Browsing by Subject "poliittinen ekologia"

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  • Meri, Maija (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    This study addresses the ways in which environmental challenges and power relations are manifested through tourism in the easternmost province of Panama, Darién. Historically, the area of Darién has remained relatively isolated from the rest of the country and tourism in the area is of small-scale. However, the high biodiversity and natural resources have drawn increasing attention, thus resulting in tensions and competing interests between different stakeholders. Local perceptions of tourism bring insight about how people make sense of and engage with touristic activities, and how geopolitical and ecological discourses contribute to environmental inequalities. The theoretical background draws from geopolitical ecology, which states the role and impact of the environment in the shaping of political space and power relations. The research is based on 37 thematic interviews and participant observation carried out during a one-month ethnographic fieldwork in Darién. The findings indicate that tourism has contributed to exposing the environmental challenges in Darién, but also caused controversy over the use of resources for tourism. Tourism brings forward power relations and demonstrates that different players are in an uneven position. The results show that tourism in Darién has been influenced by its remoteness and the nowadays largely misleading assumption of its unstable security situation. Darién faces a broad range of environmental problems, resulting mainly from the State´s weak presence and poor environmental policies. However, tourism has been locally able to enhance environmental awareness and interest towards conservation. Different tourism actors have unequal possibilities in making use of natural resources depending largely on their wealth and social networks. Further geopolitical interests appear through territorial issues and questions concerning land ownership. The findings indicate that by looking at tourism, many underlying tensions related to existing social inequalities, power relations and distribution of ecological benefits can be revealed.
  • Kippola, Laura (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Tutkielman tavoitteena on kuvata merimetson rauhoitetun aseman merkitystä ihmisten ja merimetsojen välisen konfliktin muodostumisessa Suomen Pohjanmaalla sijaitsevassa Kristiinankaupungin kunnassa. Tutkielma vastaa kysymyksiin, mitä merkityksiä merimetsoon ja sen suojeluun Kristiinankaupungissa liitetään ja millä tavoin paikallistason näkemysten koetaan olevan ristiriidassa lain tuottaman merimetson suojelun kanssa. Tutkielma osallistuu näin laajempaan keskusteluun ihmisten ja merimetsojen välisen konfliktin syistä. Teoreettiseesti tutkielma pohjautuu antropologiseen tutkimukseen ihmisen ja luonnon suhteesta sekä poliittisessa ekologiassakin sovellettuun oikeuspluralistiseen näkökulmaan. Tutkielman aineistonkeruu toteutettiin Kristiinankaupungissa kesän 2019 aikana. Aineisto koostuu kymmenestä haastattelusta, yhdestä ryhmähaastattelusta, noin 200 lehtileikkeestä ja etnografisista kenttämuistiinpanoista. Aineisto analysoitiin temaattisesti koodaamalla. Tutkielma osoittaa, että merimetsoon ja sen suojeluun liitetään moninaisia, toisistaan poikkeavia merkityksiä. Merimetsoon kriittisesti suhtautuville merimetso merkitsee luontoa likaavaa ja tuttua rannikkomaisemaa muuttavaa lajia, joka voi uhata myös käsitystä luonnon tasapainosta. Toisille merimetso taas merkitsee luonnon monimuotoisuutta edistävää lintulajia. Merimetson suojelu puolestaan merkitsee lainsäädännöllistä toimea, joka vaikuttaa merimetsoyhdyskuntien lähellä aikaansa viettävien elämään. Tutkielmassa arvioidaan, että kerroksittaiset oikeusjärjestelmät ovat merimetsokonfliktissa jännitteisessä suhteessa toisiinsa. Paikallistason oikeudenmukaisuutta koskevien käsitysten mukaan merimetsokantojen rajoittamista pidettiin oikeudenmukaisena, mutta käsitykset törmäsivät Suomen luonnonsuojelulakiin ja EU:n lintudirektiiviin. Oikeusjärjestelmien hierarkkinen suhde puolestaan tuottaa ja kiristää konfliktia.
  • Ikävalko, Ville (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Air pollution kills an estimated seven million people per year according to the World Health Organization – people living in the cities of low- and middle-income countries being the one’s most exposed to toxic air. As rapid urbanisation continues to dominate the demographic trends in the developing world into the fore-seeable future, so will the negative consequences of air pollution. This, coupled with the intense pressure for developing economies to prioritise rapid and unadulterated growth as a mean to raise the living standards of their citizens over the environmental consequences of that growth, will almost invariably make air pollution one of the leading causes of death in the world, if it is not already. This thesis analyses environmental policy around air pollution to not only under-stand the policies and their effectiveness, or ineffectiveness, but also their rationality regarding the wider economic activities in the background. The study examines (state´s) air pollution abatement efforts in Delhi and the National Capital Region concerning the four primary sources of particulate matter in Delhi´s air: vehicular emissions, industries, dust, and crop burning. The research approach is based on policy analysis while the theoretical framework leans on political ecology. More specifically, the theoretical starting point is in urban political ecology, and political ecology of the state as per Antonio Ioris (2014), the former being built upon Marxist historical materialism, while latter is found upon a Marxist analysis of the (capitalist) state. The research aims to answer two questions: Does the quality and nature of Delhi´s environmental action correspond with Antonio Ioris’ theory of the environmental (capitalist) state; and second, to what extent do state interventions fail to address, further, or even create environmental issues due to the contradictory positions they hold with respect to accumulation and environmental protection. The main findings of the study follow the claims of Antonio Ioris about environmental statehood: the nature of state interventions concerning air pollution in Delhi and the National Capital Region have largely been ineffective, temporary, provisional, and partial. Furthermore, the failure to address the issue effectively obligates the Delhi government to declare air pollution emergency every winter during the worst pollution months in late October and November, introducing increasingly ad hoc - and drastic - measures that cascade up in accordance with the toxicity levels. From increasing parking tickets prices and banning diesel generators, to closing schools, banning all heavy vehicles, and prohibiting construction. Not coincidentally, the main source of air pollution during this worst period of the year is crop burning, a practice that has its roots in state legislation curbing water use in the neighbouring states of Punjab and Haryana, as well as in state procurement policies that promote the unecological farming of rice in the northern plains of India. And so, the state has not only been ineffective in curbing air pollution in Delhi but has also played a part in bringing about the situation in the first place. The case of Delhi´s air pollution gives valuable insight into the contradiction the modern state finds itself when trying to balance between its two opposing responsibilities: the first as the one creating the best conditions for economic growth, and the other as the entity regulating and mitigating the environmental consequences of this growth. It is likewise yet another sobering instance of contemporary green action, where environmental action is rationalised though and out while maintaining irrationality in the assessment and conceptualisation of the issue the mitigation action is supposed to address in the first place, leading to environmental policy that is dislocated from the root cause of the issue. The inherent issues of state environmental policy highlight the need for more focus not only on the state policy itself, but on the rationality and commitment behind those policies. The Indian Democracy similarly offers a resolution by being able to exert pressure on state entities for more meaningful mitigation action. To make this happen, there needs to be an available and open real-time monitoring infor-mation on the pollution levels to empower the local residents and organisations to not only be able to point out the local pollutants in their areas and understand the health hazard these emissions are exposing them to, but also to be able to effectively direct action and demands towards the local, state, and federal rep-resentatives for meaningful environmental action to happen.