Browsing by Subject "policy making"

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  • Salo, Mikko (2002)
    This study evaluates the participation of the Finnish Parliament, Eduskunta, in the national policy formulation of the European Union Justice and Home Affairs. The aim is to analyse to what extent Eduskunta’s control on government led EU policies covers the critical policy formulation phases of EU level policy making. Eduskunta’s strong institutional framework for parliamentary scrutiny in EU matters is tested in a complex policy domain suffering parliamentary deficit at the EU level. As the study deals with the relationship between the parliament and the government from the point of view of democratic policy making, it adopts the principal-agent framework. The framework helps to conceptualise the parliament - executive relationship for a systematic institutional analysis. This theoretical framework also focuses on observing the information flow between the two parties. The empirical study will then analyse Eduskunta’s participation in the light of the information it receives as the principal from its governmental agents. Degrees of information asymmetry and agency losses are used as indicators of Eduskunta’s participation. The empirical data includes both government’s and Eduskunta’s documents and handling information on the 114 Justice and Home Affairs proposals known also as the Tampere scoreboard. This mostly quantitative data is supplemented by interviews in order to build an overall picture of the scope and timing of the information Eduskunta receives. Finally both Eduskunta’s potential and real participation to Justice and Home Affairs can be estimated. The study revealed that Eduskunta’s decentralised scrutiny model allowed a selected participation to the policy formulation phase. Because of the amount and technicality of the government’s documents and their late arrival to Eduskunta, parliament’s real chances to participate were many times limited. On the other hand, also due to Eduskunta’s own limited resources the scrutiny was focused but to some key issues. All in all, as Eduskunta revealed to be rather supportive co-legislator to government, few serious agency losses were identified. In the light of this study, Eduskunta appears to trust on government’s ability to promote Finnish interests in the EU level negotiations.
  • Halonen, Henna (Helsingfors universitet, 2013)
    In Finland pharmaceutical policy is a part of health policy. It concerns social decision making on pharmaceutical sector and people and organizations around pharmaceuticals. Pharmaceutical policy 2020 strategy was prepared by the Ministry of Social Affairs and Health, based on a stakeholder (administrative authorities, education and research, industry, medicine wholesalers, patients, pharmacies, professional organizations, public sector) analysis. In Finnish politics this is an assignment of a new kind of evidence-informed policy making (EIPM), which is participative, transparent and democratic. The two main objectives of this study were to evaluate the present state of pharmaceutical policy in Finland and discern the emphasis of pharmaceutical policy by the stakeholders' point of view in the future. The study gave the possibility to a deeper analysis of stakeholders' opinions of the Finnish pharmaceutical policy in the beginning of the year 2010 than it was possible in the official Pharmaceutical policy 2020 strategy document. Besides this, research itself was a way of practicing evidence-based policy. The SWOT-analysis were conducted among key-stakeholders as a main material of this qualitative research (n=19, response rate 59). SWOT analyses included present strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats regarding Finnish drug discipline of a stakeholder's point of view. Furthermore, an e-survey (n=10, response rate 31) was conducted in the end of the strategy process in order to enablegive the stakeholders to give feedback of the Pharmaceutical policy 2020 strategy process. The survey also measured that was the consensus among stakeholders reached during the strategy process. It prevailed a very good mutual understanding. Results of the research were clearly readable on the official strategy paper as well as the research could go deeper in the details of stakeholders' words than the official strategy paper. The most important emphases in the results were noticeable: condense the cooperation of stakeholders among the drug discipline to ensure efficient, good quality and patient safe pharmaceutical service and better utilizing of pharmaceutical knowledge among social and public health service. The results of this research can be utilized later as a starting point to measure how Pharmaceutical policy 2020 strategy has came true. With help of this study it's also possible to verify the strategy process and Finnish national medicine policy in the 2020 decade. In Ministry of Social Affairs and Health it is also possible to think, what kind of legislative changes it demands to implement the needed changes among the drug discipline.