Browsing by Subject "pig"

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  • Nordgreen, Janicke; Edwards, Sandra A.; Boyle, Laura Ann; Bolhuis, J. Elizabeth; Veit, Christina; Sayyari, Amin; Marin, Daniela E.; Dimitrov, Ivan; Janczak, Andrew M.; Valros, Anna (2020)
    Sickness can change our mood for the worse, leaving us sad, lethargic, grumpy and less socially inclined. This mood change is part of a set of behavioral symptoms called sickness behavior and has features in common with core symptoms of depression. Therefore, the physiological changes induced by immune activation, for example following infection, are in the spotlight for explaining mechanisms behind mental health challenges such as depression. While humans may take a day off and isolate themselves until they feel better, farm animals housed in groups have only limited possibilities for social withdrawal. We suggest that immune activation could be a major factor influencing social interactions in pigs, with outbreaks of damaging behavior such as tail biting as a possible result. The hypothesis presented here is that the effects of several known risk factors for tail biting are mediated by pro-inflammatory cytokines, proteins produced by the immune system, and their effect on neurotransmitter systems. We describe the background for and implications of this hypothesis.
  • Kylä-Puhju, Maria; Ruusunen, Marita; Puolanne, Eero (Elsevier, 2005)
    The activity of glycogen debranching enzyme (GDE) was studied in relation to pH value and temperature in porcine masseter and longissimus dorsi muscles. A glycogen limit dextrin was used as the substrate for GDE, and the enzyme was derived from raw meat extracts. In both muscles, the pH only weakly affected on activity of GDE at the pH values found in carcasses post-slaughter. However, the activity of GDE decreased strongly (P < 0.001) when the temperature decreased from values of 39 °C and 42 °C found just after slaughter to values of 4 °C and 15 °C found during cooling. In both muscles the activity of GDE began to fall at temperatures below 39 °C and was almost zero when the temperature decreased to below 15 °C. Thus, the activity of GDE may control the rate of glycogenolysis and glycolysis, but does not block rapid glycolysis and pH decrease when the temperature is high. This may be important in PSE meat, where the pH decreases rapidly at high temperatures, but rapid cooling could limit the activity of GDE and thus glycogenolysis. As expected, GDE was more active in the light longissimus dorsi muscle than in the dark masseter muscle.
  • Norring, Marianna; Valros, Anna Elisabet; Bergman, Paula Susanna; Marchant-Forde, Jeremy; Heinonen, Mari Leena (2019)
    Group housing of gestating sows benefits their welfare by allowing them freedom of movement and the opportunity for social interaction. However, social life could also bring disadvantages for individuals who receive direct aggression or are displaced from the feeder. The aim of this study was to investigate associations between social behaviour, body condition and live weight. Gestating sows (n=298) were investigated on a commercial farm. Sows were housed in mixed parity groups where two single space, ad libitum trough feeders served 12 animals. Sows were weighed, body condition scored and had their back fat layer measured at mixing, 4 weeks after insemination and again before farrowing. Social status was estimated based on the numbers of won and lost agonistic interactions at mixing and at the end of gestation. In addition, tear staining was scored before the farrowing and reproductive performance data were collected. With the aid of video recordings, 100 to 150 interactions per group were observed. Winning percentage at mixing and at the end of gestation were associated (P
  • Hammid, Anam; Fallon, John K.; Lassila, Toni; Salluce, Giulia; Smith, Philip C.; Tolonen, Ari; Sauer, Achim; Urtti, Arto; Honkakoski, Paavo (2021)
    Hydrolytic reactions constitute an important pathway of drug metabolism and a significant route of prodrug activation. Many ophthalmic drugs and prodrugs contain ester groups that greatly enhance their permeation across several hydrophobic barriers in the eye before the drugs are either metabolized or released, respectively, via hydrolysis. Thus, the development of ophthalmic drug therapy requires the thorough profiling of substrate specificities, activities, and expression levels of ocular esterases. However, such information is scant in the literature, especially for preclinical species often used in ophthalmology such as rabbits and pigs. Therefore, our aim was to generate systematic information on the activity and expression of carboxylesterases (CESs) and arylacetamide deacetylase (AADAC) in seven ocular tissue homogenates from these two species. The hydrolytic activities were measured using a generic esterase substrate (4-nitrophenyl acetate) and, in the absence of validated substrates for rabbit and pig enzymes, with selective substrates established for human CES1, CES2, and AADAC (D-luciferin methyl ester, fluorescein diacetate, procaine, and phenacetin). Kinetics and inhibition studies were conducted using these substrates and, again due to a lack of validated rabbit and pig CES inhibitors, with known inhibitors for the human enzymes. Protein expression levels were measured using quantitative targeted proteomics. Rabbit ocular tissues showed significant variability in the expression of CES1 (higher in cornea, lower in conjunctiva) and CES2 (higher in conjunctiva, lower in cornea) and a poor correlation of CES expression with hydrolytic activities. In contrast, pig tissues appear to express only CES1, and CES3 and AADAC seem to be either low or absent, respectively, in both species. The current study revealed remarkable species and tissue differences in ocular hydrolytic enzymes that can be taken into account in the design of esterase-dependent prodrugs and drug conjugates, the evaluation of ocular effects of systemic drugs, and in translational and toxicity studies.
