Browsing by Subject "polysaccharide"

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  • Dubashynskaya, Natallia; Poshina, Daria; Raik, Sergei; Urtti, Arto; Skorik, Yury A. (2020)
    Polysaccharides, such as cellulose, hyaluronic acid, alginic acid, and chitosan, as well as polysaccharide derivatives, have been successfully used to augment drug delivery in the treatment of ocular pathologies. The properties of polysaccharides can be extensively modified to optimize ocular drug formulations and to obtain biocompatible and biodegradable drugs with improved bioavailability and tailored pharmacological effects. This review discusses the available polysaccharide choices for overcoming the difficulties associated with ocular drug delivery, and it explores the reasons for the dependence between the physicochemical properties of polysaccharide-based drug carriers and their efficiency in different formulations and applications. Polysaccharides will continue to be of great interest to researchers endeavoring to develop ophthalmic drugs with improved effectiveness and safety.
  • Ahola-Iivarinen, Elina (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    In the literature review of this study, the focus was on biofilms that certain microbes produce, and their potential use in food industry. Biofilms consist of microbial cells and extracellular products, e.g., polysaccharides. Pullulan as an exopolysaccharide has many industrial applications and the aim of this study was to explore a new potential alpha-glucan, dextran, and especially its ability to form a stand-alone film. Pullulan and dextran were separately mixed in de-ionized water. The dynamic viscosities of dextran and pullulan solutions were determined. Film formation of dextran was not successful, not even with sorbitol as a plasticizer. The optical properties, water vapor and oxygen permeabilities and tensile strengths of pullulan films were studied. Additionally, Whatman42-filter material was coated with or immersed in dextran solution. Hence the changes in tensile strength and permeability values between a well-known material and dextran treated material could be detected. Pullulan films had low haze values (2.1–3.9%) and they were transparent to UVA-, UVB- and visible light. The tensile strength values of pullulan films were 47–53 MPa. For filter paper, the corresponding values were 10 MPa and application of dextran coating increased it to 15–19 MPa. All polysaccharide solutions exhibited Newtonian behavior and their relative viscosities were <10 mPa, 5% pullulan with viscosity around 20 mPa as an exception. Pullulan solutions had higher viscosities than dextran solutions. The air permeabilities were 10–50 ml/min for pullulan films, 10 ml/min for dextran-sorbitol film, 200 ml/min for dextran film and 200–500 ml/min for Whatman42 material. The oxygen permeability values for pullulan films were <0,1 cm3·μm m-2·d-1·kPa-1. Based on results in this study, pullulan films are impermeable to oxygen. As the films tolerated water vapor poorly, pullulan might be a potential component in packages made of composite materials, as individual packaging material in dry environment or possibly chemically modified to obtain better resistance to water vapor. Our results show that without additional modifications dextran does not form a continuous self-supporting films in these conditions.