patterns were found to act in minor role in Relational Capital. Overall, WFP was seen to be an integrated part of Structural Capital. From the viewpoint of Worksite Fitness Program as a phenomenon, this study positioned WFP as an active element of Intellectual Capital. The literature in the field of WFP emphasizes the role of WFP as an instrument to activate employees in physical activity, and thus promote their health and wellbeing. With the wider perspective the active and long range WFP policy can support a company’s Structural and Relational Capital in line with the fundamental role it has on Human Capital.
  • Raisio, Harri; Kuorikoski, Tero; Rantala, Tero; Rask, Mikko (2021)
    Executive duties have long been described as becoming more intensive and demanding. One contributing factor is a perceived increase in the complexity of the operating environment. A high level of physical fitness has been suggested to support responses to those demands. This study aims to contribute to the topic by producing a holistic view informed by asking how physically active executive-level leaders perceive the impact (whether positive or negative) of managerial athleticism on the level of the individual, organization, and society. Twenty physically active high-level leaders were interviewed for the study. The sample was almost equally split by gender, represented a diverse range of societal sectors, and engaged in many different forms of exercise. The results support previous research; however, this study provides a more nuanced view of the topic. Although the interviewees saw many good aspects of physical exercise, such as providing physical, affective, cognitive, and social resources, they were also able to think critically about their personal relationship with exercising and their attitudes toward others taking physical exercise. The study highlights the role of balancing the harmonious and obsessive aspects of the relationship with exercising. Instead of a disproportionate study of extreme cases, we conclude that it would be worthwhile studying leaders with a harmonious relationship with exercise to ensure results do not become biased and physically active leaders are not stereotyped.