  • Sali, Virpi; Veit, Christina; Valros, Anna; Junnikkala, Sami; Heinonen, Mari; Nordgreen, Janicke (2021)
    Infectious and inflammatory conditions are common especially in growing pigs. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is an important antigenic structure of Gram-negative bacteria and can be used to induce inflammation experimentally. As pigs are usually group-housed in commercial conditions, it is difficult to detect sick individuals, particularly at an early stage of illness. Acute phase proteins such as haptoglobin (Hp) are known indicators of an activated innate immune system whereas adenosine deaminase (ADA) is a relatively novel inflammatory biomarker in pigs. Both parameters can be measured in saliva and could be used as indicators of inflammation. Compared with blood sampling, saliva sampling is a less stressful procedure that is rapid, non-invasive and easy to perform both at group and at individual level. In this blinded randomized clinical trial, 32 female pigs at their post-weaning phase were allocated to one of four treatments comprising two injections of the following substance combinations: saline-saline (SS), ketoprofen-saline (KS), saline-LPS (SL), and ketoprofen-LPS (KL). First, ketoprofen or saline was administered intramuscularly on average 1 h before either LPS or saline was given through an ear vein catheter. In all groups, saliva was collected prior to injections (baseline) and at 4, 24, 48, and 72 h post-injection for determination of ADA, Hp, and cortisol concentrations. A multivariate model was applied to describe the dynamics of each biomarker. Pairwise relationships between ADA, Hp, and cortisol responses from baseline to 4 h post-injection within the SL group were studied with Spearman correlations. A significant increase in the SL group was seen in all biomarkers 4 h post-injection compared to baseline and other time points (pairwise comparisons, p < 0.01 for all) and ketoprofen alleviated the LPS effect. We found a significant positive correlation between ADA and Hp within the SL group (r = 0.86, p < 0.05). The primary and novel findings of the present study are the response of ADA to LPS, its time course and alleviation by ketoprofen. Our results support the evidence that ADA and Hp can be used as inflammatory biomarkers in pigs. We suggest further studies to be conducted in commercial settings with larger sample sizes.
  • Lindström-Kippola, Nina (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    Tämä alkuperäistutkimuksen sisältävän lisensiaatin tutkielman tavoitteena on kerätä kuvaileva tieto siitä kuinka paljon ja minkälaisia löydöksiä emakoilla on lihantarkastuksessa yhdellä teurastamolla Suomessa. Kirjallisuuskatsauksessa käsitellään lihantarkastuksen lainsäädäntöä ja perusteita sekä emakoiden yleisimpiä poistosyitä ja yleisesti sikojen yleisimpiä lihantarkastuslöydöksiä. Tutkimusosan tarkoitus on selvittää emakoiden teuraslöydösten määrä prosentuaalisesti ja kilomääräisesti. Yhdeltä suomalaiselta sianlihaalan laitokselta saatiin vuoden 2010 emakoiden lihantarkastuslöydökset, jossa oli tuottaja- ja eläintasolle asti jäljitettävissä oleva numerokooditettu valikoimaton tiedosto emakoiden teuraslöydöksistä ja niiden seurauksena hylätyistä lihan kilomääristä. Vuonna 2010 kyseisessä teurastamossa teurastettiin yhteensä 17624 emakkoa, mikä vastasi n. 40 %:a Suomessa teurastetuista emakoista. Aineisto käsiteltiin Excel-taulukkolaskelmaohjelmalla käyttäen ohjelman Pivot-apuohjelmaa. Noin 70 %:lla vuoden aikana teurastetuista emakoista ei ollut teuraslöydöksiä, kun taas 5297 emakolle oli merkitty yksi tai useampi teuraslöydös. Yhteensä 85 %:lla oli havaittu vain yksi lihantarkastuslöydös. Eniten merkintöjä kerääntyi märkäpesäkkeistä, keuhkokalvojen tulehduksista, makuuhautumista ja teurasvirheistä. Seurantavuoden aikana teuraslöydöksiä kerääntyi keskimäärin 15 emakolta tuottajaa kohden. Lihaa hylättiin