Browsing by Subject "pitoisuus"

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  • Mattila, Tuomas J.; Ezzati, Golnaz (Academic Press., 2022)
    Journal of Environmental Management
    Agricultural soils have accumulated considerable phosphorus (P) reserves along the transport pathways within land-water continuum. Where P concentrations are excessive compared to the soil P sorption capacity, dissolved soluble P can leach to waterbodies. A phosphorus saturation ratio (PSR = P/(Fe + Al)) can be used to classify high and low risk soils based on a commonly applied Mehlich-3 soil test. PSR has been used for acid mineral soils, but in this study it was applied to sediments and drainage ditch bankside samples. Previous published data was converted to PSR and compared to P availability measurements. The results confirmed earlier findings, that a PSR threshold of 0.1 can delineate high and low P risk sites. By quantifying the amount of P in excess to the threshold, legacy P hotspots could be located in the network which would act as an additional source of P inputs to waters. In the study site, two soils contained over 80% of the excess legacy P, presenting a localized long-term risk to water quality. The findings support using the cost effective Mehlich-3 extraction to identify hotspots with most susceptible soil-P to losses and quantify the amount of potentially leachable legacy P. Highlights • Agricultural ditches accumulate legacy P and present a risk for water quality. • Mehlich-3 soil test can identify P saturation and total legacy P amount. • Use of a common soil test allows broad scale mapping of high P risk hotspots.
  • Lappalainen, Kalle Matti; Niemi, Jorma; Kinnunen, Kari (Vesihallitus. National Board of Waters, 1979)
    Vesientutkimuslaitoksen julkaisuja 34, 60-67
    Fosforimalli ja sen soveltaminen Päijänteeseen.
  • Kylä-Harakka, Tellervo (Vesihallitus. National Board of Waters, 1979)
    Vesientutkimuslaitoksen julkaisuja 34, 52-59
    Streeter-Phelps-mallin soveltaminen Äänekosken vesireitille.
  • Skarbøvik, Eva; Aroviita, Jukka; Fölster, Jens; Solheim, Anne Lyche; Kyllmar, Katarina; Rankinen, Katri; Kronvang, Brian (Springer Nature, 2020)
    Ambio
    Reference conditions of water bodies are defined as the natural or minimal anthropogenically disturbed state. We compared the methods for determining total phosphorus and total nitrogen concentrations in rivers in Finland, Norway and Sweden as well as the established reference conditions and evaluated the possibility for transfer and harmonisation of methods. We found that both methods and values differed, especially for lowland rivers with a high proportion of agriculture in the catchment. Since Denmark has not yet set reference conditions for rivers, two of the Nordic methods were tested for Danish conditions. We conclude that some of the established methods are promising but that further development is required. We moreover argue that harmonisation of reference conditions is needed to obtain common benchmarks for assessing the impacts of current and future land use changes on water quality.
  • Cano Bernal, José Enrique; Rankinen, Katri; Thielking, Sophia (Academic Press., 2022)
    Journal of Environmental Management
    The majority of the carbon worldwide is in soil. In a river catchment, the tight relationship between soil, water and climate makes carbon likely to be eroded and transported from the soil to the rivers. There are multiple variables which can trigger and accelerate the process. In order to assess the importance of the factors involved, and their interactions resulting in the changes in the carbon cycle within catchments, we have studied the catchments of 26 Finnish rivers from 2000 to 2019. These catchments are distributed all over Finland, but we have grouped them into three categories: southern, peatland and northern. We have run a boosted regression tree (BRT) analysis on chemical, physical, climatic and anthropogenic factors to determine their influence on the variations of total organic carbon (TOC) concentration. TOC concentration has decreased in Finland between 2000 and 2019 by 0.91 mg/l, driven principally by forest ditching and % old forest in the catchment. Old forest is especially dominant in the northern catchments with an influence on TOC of 40.5%. In southern and peatland catchments, average precipitation is an important factor to explain the changes in TOC whilst in northern catchments, organic fields have more influence.
  • Isotalo, Ilkka (Vesihallitus, 1979)
    Vesientutkimuslaitoksen julkaisuja 30, 3-20
    Tiivistelmä: Metallien ja fluorin pitoisuuksista ja määristä Kokemäenjoessa vuosina 1975—1977
  • Verta, Matti; Miettinen, Veijo; Erkomaa, Kirsti (Vesihallitus. National Board of Waters, 1979)
    Vesientutkimuslaitoksen julkaisuja 34, 108-116
    Kloorattujen hiilivetyjen pitoisuuksista Turun saariston hauissa vuosina 1970—1978.
