Browsing by Subject "plantation"

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  • Hirvonen, Elina (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    The main aim of this thesis was to study the ecosystem services provided by large-scale industrial eucalypt plantations of UPM in Paysandú region, Uruguay. In the landscape, natural pastures and forests are combined with rows of planted trees. The second aim was to study how various stakeholder groups use ecosystem services from the plantation landscape, and to what extent the rights and expectations related to their use vary among these groups. The third aim was to study the best ways to combine the production of ecosystem services with large-scale industrial tree plantations in the study area. The data used in this study consisted of 55 semi-structured interviews, which were recorded in Uruguay during summer of 2015. Among the persons interviewed, 15 people were classified as key-informants with a broad view on plantation industry in the study area. They were from educational institutions, companies, ministries and from non-governmental organizations. Based on results of the key-informants interviews, a total of 40 persons were selected for stakeholder interviews. They represented four groups; 1) cattle ranchers, 2) honey producers, 3) tree growers and 4) general public from the surrounding communities. With stakeholder interviews, the aim was to collect quantitative data with structured questionnaires. The key-informants and stakeholders were asked about the same issues, but the key-informant interviews had open questions for collecting both qualitative and quantitative data. The results of this study show that industrial tree plantation landscapes provide a plenitude of ecosystem services. However, the perceived changes in the landscape during the past ten years were in some cases more negative than positive. According to the key-informants, the most important ecosystem services provided included industrial wood, animal shelter, fodder and foods. This indicates that local livelihoods can be combined with industrial plantations and the stakeholders benefit from them in many ways. The cattle ranchers obtained mainly animal shelter and fodder. For them, also the regulation of natural hazards was important. The honey producers valued foods, pollination and biodiversity services. The tree growers valued industrial wood and, similarly as the cattle ranchers, animal shelter and fodder. For the general community, educational information was the most important service. Food, honey and mushrooms, and fuel wood were also highly valued ecosystem services. Industrial tree plantations create a wealth of ecosystem services, often with low or no cost. UPM Uruguay considers local stakeholders and their livelihoods in many ways. According to the company, the best ways to integrate industrial tree plantations and ecosystem services are already used in many parts, although there was no data disclosed about all of them. However, it seems that UPM is well aware of the local conditions. In the future, there is a need to study the monetary value and benefit sharing of ecosystem services e.g. through payments of ecosystem services schemes.
  • Matthies, Brent (Helsingfors universitet, 2013)
    In this study the financial returns related to smallholders’ return on investments in Eucalyptus globulus (Labill.) were analyzed for the Kentai sub-watershed in the Tana-Beles Watershed Monitoring and Evaluation project in Amhara Regional State, Ethiopia. This was accomplished by reviewing the inputs used in activities carried out by smallholders. A cross-sectional survey was conducted to analyze the inputs and outputs realized by different household investment choices. The Net Present Value (NPV), Equivalent Annual Income (EAI), Benefit-Cost Ratio (BCR), and Internal Rate of Return (IRR) of investments were estimated. The NPVs ranged between -65,750 Br/ha (-2,670 €/ha) and 1,389,920 Br/ha (56,350 €/ha) over a 30-year period at interest rates of 10, 20 and 30%. The EAIs corresponded with the NPVs, and were used in comparison with agricultural crops. In almost all cases EAI of E. globulus exceeded that of other crops. BCRs varied from 0.13 to 118 at an interest rate of 10%. The maximum IRR achieved was 383% and the minimum was ?4%. The average IRR was 60%. Additionally, the financial returns for revenue from sales, cost savings from household consumption and reinvestment were analyzed in five scenarios. Reinvestment in rental homes proved the most lucrative return, followed by use of poles for home construction, for fuelwood consumption, and, finally, only for sale. Additional use of wood at home or reinvestment of earnings was more profitable than only selling poles on the local market. The study found that most households have profitable financial returns from investment in E. globulus. Those households with negative returns may plant for non-monetary benefits or carry out non-profit maximizing behaviour due to personal, cultural, or other reasons not captured in this analysis. It is believed that continued adoption of E. globulus will plateau in the near future. This study suggests a number of measures that could be implemented to increase returns and reduce costs including: co-operative development, recognition of smallholder plantations by government, and tenure security improvements.