emakkoa kohden keskimäärin 26 kg ja tuottajaa kohden 382 kg. Märkäpesäkkeet aiheuttivat kolmanneksen (44000 kg) teuraslöydöksistä aiheutuvista hylätyistä kiloista. Keuhkokalvojen tulehduksia oli 17 %:lla ja makuuhautumia 9 %:lla teurastetuista emakoista. Vaikka keuhkokalvon tulehduksia esiintyi määrällisesti paljon ei niistä aiheutunut ruhohylkäyksiä. Vaikka teuraslöydöksistä aiheutuva tuotannollinen tappio tuottajaa kohden ei ole suuri, vaikuttavat ne eläinten hyvinvoinnin huonontumisen lisäksi tuotannon heikkenemiseen ja työnmäärän lisääntymiseen eläinten sairastuvuudesta johtuen.
  • Hämäläinen, Aurora (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    The traditional method of estimating inbreeding is based on pedigree information, which only considers the known common ancestors of the animals. In recent years, the animal breeding sector has introduced new genomic tools in breeding schemes. The aim of this study was to estimate and compare the level of inbreeding in Finnish Yorkshire and Finnish Landrace pigs using pedigree and genomic methods. Data consisted of pedigree and genotype information from both breeds. In pedigree data there were 503 315 Landrace and 549 296 Yorkshire animals after pruning for pedigree completeness and errors in the data. In the genotype data, there were 522 individuals of Landrace and 934 individuals of Yorkshire animals after pruning. Inbreeding coefficients (FPED) were estimated from pedigree data using RelaX2 program and for genomic data using PLINK by detecting runs of homozygosity (FROH). Percentage of homozygosity (FPH) was also studied from genomic data. Yearly rate of inbreeding based on pedigree raised steadily. Average inbreeding coefficients from year 2014 were 0.10 for Landrace and 0.15 for Yorkshire. The average inbreeding coefficient based on ROHs for animals born in year 2014 were 0.21 for Landrace and 0.25 for Yorkshire animals. Correlation between pedigree-based estimate and genomic-based FROH was found to be quite low for both breeds; 0.51 for Landrace and 0.58 for Yorkshire. The correlation between the two genomic based methods FROH and FPH was high, 0.86 for Landrace and 0.89 for Yorkshire. The level of inbreeding was found to be quite high in both breeds. The genomic-based estimates were higher overall than pedigree-based estimates, which indicates that pedigree data are missing some common ancestors. Based on the results, the level of inbreeding in Finnish pig breeds should be monitored to maintain sufficient genetic diversity in the populations.
  • Väärikkälä, Sofia; Koskela, Tarja; Hänninen, Laura; Nevas, Mari (2020)
    EU legislation requires the violations of animal welfare standards to be sanctioned. Our aim was to evaluate criminal sanctions concerning violations of cattle and pig welfare on Finnish farms. We analysed 196 court cases heard in Finnish district courts from 2011 to 2016. Almost all the cases (95%) concerned the violations of cattle welfare, of which 61% occurred on small farms. The lack of cleanliness and inadequate feeding and watering were the most common reported violations. The median time span from the known start date of the crime to the judgement was nearly two years. Of the cases, 96% resulted in conviction. The court did not perceive the violations as being highly blameworthy as a small fine and a short conditional imprisonment were the most often imposed sanctions. A ban on the keeping of animals was used as a precautionary measure in half of the cases. Veterinarians were shown to have an important role in the initiation of criminal procedures, providing evidence for the police and acting as witnesses. Therefore, it is crucial to achieve a well-functioning collaboration between veterinarians and the police and prosecutors. The expertise of these authorities on animal welfare legislation should also be emphasized to improve the efficacy of the criminal procedures.