  • Laaksonen, Reino; Malin, Väinö (Vesihallitus. National Board of Waters, 1982)
    Vesientutkimuslaitoksen julkaisuja 49, 54-57
    Suomen järvien kriittisistä happipitoisuuksista
  • Kauppi, Lea (Vesihallitus, 1979)
    Vesientutkimuslaitoksen julkaisuja 30, 21-41
    Tiivistelmä: Valuma-alueen vaikutus fosforin ja typen hajakuormitukseen.
  • Rousi, Heta; Kankaanpää, Harri (Finlands miljöcentral, 2013)
    Miljöförvaltningens anvisningar 6sv/2012
    Olja som hamnat i havet till följd av oljeskador orsakar direkta och långvariga ändringar hos organismer och i den abiotiska miljön. Denna publikation är den första nationella, gemensamma handlingsplanen för situationer med omfattande oljeföroreningar. I rapporten har en arbetsgrupp bestående av forskare, experter och myndigheter samlat de väsentliga kunskaperna från idag om oljans marinekologiska konsekvenser samt om oljeutredningar och -provtagningar. Arbetsgruppen delar tydligt upp ansvarsområdena inom utredningens verksamhetskedja. Föremålet för undersökningen är mineraloljornas konsekvenser.I samband med oljeskador har man upptäckt att oljeföreningarna påverkar biota utanför det synligt förorenade området. Därför innehåller denna handlingsplan praktiska anvisningar om utredningen av oljans ekologiska konsekvenser i oljeskadesituationer oavsett omfattning och utanför oljeskadans huvudsakliga verkningsområde. Utöver utredningarna i det akuta stadiet är det nödvändigt att följa upp oljans långsiktiga effekter och halter.Östersjön är en mycket känslig marin region. Antalet fartygsoljeskador i området har minskat de senaste årtiondena bland annat tack vare åtstramade krav på fartygens skick, hårdare bestraffningar för utsläpp, övervakning och fartygstrafikens routingsystem. Samtidigt har dock fartygstrafiken ökat kraftigt. Antalet oljetransporter i Finska viken nästan tiodubblades mellan 1995 och 2010, och ökningen förväntas fortgå när Ryssland öppnar nya oljeterminaler och utökar kapaciteten i sina befintliga terminaler. Betydande mängder olja kan också rinna ut i havet från ett objekt vid kusten, till exempel en industrianläggning.Denna handlingsplan är avsedd som en guide i oljeskadesituationer för myndigheter som ansvarar för utredningen av oljans marinekologiska konsekvenser i Finland. Publikationen består av tre delar: i delen med bakgrundsinformation (del A) granskas följderna av oljeolyckor i den marina naturen och de allmänna förfaranden som krävs enligt konsekvensutredningen, i verksamhetsdelen (del B) beskrivs steg för steg de åtgärder som vidtas i en oljeskadesituation och den tredje delen (del C) tar upp behoven av ytterligare utredningar gällande bakgrundshalterna av olja i det marina ekosystemet. Del B är enkel att använda som en ren instruktion.
  • Hallikainen, Anja; Rautala, Taneli; Karlström, Ulla; Kostamo, Pirkko; Koivisto, Pertti; Pohjanvirta, Raimo; Hietaniemi, Veli; Rajakangas, Liisa; Tuomaala, Vesa; Kankaanpää, Harri; Verta, Matti; Kostiainen, Eila; Kurttio, Päivi; Turtiainen, Tuukka; Kiviranta, Hannu; Komulainen, Hannu; Rantakokko, Panu; Viluksela, Matti; Niemi, Esko; Nuotio, Kirsti; Siivinen, Kalevi (Evira, 2009)
    13/2009
    The chemical contaminants of foodstuffs and household water are now described in a revised form. The report addresses 40 contaminants or groups of contaminants and, at the same time, provides an overview of the whole problematic. All the chemical compounds selected for the report have in the recent years been included at both national and EU level in deliberations and measures pertaining to the risk management of foodstuffs and/of household water. An abundance of information is available on the majority of chemical hazards; occurrence in foodstuffs, research and intake calculations, health effects and needs related to control and finally a comprehensive literary review. A total of 21 Finnish experts in contaminants from various sector research institutes were invited to take part in the preparation and review of the content of this report. A large number of other experts have also provided comments on the report. The experts represent different administrative sectors and some of the topics and of the associated contaminants, such as the contaminants of household water, are also administratively managed by other expert institutes, which are not organised under the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry. This report is designed to an as wide audience as possible, taking into account authorities and consumers as well as educational and research institutes. The report has been drawn up in an easy-to-use form to be as clear and concise in words as possible with a multitude of tables and figures. It is designed to provide easy reference to the properties of various contaminants for comparison purposes, if required. It contains the most recent research results and international risk assessments and lists contaminant level data on particularly domestic foodstuffs. The estimated contaminant intakes can be compared with the tolerable intake levels set for contaminants or different contaminants can be compared with each other in terms of these magnitudes that express the safety of the foodstuff. Control authorities can quickly find information about regulations and recommended control action. The suggestions related to control and other risk management efforts have been drawn up in cooperation with Evira’s experts in charge of control.