  • Tammisto, Tuomas (2019)
    In this article I examine how Mengen working on and living near to a newly established oil palm plantation use the distinct categories of ‘village’ and ‘plantation’ to refer to different sets of relations and historical processes associated with the places. For the Mengen workers the plantation is simultaneously a place of hard and controlled labor, a site of earning sorely needed monetary income, and a place to momentarily escape relations in the village. The vast majority of Mengen workers are oriented towards village life and channel substantial amounts of their income back to the village. By examining the circulation of things and people between the plantation and surrounding villages, I look at how the two places, and the larger orders they represent, are in a direct, unequal, and complex relation with one another. While the surrounding villages subsidize the plantation and provide cheap labor, for the Mengen workers, the plantation is a place for reproducing village life and a generative place of forming new social relations. As both an oppressive and generative place, it is for the Mengen highly ambiguous, as are the larger orders it materializes and stands for.
  • Malmström, Miika (Helsingfors universitet, 2013)
    This thesis studies the economically optimal timing of thinnings and final harvest on Costa Rican Tectona grandis plantations. Consequently this thesis studies the profitability of the plantations and makes a comparison to previous studies. Optimization is based on programming with AMPL with Knitro optimizing software. The objective function used is the Faustmann formula. Different rates of interest are used. The ecological functions used for the modeling were obtained from previous studies by Pérez and Kanninen (2005a). The economic data such as planting and thinning costs and log prices were obtained from a T. grandis plantation specialist. The results of the study show that the optimal harvesting regime in T. grandis plantations differs from what is suggested in literature. The main findings are that the optimal rotation length is shorter and both timing and intensity of the thinnings vary depending on the rate of interest used. In addition the maximized bare land values under optimal management regimes are notably higher than bare land values under previously suggested management regimes. The management regime is highly sensitive to the rate of interest used. The management regime is less sensitive to the changes in price than expected. This thesis suggests that the initial density of 816 ha-1 trees results into higher bare land values than 1111 ha-1 trees . However, the difference is minor and possible increase in silvicultural costs is not considered. In addition a simple test is carried out to see the possible effects on heartwood proportion growth to the optimal management regime. The shortcomings and possibilities to improve the model are discussed. It is noted that the price data for T. grandis is not coherent, and that the ecological model could be improved in order to increase its accuracy.
  • Makkonen, Eedla (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Laos is one of the poorest countries in South-East Asia. Rural people’s livelihoods are mostly reliant on rice production and collection of forest products. There is very little research available about large-scale tree plantations and agroforestry in Laos. However, there is a clear need for information about the livelihood of the local people affected by companies that lease land from the local rural population for large-scale plantations in Laos. Stora Enso (SE) has trial plantations in Laos that combine tree-growing and food production. The Stora Enso Village Program (SEVP) focuses on sustainability that includes community engagement and helping local villagers to farm in safe conditions. The main aim of this study was to assess the productivity of taungya agroforestry systems in the SEVP trial plantations, and to measure the socioeconomic impacts at the village and household level. The following research questions are addressed: 1. To describe the Stora Enso Village Program in Laos, 2. To evaluate the conditions of the plantations established by SE in six villages in Saravan and Savannakhet Provinces, 3. To evaluate the socioeconomic impacts of the village program at the household and village levels in terms of: i) What kind of incomes do the local families get? ii ) How have the agricultural activities, which are part of the taungya agroforestry system, affected plantation productivity? iii) Who is benefiting from Stora Enso’s “village program” and how? Six research villages were selected, including five villages where Stora Enso operates and one where the company does not operate. Biophysical plantation measurements were done in 28 study plots in five villages. Plantation production was measured from the trees in the taungya agroforestry areas in each village. In each trial village, the Village Head was interviewed about basic village information such as population, livelihood and geographic information. Two Focus Group Discussions were conducted in each village, with information about villagers’ livelihoods and changes to livelihoods after the SEVP was started in the village. Participatory mapping exercises were carried out to determine the location of the households in the villages for random household selection. Interviews were conducted in 15 households in each village (90 households in total) to gather household-specific information such as incomes, livelihood activities and experiences of the taungya agroforestry sites. Village crop production in the taungya agroforestry sites were estimated at the household level. Results showed that employment opportunities increased in the village mostly in the first years of plantation cycle. The villagers were pleased with the land preparation carried out by Stora Enso and the crop yield in agroforestry areas, however, this was limited to when the plantation trees were smaller. Lack of labour, shade from plantation trees, and long distances to the plantation areas were the main reasons why villagers did not use the plantation areas for crop production. Plantations were generally in good condition, however, there were some insect and other stem damages. Lack of agricultural machinery and big distances from households to the agroforestry areas led to variation between villages´ crop production. There was limited work available for the villagers who wanted to work. The key findings of this thesis highlight the benefits of extra incomes and work opportunities for the local people in the villages and the positive outcomes in terms of the SEVP funds being used to build infrastructure and schools for the villages. The result of the study shows that the location of the villages affected negatively on villages that were far away from the market place and had limited possibilities to sell surplus crops. Cash crop production only occurred in the villages near the main roads and markets. Long distance to the taungya agroforestry area also limited the usage of the areas. This study has shown how the SEVP provides some benefits at both the village level and the household level. At the village level - positive impacts from village fund include improved infrastructure such as roads, water systems and electricity, while at the household level, positive impacts include employment opportunities and support to grow crops in the taungya agroforestry system. However, there are also challenges and limitations, such as agroforestry potential for producing crops between tree rows are not fully utilized during tree rotation, and most of the plantation employment opportunities are only available in the first years of plantation establishment. The SEVP is a trial program that attempts to integrate local communities’ needs by producing food and cash crops in the plantation area. The concept needs further development, more trials and research to improve the system, but has potential to be replicated in other places. It needs to be designed to suit the specific context of the local communities according to local culture and needs.