  • Afrizal (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    Bacteria are dominant members of the human gut microbiota, defined as the complex communities of microorganisms in the intestine which play an important role in regulating the health of their host, including the development of colorectal cancer (CRC). CRC is the fourth leading cancer-related mortality worldwide. Animal models are very useful in CRC research, as they allow studying molecular mechanism underlying the disease. Due to closer similarity to human beings in terms of nutrition and gastrointestinal physiology, pig models are of great value in research when compared with murine models. However, our current knowledge of the pig gut microbiome is still limited and a large number of gut bacterial species are yet to be isolated and characterised. Here, we characterised bacteria isolated from the intestine of wildtype pigs and transgenic APC1311/+ siblings (APC pigs) that develop colonic adenomas. A total of 12 novel bacteria, including 1 member of a potentially novel family, were identified from 256 strains isolated using anaerobic culturing. In addition, five other bacteria with a standing name in the nomenclature but not yet included in the pig collection were added. A draft genome was generated for four of the novel bacteria and thereby the functional potential of strains and compared their similarity. In addition, the morphology, bile salt hydrolase (BSH), 7α-dehydroxylation, carbohydrate fermentation, prevalence and abundance of all strains were analysed. The draft genome analysis confirmed the novel species status of the four bacteria. Furthermore, it also revealed the presence of genes associated with BSH, antibiotic resistance, butyrate production and carbohydrate utilization. Only two of 12 tested bacteria were positive for BSH, while none of the two bacteria selected for fermentation experiments was positive for 7α-dehydroxylation. One isolate of the species Paraclostridium benzoelyticum was found to exhibit significantly higher tolerance to NaCl than the same species described in the literature. In terms of prevalence, almost all of the bacteria (16 of 17) seem to be rare in pig, even though they appeared to be more enriched in the pig intestine when compared with other host species. Interestingly, the majority of positive samples for the bacterium representing the potentially novel family originated from the intestine of elderly human individuals. Overall, we could show that a substantial number of novel bacteria can still be isolated by classical anaerobic culture techniques using multiple rich or selective media. Even though we were able to identify most of the isolated bacteria and performed several assays to describe their properties, additional phylogenetic and taxonomic tests and development of optimal media/conditions for the novel bacteria are required in order to gain a deeper understanding of the role of these bacteria in the intestinal microbial ecosystem.
  • Valros, Anna; Välimäki, Elina; Nordgren, Heli; Vugts, Johannes; Fabrega, Emma; Heinonen, Mari (2020)
    Tail biting lesions are a potential measure of on-farm animal welfare, as a large range of stressors increase the risk for tail biting outbreaks. Further, tail biting is a major challenge, as lesions due to tail biting decrease animal welfare and health, as well as production efficiency and carcass quality. The aim of this study was to suggest a tail scoring system for use at slaughterhouses processing undocked pigs, and to link tail lesion scores to meat inspection data. A further aim was to suggest a definition for an intact enough tail. To validate the suggested scoring system we assessed tails before and after scalding and compared results to pathological examinations. In total, 14,433 tails were scored, and 117 tails were collected for pathological examination. After scalding, 49.2% of all tails were scored as fully intact. Of tails with lesions 2.5% were scored as having major acute wounds (>2 cm), while 11.6% had minor acute wounds (
  • Keltto, Katri (Helsingfors universitet, 2011)
    Ketoprofen is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) widely used for the treatment of pain in sheep and swine. Information of correct ketoprofen doses in different animal species is limited. The correct dose cannot be reliably extrapolated based on other species or human. The problem in cases of suspected overdose is knowing whether the given dose was toxic. The objective of the study with sheep was to figure out if the kinetics of ketoprofen is altered by a tenfold overdose, study the effect of the overdose to kidneys and find out a way to diagnose overdose by a simple urine test. The objective of the study with swine was to figure out the bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of ketoprofen after oral, intramuscular and intravenous administration. The most important variables were AUC0-_, Cmax and Tmax. Bioavailability was calculated based on intravascular administration. 30 mg/kg ketoprofen was administered intravenously to six sheep. The concentration of ketoprofen in sheep plasma was followed for 24 hours. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated afterwards. Blood and urine samples were analysed to detect enzyme markers indicating possible renal failure. The sheep were finished off 24 hours after the administration and the possible damage to kidneys was evaluated from histological samples. Ketoprofen was also administered to eight swine. The doses were 3 mg/kg of oral, intramuscular and intravascular, and 6 mg/kg of oral ketoprofen. The study was performed as a randomized, cross-over study. The concentration of ketoprofen in swine plasma was followed for 48 hours after administration. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated and bioequivalence evaluated afterwards. The in vivo -studies of both of the studies as well as the histological study of the kidneys, and the urine and blood analysis except for the analysis of ketoprofen concentration, were carried out by the researchers of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine. Plasma ketoprofen concentrations were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Drug concentration and pharmacokinetic analysis were carried out in the Faculty of Pharmacy. The tenfold dose of ketoprofen was toxic in sheep. Serum concentrations of urea and creatinine increased. Histological samples revealed acute tubular damage. Many urine enzyme concentrations increased. The rise of urine lactate dehydrogenase (LD) concentration was most significant and earliest. LD appears to be a potential marker of a toxic ketoprofen dose. Compared with the therapeutic dose, overdose did not affect ketoprofen elimination rate from plasma, so the kinetics of ketoprofen was not altered. AUC- and Cmax -values were over tenfold compared to the therapeutic dose, so the values did not rise linearly as the dose reached a toxic level. Bioequivalence of ketoprofen in swine was not observed between different routes of administration. The bioavailability was excellent in all routes of administration. Tmax was slightly over one hour after administration. Cmax and AUC were 5,1 mg/l and 32 mg l-1 h after oral 3 mg/kg dose and 7,6 mg/l and 37 mg l-1 h after intramuscular dose. The increases in AUC and Cmax were linear between the different dosages of oral ketoprofen. The difference of the elimination rates between oral and intravascular administration was statistically significant. Ketoprofen distribution volume and clearance did not differ significantly between different routes of administration.
  • Hasan, S.; Saha, S.; Junnikkala, S.; Orro, T.; Peltoniemi, O.; Oliviero, C. (2019)
    Resin acid-enriched composition (RAC) mainly containing tall oil fatty acid with an active component of resin acid (RA) can improve the microbial population in the digestive system, change the microbial fermentation, and improve the feed conversion ratio. We investigated the effects of dietary supplementation of RAC on sow colostrum yield (CY), colostrum composition and gut microbiota. Tall oil fatty acid and RA are commonly termed RAC and CLA, pinolenic, abietic, dehydrobiotic acids are characteristic components of RAC. The experiment was conducted in three trials in three respective herds. Sows were fed with a control diet and the same diet supplemented with 5 g RAC/day per sow during the last week of gestation. The 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing technique was used to assess sows' faecal microbiota populations at farrowing. Colostrum nutritional composition, acute phase proteins (APPs) and immunoglobulin (Ig) content were also assessed. Individual piglets were weighed at birth and 24 h after the birth of first piglets in order to calculate CY and later at 3 to 4 weeks to calculate average daily gain. The RAC-fed sows had significantly higher IgG levels (P0.05), but those fed RAC had higher levels of colostrum serum amyloid A. Colostrum yield was significantly higher in RAC-fed sows in herds 2 and 3 with heavier piglets between 3 and 4 weeks of age (P0.05). Resin acid-enriched composition supplementation significantly increased some beneficial and fermentative bacteria (Romboutsia and Clostridium sensu stricto) than the control diet (P
  • Hong, Jinsu; Han, Taehee; Kim, Yoo Yong (2020)
    Simple Summary Tenebrio molitor (T. molitor) larvae, known as mealworm, have been considered a good protein source for monogastric animals. They have a high quantity and quality of protein content and amino acid profile. The inclusion of T. molitor larvae in broiler diets improved the growth performance without having negative effects on carcass traits and blood profiles in broiler chickens, or had no influence on the growth performance and carcass yield of broiler chickens. The supplementation of T. molitor larvae improved the growth performance and protein utilization of weaning pigs. Furthermore, the replacement of fishmeal with T. molitor larvae resulted in no difference in the growth performance and nutrient digestibility of weaning pigs. However, there are some challenges regarding biosafety, consumer's acceptance, and price for the use of T. moiltor larvae in animal feed. Consequently, T. molitor larvae could be used as an alternative or sustainable protein source in monogastric animal feed. Edible insects have been used as an alternative protein source for food and animal feed, and the market size for edible insects has increased. Tenebrio molitor larvae, also known as mealworm and yellow mealworm, are considered a good protein source with nutritional value, digestibility, flavor, and a functional ability. Additionally, they are easy to breed and feed for having a stable protein content, regardless of their diets. Therefore, T. molitor larvae have been produced industrially as feed for pets, zoo animals, and even for production animals. To maintain the nutrient composition and safety of T. molitor larvae, slaughtering (heating or freezing) and post-slaughtering (drying and grinding) procedures should be improved for animal feed. T. molitor larvae are also processed with defatting or hydrolysis before grinding. They have a high quality and quantity of protein and amino acid profile, so are considered a highly sustainable protein source for replacing soybean meal or fishmeal. T. molitor has a chitin in its cuticle, which is an indigestible fiber with positive effects on the immune system. In studies of poultry, the supplementation of T. molitor larvae improved the growth performance of broiler chickens, without having negative effects on carcass traits, whereas some studies have reported that there were no significant differences in the growth performance and carcass yield of broiler chickens. In studies of swine, the supplementation of T. molitor larvae improved the growth performance and protein utilization of weaning pigs. Furthermore, 10% of T. molitor larvae showed greater amino acid digestibility than conventional animal proteins in growing pigs. However, there are some challenges regarding the biosafety, consumer's acceptance, and price for the use of T. moiltor larvae in animal feed. Consequently, T. molitor larvae could be used as an alternative or sustainable protein source in monogastric animal feed with a consideration of the nutritional values, biosafety, consumer's acceptance, and market price of T. molitor larvae products.
