Browsing by Subject "phytosterol"

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  • Vuorio, Alpo; Kovanen, Petri T. (2018)
    This review covers the current knowledge about plant stanol esters as a dietary treatment option for heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (he-FH) children. The current estimation of the prevalence of he-FH is about one out of 200-250 persons. In this autosomal dominant disease, the concentration of plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is strongly elevated since birth. Quantitative coronary angiography among he-FH patients has revealed that stenosing atherosclerotic plaques start to develop in he-FH males in their twenties and in he-FH females in their thirties, and that the magnitude of the plaque burden predicts future coronary events. The cumulative exposure of coronary arteries to the lifelong LDL-C elevation can be estimated by calculating the LDL-C burden (LDL-C level x years), and it can also be used to demonstrate the usefulness of dietary stanol ester treatment. Thus, when compared with untreated he-FH patients, the LDL-C burden of using statin from the age of 10 is 15% less, and if he-FH patients starts to use dietary stanol from six years onwards and a combination of statin and dietary stanol from 10 years onwards, the LDL-C burden is 21% less compared to non-treated he-FH patients. We consider dietary stanol treatment of he-FH children as a part of the LDL-C-lowering treatment package as safe and cost-effective, and particularly applicable for the family-centered care of the entire he-FH families.
  • Gylling, Helena; Simonen, Piia (2015)
    The efficacy of phytosterols and phytostanols added to foods and food supplements to obtain significant non-pharmacologic serum and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol reduction is well documented. Irrespective of age, gender, ethnic background, body weight, background diet, or the cause of hypercholesterolemia and, even added to statin treatment, phytosterols and phytostanols at 2 g/day significantly lower LDL cholesterol concentration by 8%-10%. They do not affect the concentrations of high density lipoprotein cholesterol, lipoprotein (a) or serum proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9. In some studies, phytosterols and phytostanols have modestly reduced serum triglyceride levels especially in subjects with slightly increased baseline concentrations. Phytosterols and phytostanols lower LDL cholesterol by displacing cholesterol from mixed micelles in the small intestine so that cholesterol absorption is partially inhibited. Cholesterol absorption and synthesis have been carefully evaluated during phytosterol and phytostanol supplementation. However, only a few lipoprotein kinetic studies have been performed, and they revealed that LDL apoprotein B-100 transport rate was reduced. LDL particle size was unchanged, but small dense LDL cholesterol concentration was reduced. In subjects with metabolic syndrome and moderate hypertriglyceridemia, phytostanols reduced not only non- high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentration but also serum triglycerides by 27%, and reduced the large and medium size very low density lipoprotein particle concentrations. In the few postprandial studies, the postprandial lipoproteins were reduced, but detailed studies with apoprotein B-48 are lacking. In conclusion, more kinetic studies are required to obtain a more complete understanding of the fasting and postprandial lipoprotein metabolism caused by phytosterols and phytostanols. It seems obvious, however, that the most atherogenic lipoprotein particles will be diminished.
  • Zhang, Yangyang (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    The literature review introduced the chemistry of sterols and presented the sterols found in microalgae, and placed emphasis on the analytical methods used for studying sterols in microalgae. A brief discussion about application of microalgae-derived sterols was also included. The aim of this work was to learn about the sterol compositions in microalgae: Euglena gracilis and Selenastrum sp.. The common analytical methods of sterols are not suitable when applied to microalgae. Traditional alkaline hydrolysis may lead to an underestimation of total sterol content, because it cannot break acetal bond in steryl glycoside (SG). Additional acid hydrolysis for determining SG may lead to isomerization or decomposition of Δ7-sterols, which are the main sterols in green algae. A combination of alkaline hydrolysis and enzymatic hydrolysis was performed in this study. Firstly, sterol contents were determined using two methods: direct saponification and accelerated solvent extraction followed by saponification. Secondly, sterol classes: free sterol (FS), steryl ester (SE), and SG were determined by fractionation using solid phase extraction, followed by alkaline hydrolysis (FS and SE) and enzymatic hydrolysis (SG). Sterols were quantified using an internal standard and determined by GC-FID as their trimethylsilyl ether derivatives and identified by GC-MS. Euglena gracilis contained three major sterols: ergosterol and corbisterol, and Selenastrum sp. contained Δ7-ergosterol, chondrillasterol, and Δ7-chondrillasterol. Sterol contents ranged from 0.68-3.24 mg/g dry matter in Euglena gracilis, of which ergosterol constituted 68-93%. Sterol content in Selenastrum sp. was > 9 mg/g dry matter, with 36% Δ7-ergosterol, 12% chondrillasterol, and 52% Δ7-chondrillasterol. Comparison between the two extraction methods showed that ASE had a lower sterol yield than direct saponification. In E. gracilis, SE compromised 20-24%, FS 60-65%, and SG 11-12%. In Selenastrum, SE compromised only 1%, FS 74%, and SG 25%. The findings suggested that data on sterol composition ought to be viewed with caution. Underestimation of total sterol content may result from missing remarkable amounts of SG in certain microalgae species.