  • McVeigh, Tytti (Helsingfors universitet, 2015)
    This thesis investigates the development of the visibility of slavery in the brochures of four Virginia plantations over a time period of 90 years. The four plantations are Monticello, Mount Vernon, Belle Grove, and Long Branch, all of different sizes but with similar pasts as sites of enslavement prior to the abolishment of slavery in 1865. The goal is to discover how and why the narrative of slavery has changed over the years, and if any larger societal changes may have contributed to this development. As tour brochures have the ability to affect a visitor’s interpretation of a site, it is important to understand what type of discourses and images are directing the visitor’s gaze in the brochures. It is equally vital to attempt to understand the reasoning behind those choices of language and imagery. In this thesis, Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) is used to discover what is being said, what is left unsaid, and why those decisions were made. The primary sources for this thesis are the print brochures collected at each plantation and the plantation websites. The material is primarily analyzed using textual analysis although some image analysis is also included to give a more comprehensive understanding of the content of the brochures. In addition, secondary sources are used to support the historical and conceptual framework of the thesis. The main result of this thesis is that the visibility of slavery in plantation brochures has developed from non-existent or minimal to attempted integration. Until the late 1970s the institution of slavery and the experiences of the enslaved, if mentioned, are trivialized, marginalized, and/or segregated. Slow but steady progress in increasing the presence of slavery in the brochures can be witnessed throughout the years as the general opinion in the United States became more accepting, even demanding, of racial equality. No individual event or phenomenon has had a direct impact on the content of the brochures but a clear development into including slavery can be seen. Based on the results, it is the conclusion of this thesis that the main themes of the brochures have not changed very much since the 1920s. Owner families, prestigious guests, architecture, gardens, and the achievements of the wealthy owners have remained the main focus of attention although some new themes can be found in the more recent brochures. It is also evident that these themes persist at the expense of others, such as slavery, bringing about an interesting discussion of remembering and forgetting. In addition, these conclusions raise an important question about the roles of plantation museums as educators, entertainers, and research facilities.
  • Heikkinen, Atte (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    This thesis explores the tropes through which the American South is represented in American popular music from the 1910s and 1920s. During the early 20th century, the music publishing industry based in New York City—often referred to as “Tin Pan Alley”—produced hundreds of popular songs whose lyrics romanticized the South as a harmonious paradise free from the troubles associated with living in the urban North. Although popular at the time, these so called “Dixie tunes” have faded into obscurity from the mainstream but continue to be performed in barbershop singing contests around the world. Rather than performing the songs as written in the early 20th century, Barbershop quartets and choruses present audiences with modernized arrangements that often include alterations to song lyrics. The dataset for this thesis consists of 18 “Dixie tunes” that have been used as repertoire by male barbershop groups competing in regional and international contests held by the Barbershop Harmony Society in recent decades. By categorizing the songs thematically, we discuss the most prominent cultural representations they depict. By using copies of original sheet music, we compare the original song lyrics with modern barbershop arrangements in order to understand what types of changes, additions or reductions have been made when these particular songs have been adapted into the barbershop style. We conclude that these songs portray the South through myths and archetypes like the “mammy”, the “happy darkie” and activities such as musical celebrations and performances, while the reality of racial tension in the region is not adressed. These depictions are often preserved in barbershop arrangements. However, lyrics are often altered in order to bowdlerize the racial stereotypes that are present in the original texts.
  • Tammisto, Tuomas (Suomalaisen Kirjallisuuden Seura, 2021)
    Suomalaisen Kirjallisuuden Seuran Toimituksia