  • Pakkanen, Jussi (Helsingfors universitet, 2009)
    Sian rehut sisältävät maitohappoa ja haihtuvia rasvahappoja (VFA). Lisäksi eri osissa ruoansulatuskanavaa näitä orgaanisia happoja syntyy rehun hiilihydraattien maitohappokäymisen ja muun mikrobifermentaation vuoksi. Ohut- ja paksusuolen pH on yli 6, jolloin maitohappo ja haihtuvat rasvahapot esiintyvät lähes täysin dissosioituneena ja niiden passiivinen diffuusio solukalvojen läpi on siksi erittäin vähäistä. Anionimuotoisia happoja imeytyy epiteelien läpi kuitenkin erityisten monokarboksylaattikuljettajien (MCT) avulla. Monokarboksylaattikuljettajat ovat solukalvoilla sijaitsevia proteiineja, joista tunnetaan nykyään 14 erilaista isoformia. MCT kuljettaa dissosioituneen happomolekyylin lisäksi protonin samaan suuntaan. Monokarboksylaattikuljettajat säätelevät solunsisäistä pH:ta sekä happoanionien konsentraatiota ja niiden ilmeneminen on kudos- ja eläinlajikohtaista. Monokarboksylaattikuljettajilla on kaitsijaproteiineja, joilla on ratkaiseva merkitys kuljettajien toiminnalle. Aiemmin sian ohutsuolesta on löydetty MCT1 -proteiini. Tämän tutkimuksen kokeellisen osan tarkoituksena oli määrittää isoformien MCT1 ja MCT4 ilmentyminen eri osissa sian mahaa ja ohutsuolta. Tämä on ensimmäinen kerta, kun sian mahalaukusta on määritetty MCT-proteiineja ja sian ohutsuolesta on mitattu MCT-proteiineja systemaattisesti koko ohutsuolen alueelta. Tutkimuksessa oli mukana 8 sikaa, joiden kudosnäytteet kerättiin teurastuksen jälkeen. MCT4:n suhteellinen määrä ei eronnut tilastollisesti mahan ja eri ohutsuolen osien välillä. Mahassa MCT1:n määrä oli vähäinen. Mahan hapan ympäristö luo edellytykset maitohapon ja haihtuvien rasvahappojen passiiviselle imeytymiselle dissosioitumattomassa muodossaan. Ohutsuolessa MCT1:n suhteellinen määrä oli suurempi ohutsuolen alkuosassa kuin mahassa (P < 0,01) tai ohutsuolen loppuosassa (P < 0,001). Ohutsuolessa tarvitaan kuljettajaproteiineja maitohapon tehokkaan imeytymisen varmistamiseksi.