  • Poikane, Sandra; Kelly, Martyn G.; Várbíró, Gábor; Borics, Gábor; Erős, Tibor; Hellsten, Seppo; Kolada, Agnieszka; Lukács, Balázs András; Lyche Solheim, Anne; Pahissa López, José; Willby, Nigel J.; Wolfram, Georg; Phillips, Geoff (Elsevier BV, 2022)
    Science of The Total Environment
    Nutrient targets based on pressure-response models are essential for defining ambitions and managing eutrophication. However, the scale of biogeographical variation in these pressure-response relationships is poorly understood, which may hinder eutrophication management in regions where lake ecology is less intensively studied. In this study, we derive ecology-based nutrient targets for five major ecoregions of Europe: Northern, Central-Baltic, Alpine, Mediterranean and Eastern Continental. As a first step, we developed regressions between nutrient concentrations and ecological quality ratios (EQR) based on phytoplankton and macrophyte communities. Significant relationships were established for 13 major lake types; in most cases, these relationships were stronger for phosphorus than for nitrogen, and stronger for phytoplankton than for macrophytes. Using these regressions, we estimated the total phosphorus (TP) and total nitrogen (TN) concentrations at which lakes of different types are likely to achieve good ecological status. However, in the very shallow lakes of the Eastern Continental region, relations between nutrient and biological communities were weak or non-significant. This can be attributed to high nutrient concentrations (in the asymptotic zone of phosphorus-phytoplankton models) suggesting other factors (light, grazing) limit primary production. However, we also show that fish stocking is a major pressure on Eastern Continental lakes, negatively affecting ecological status: lakes with low fish stocking show low chlorophyll-a concentrations and good ecological status despite high nutrient levels, while the lakes with high fish stocking show high chlorophyll-a and low ecological status. This study highlights the need to better understand lakes in biogeographic regions that have been, for historical reasons, less studied. This, in turn, helps reveal factors that challenge the dominant paradigms of lake assessment and management.
  • Schuster, Romina; Strehse, Jennifer S.; Ahvo, Aino; Turja, Raisa; Maser, Edmund; Bickmeyer, Ulf; Lehtonen, Kari K.; Brenner, Matthias (Elsevier, 2021)
    Marine Environmental Research 167 (2021), 105264
    Baltic mussels (Mytilus spp.) were exposed to the explosive trinitrotoluene (TNT) for 96 h (0.31–10.0 mg/L) and 21 d (0.31–2.5 mg/L). Bioaccumulation of TNT and its degradation products (2- and 4-ADNT) as well as biological effects ranging from the gene and cellular levels to behaviour were investigated. Although no mortality occurred in the concentration range tested, uptake and metabolism of TNT and responses in antioxidant enzymes and histochemical biomarkers were observed already at the lowest concentrations. The characteristic shell closure behaviour of bivalves at trigger concentrations led to complex exposure patterns and non-linear responses to the exposure concentrations. Conclusively, exposure to TNT exerts biomarker reponses in mussels already at 0.31 mg/L while effects are recorded also after a prolonged exposure although no mortality occurs. Finally, more attention should be paid on shell closure of bivalves in exposure studies since it plays a marked role in definining toxicity threshold levels.
  • Kettunen, Ilpo (Vesihallitus. National Board of Waters, 1979)
    Vesientutkimuslaitoksen julkaisuja 34, 47-51
    Veden laadun horisontaaliset erot jätevesien pilaamalla vesialueella Saimaalla.