  • Tuomala, Henni; Verkola, Marie; Meller, Anna; Van der Auwera, Jasper; Patpatia, Sheetal; Järvinen, Asko; Skurnik, Mikael; Heikinheimo, Annamari; Kiljunen, Saija (2021)
    The increase of livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) causes a threat to human health. LA-MRSA can be transmitted from animals to animal caretakers, which may further spread MRSA to communities and health care facilities. The objective of this work was to study the efficacy of phage treatment in the eradication of LA-MRSA from healthy carrier pigs. A total of 19 MRSA -positive weanling pigs were assigned to a test (n = 10) and a control group (n = 9). A phage cocktail containing three Staphylococcus phages, or a control buffer was administered to the nares and skin of the pigs three times every two days, after which the phage and MRSA levels in nasal and skin swab samples were monitored for a three-week period. The sensitivity of the strains isolated during the follow-up period to the phage cocktail and each phage individually was analyzed and the pig sera were tested for antibodies against the phages used in the cocktail. The phage treatment did not cause any side effects to the pigs. Phages were found in the skin and nasal samples on the days following the phage applications, but there was no reduction in the MRSA levels in the sampled animals. Phage-resistant strains or phage-specific antibodies were not detected during the experiment. The MRSA load in these healthy carrier animals was only 10–100 CFU/swab or nasal sample, which was likely below the replication threshold of phages. The effectiveness of phage treatment to eradicate MRSA from the pigs could thus not be (reliably) determined.
  • Ylä-Ajos, Maria; Lindahl, Gunilla; Young, Jette F.; Theil, Peter K.; Puolanne, Eero; Enfält, Ann-Charlotte; Andersen, Henrik J.; Oksbjerg, Niels (Elsevier, 2007)
    Glycogen debranching enzyme (GDE) is together with glycogen phosphorylase responsible for the degradation of glycogen. The present study compares the post-mortem activity of GDE and breakdown of the glycogen pools in M. longissimus dorsi of RN- carrier pigs and in wild type animals. The activity of GDE (n=14) and pH (n=20) was measured 0.5, 3, 5, 24 and 48 h post-mortem. The change in pro-glycogen and in macro-glycogen content (n=20) was followed until 216 h post-mortem and the transcription level of GDE, glycogenin and glycogen synthase m-RNA (n=19) were measured 0.5 h post-mortem. Both the activity of GDE and the transcription level of GDE were found to be similar in RN- carriers and wild type animals shortly after slaughter. However, the activity declined faster in wild type animals compared with RN- carriers with increasing time post-mortem. The contents of both pro-glycogen and macro-glycogen were higher in RN- carriers compared with wild type animals, and further, the proportion of macro-glycogen was higher in RN- carriers compared with wild type animals. During the post-mortem period, only degradation of pro-glycogen was observed in both genotypes. The decrease in pH was faster and the ultimate pH lower in RN- carriers than in wild type animals. It was suggested that the higher GDE activity in the late phase of the post-mortem period in muscles from RN- carriers renders the extended pH decrease in these muscles.
  • Valros, Anna; Barber, Claire (2019)
    Simple Summary Tail biting is a serious behavioural problem in modern pig production which causes both animal welfare challenges and economic losses. The aim of this study was to collect information on the perceptions of farmers on how to best prevent tail biting, and on their attitudes towards tail biting and docking. Further, the aim was to investigate if perceptions are influenced by the specific system of farming, with a focus on different levels of bedding use and different tail docking practices. To achieve the goal, pig producers in the UK were surveyed. The results show that producers rank the importance of preventive measures differently to scientists and other experts. This calls for consideration when communicating with producers, and for further consideration of producer knowledge, which might be based on a more holistic view than that of researchers. The study also shows that the perception of how to best prevent and intervene to avoid tail biting differs between farms of different types, and that these perceptions might be influenced by the farmers' own experiences, which again, might differ between countries and farming systems. Tail biting causes widespread problems both for animal welfare and in the form of economic losses in pig production. This study was performed to better understand the perceptions of farmers on how to best prevent tail biting, and if perceptions are influenced by the specific system of farming, with a focus on different levels of bedding use and docking different proportions of the tail of their pigs. Pig producers in the UK were surveyed on their perceptions of the efficacy of preventive measures and attitudes towards tail biting and docking. In total, 204 responses were included. The results show that producers rank the importance of preventive measures differently to scientists and other experts. This calls for consideration when communicating with producers; and for better integration of knowledge based on practical experiences with scientific results. The study also shows that the perception of how to best avoid tail biting differs between farms of different types, and that these perceptions might be influenced by the farmers ' own experiences-one example being that farms currently using plentiful amounts of bedding also value this more highly as a way to avoid tail biting than those that do not.
  • Koskinen, Juho; Ortiz Martinez, Pilar; Keto-Timonen, Riikka; Joutsen, Suvi; Fredriksson-Ahomaa, Maria; Korkeala, Hannu (2022)
    Yersinia enterocolitica is a psychrotrophic zoonotic foodborne pathogen. Pigs are considered the main reservoir of Y. enterocolitica 4/O:3, which is the most commonly isolated bioserotype in many European countries. Consuming pork contaminated with Y. enterocolitica can be a health threat, and antimicrobial-resistant strains may complicate the treatment of the most severe forms of yersiniosis. We analyzed the antimicrobial resistance of 1,016 pathogenic porcine Y. enterocolitica 4/O:3 strains originating from Belgium, Estonia, Finland, Germany, Italy, Latvia, Russia, Spain, and the United Kingdom. Based on available reports, we also compared antimicrobial sales for food production animals in these countries, excluding Russia. Antimicrobial resistance profiles were determined using a broth microdilution method with VetMIC plates for 13 antimicrobial agents: ampicillin, cefotaxime, ceftiofur (CTF), chloramphenicol (CHL), ciprofloxacin, florfenicol, gentamicin, kanamycin, nalidixic acid (NAL), streptomycin (STR), sulfamethoxazole (SME), tetracycline (TET), and trimethoprim (TMP). The antimicrobial resistance of Y. enterocolitica 4/O:3 strains varied widely between the countries. Strains resistant to antimicrobial agents other than ampicillin were rare in Estonia, Finland, Latvia, and Russia, with prevalence of 0.7, 0.4, 0, and 8.3%, respectively. The highest prevalence of antimicrobial resistance was found in Spanish and Italian strains, with 98 and 61% of the strains being resistant to at least two antimicrobial agents, respectively. Resistance to at least four antimicrobial agents was found in 34% of Spanish, 19% of Italian, and 7.1% of English strains. Antimicrobial resistance was more common in countries where the total sales of antimicrobials for food production animals are high and orally administered medications are common. Our results indicate that antimicrobials should be used responsibly to treat infections, and parenteral medications should be preferred to orally administered mass medications.
  • Ketonen, Krista (Helsingfors universitet, 2014)
    Variation of the protein and amino acid content of barley, wheat and oats were studied. Diets based on grain samples of different protein content were optimized for pigs and poultry.The study went on to optimize diets for pigs and poultry with grains of different protein contents. The amino acid and raw protein analysis was undertaken on 38 grain samples. Correlations were calculated between different variables in grain samples and linear regression analysis was conducted between the protein and amino acid composition. The best estimate for amino acid concentrations of cereals was the protein content. The relative content of amino acids decreases as protein content increases and especially so in barley and wheat. Most reliable regression equations between amino acid and protein content were made for barley and wheat samples. For oat reliable regression equations could not be made. Oats also differed by other features from barley and wheat as it correlated with different variables compared to barley and wheat. Amount of needed protein concentrate levels decreased when barley and wheat protein and amino acid contents were considered in optimization. Protein concentrate levels did not decrease when used oat sample with highest protein content.
  • Rönnqvist, Maria; Välttilä, Ville; Heinola, Katriina; Ranta, Jukka; Niemi, Jarkko; Tuominen, Pirkko (Evira, 2018)
    Evira Research Reports 3/2018
    Food items of animal origin, such as pork products, have been suggested as the main source of zoonotic salmonella infections in Europe. Contaminated feed can potentially introduce the pathogen into the animal-derived food chains. The prevalence of salmonella in different feeds for Finnish pigs was estimated as below 2% (medians) and on average in pigs 0.25% (mean). Feed was estimated on average as the cause of 35% of salmonella infections in fattening pigs and 55% in sows. Around 5% of the 300–400 domestic human salmonella infections reported per year were estimated as attributable to pig feeds. Year 2013 was employed as a reference. The present costs for the prevention of salmonella contamination in pig feeds were estimated at 1.8–3.0 million euros per year for the year 2013. The costs due to feed contamination, measures due to detected contamination and the resulting salmonella infections in pigs and humans were estimated at €2.4 (0.3–6.1) million annually. According to a scenario, if salmonella prevalence in Finnish pig feed would be similar to that acquired using data from other EU counties, the prevalence in fattening pigs and people could increase by 55-fold on average. If specific measures to eliminate salmonella from feed were not carried out, the costs due to preventive actions against salmonella were at least €1.1–1.8 million per year. Additionally, the costs due to the eradication of feedborne salmonella on pig farms, consequential measures at slaughterhouses, and the health costs to humans could rise to approximately €33 million per year. According to the results, the present feed salmonella control, including the preventive