  • Soveri, Jouko; Soveri, Marja-Riitta (Vesihallitus, 1975)
    Vesihallitus. Tiedotus 95
    Engl. summary: On the influence of air pollution on soil and groundwater in the Tampere and Kuusankoski regions
  • Braaten, Hans Fredrik Veiteberg; Akerblom, Staffan; Kahilainen, Kimmo K.; Rask, Martti; Vuorenmaa, Jussi; Mannio, Jaakko; Malinen, Tommi; Lydersen, Espen; Poste, Amanda E.; Amundsen, Per-Arne; Kashulin, Nicholas; Kashulina, Tatiana; Terentyev, Petr; Christensen, Guttorm; de Wit, Heleen A. (American Chemical Society, 2019)
    Environmental Science & Technology 2019 53 (4), 1834-1843
    Temporally (1965–2015) and spatially (55°–70°N) extensive records of total mercury (Hg) in freshwater fish showed consistent declines in boreal and subarctic Fennoscandia. The database contains 54 560 fish entries (n: pike > perch ≫ brown trout > roach ≈ Arctic charr) from 3132 lakes across Sweden, Finland, Norway, and Russian Murmansk area. 74% of the lakes did not meet the 0.5 ppm limit to protect human health. However, after 2000 only 25% of the lakes exceeded this level, indicating improved environmental status. In lakes where local pollution sources were identified, pike and perch Hg concentrations were significantly higher between 1965 and 1990 compared to values after 1995, likely an effect of implemented reduction measures. In lakes where Hg originated from long-range transboundary air pollution (LRTAP), consistent Hg declines (3–7‰ per year) were found for perch and pike in both boreal and subarctic Fennoscandia, suggesting common environmental controls. Hg in perch and pike in LRTAP lakes showed minimal declines with latitude, suggesting that drivers affected by temperature, such as growth dilution, counteracted Hg loading and food web exposure. We recommend that future fish Hg monitoring sampling design should include repeated sampling and collection of pollution history, water chemistry, fish age, and stable isotopes to enable evaluation of emission reduction policies.
  • Rousi, Heta; Kankaanpää, Harri (Suomen ympäristökeskus, 8.1.)
    Ympäristöhallinnon ohjeita 6/2012
    Öljyvahinkojen seurauksena mereen päässyt öljy aiheuttaa eliöissä ja elottomassa ympäristössä välittömiä ja pitkäaikaisia muutoksia. Tämä julkaisu on ensimmäinen kansallinen, yhtenäinen toimintasuunnitelma laajamittaisia öljyvahinkotilanteita varten. Raportissa tutkijoista, asiantuntijoista ja viranomaisista koostuva työryhmä on koonnut yhteen olennaisen nykytiedon öljyn meriekologisista vaikutuksista, tutkimuksesta ja näytteenotosta sekä jakaa selkeästi vastuualueet tutkimuksen toimintaketjussa. Tarkastelun kohteena ovat mineraaliöljyjen aiheuttamat vaikutukset.Öljyvahinkojen yhteydessä on havaittu, että öljy-yhdisteiden vaikutukset eliöstöön ulottuvat näkyvästi saastuneen alueen ulkopuolelle ja siksi tämä toimintasuunnitelma antaa ohjeet öljyn ekologisten vaikutusten tutkimukseen käytännössä kaiken suuruisissa öljyvahinkotilanteissa ja öljyvahingon päävaikutusalueen ulkopuolella. Akuuttivaiheen tutkimuksien lisäksi öljyn pitkäaikaisten vaikutusten ja pitoisuuksien seuranta on tarpeellista.Itämeri on erittäin herkkä merialue. Alusöljyvahinkojen määrä on alueella pienentynyt viime vuosikymmenten aikana muun muassa tiukentuneista alusten kuntovaatimuksista, koventuneista päästörangaistuksista, valvonnasta ja alusliikenteen reititysjärjestelmistä johtuen, samalla kun alusliikenteen määrä on kuitenkin lisääntynyt voimakkaasti. Suomenlahden öljykuljetusmäärä kasvoi vuosien 1995 ja 2010 välisenä aikana lähes kymmenkertaiseksi ja kasvun odotetaan jatkuvan yhä, kun Venäjä avaa uusia öljyterminaaleja ja kasvattaa olemassa olevien terminaaliensa kapasiteettia. Mereen saattaa joutua huomattaviakin määriä öljyä myös rannikolla sijaitsevasta kohteesta, kuten teollisuuslaitoksesta.Tämä toimintasuunnitelma on tarkoitettu oppaaksi öljyvahinkotilanteeseen niille viranomaisille, jotka vastaavat öljyn meriekologisten vaikutusten tutkimisesta Suomessa. Julkaisu jakautuu kolmeen osioon: taustatietoja sisältävässä osassa (osa A) tarkastellaan öljyvahingon seurauksia meriluonnossa ja vaikutusselvityksen vaatimia menettelyitä yleisellä tasolla, toimintaosiossa (osa B) kuvataan vaihe vaiheelta ne toimenpiteet, jotka käynnistetään öljyvahinkotilanteessa ja kolmannessa osiossa (osa C) tuodaan esiin tarpeet lisäselvityksistä koskien meriekosysteemissä olevan öljyn taustapitoisuuksia. Teoksen B-osaa voidaan käyttää yksinkertaisesti pelkkänä toimintaohjeena.
  • Kylä-Harakka, Tellervo (Vesihallitus, 1979)
    Vesihallitus. Tiedotus 169
  • Virtanen, Johanna (University of Helsinki, 1995)