Browsing by Subject "polysomnography"

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  • Lobbezoo, F.; Ahlberg, J.; Raphael, K. G.; Wetselaar, P.; Glaros, A. G.; Kato, T.; Santiago, V.; Winocur, E.; De Laat, A.; De Leeuw, R.; Koyano, K.; Lavigne, G. J.; Svensson, P.; Manfredini, D. (2018)
    In 2013, consensus was obtained on a definition of bruxism as repetitive masticatory muscle activity characterised by clenching or grinding of the teeth and/or by bracing or thrusting of the mandible and specified as either sleep bruxism or awake bruxism. In addition, a grading system was proposed to determine the likelihood that a certain assessment of bruxism actually yields a valid outcome. This study discusses the need for an updated consensus and has the following aims: (i) to further clarify the 2013 definition and to develop separate definitions for sleep and awake bruxism; (ii) to determine whether bruxism is a disorder rather than a behaviour that can be a risk factor for certain clinical conditions; (iii) to re-examine the 2013 grading system; and (iv) to develop a research agenda. It was concluded that: (i) sleep and awake bruxism are masticatory muscle activities that occur during sleep (characterised as rhythmic or non-rhythmic) and wakefulness (characterised by repetitive or sustained tooth contact and/or by bracing or thrusting of the mandible), respectively; (ii) in otherwise healthy individuals, bruxism should not be considered as a disorder, but rather as a behaviour that can be a risk (and/or protective) factor for certain clinical consequences; (iii) both non-instrumental approaches (notably self-report) and instrumental approaches (notably electromyography) can be employed to assess bruxism; and (iv) standard cut-off points for establishing the presence or absence of bruxism should not be used in otherwise healthy individuals; rather, bruxism-related masticatory muscle activities should be assessed in the behaviour's continuum.
  • Acosta Leinonen, Johanna Natalia (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Sleep is one of the most vital functions of newborns and infants, and it is essential for neuronal network development. Therefore, long-term sleep disturbances have been associated with growth delays and behavioral disorders. Commonly reported infant sleep disturbances, such as night awakenings and difficulties falling asleep, cause distress to parents. Yet, the development of infant sleep in the home environment has not been fully elucidated due to lack of objective measurement parameters. In the current study, we assessed the feasibility of a motion sensor, attached to wearable pants, and ECG textile electrodes to monitor sleep-related respiration and heart rate of newborns and infants. First, we compared signals recorded by the motion sensor’s measurement channels to the standard respiratory piezo effort belt’s signal during daytime EEG recordings. According to our results, the motion sensor’s gyroscope proved to measure respiratory rate most accurately, while the ECG signal transmitted by the sensor was reliable in interpretable sections. We then provided wearable garments and smartphones to families with infants to assess overnight home-use. Our results indicate that different sleep states could likely be identified based on respiration fluctuation visible in the gyroscope’s signals. Moreover, the wearable system was considered practical and easy to use by the parents. Future studies should focus on validating the sensor with clinically approved measures, in order to train the algorithms to automatically identify different sleep-wake states. By doing so, the wearable sensor could provide information on natural infant sleep structure development over long time periods. Additionally, clinical validation of the sensor may result in the development of a companion diagnostic tool for infant cardiorespiratory and movement disorders.
  • Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Merikanto, Ilona; Halonen, Risto; Ujma, Peter; Makkonen, Tommi; Räikkönen, Katri; Lahti, Jari; Kuula, Liisa (2020)
    Sleep spindles are thalamocortical oscillations that contribute to sleep maintenanceand sleep-related brain plasticity. The current study is an explorative study of the cir-cadian dynamics of sleep spindles in relation to a polygenic score (PGS) for circadianpreference towards morningness. The participants represent the 17-year follow-upof a birth cohort having both genome-wide data and an ambulatory sleep electroen-cephalography measurement available (N= 154, Mean age = 16.9, SD = 0.1 years,57% girls). Based on a recent genome-wide association study, we calculated a PGSfor circadian preference towards morningness across the whole genome, including354 single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Stage 2 slow (9-12.5 Hz,N= 186 739) andfast (12.5-16 Hz,N= 135 504) sleep spindles were detected using an automatedalgorithm with individual time tags and amplitudes for each spindle. There was a sig-nificant interaction of PGS for morningness and timing of sleep spindles across thenight. These growth curve models showed a curvilinear trajectory of spindle ampli-tudes: those with a higher PGS for morningness showed higher slow spindle ampli-tudes in frontal derivations, and a faster dissipation of spindle amplitude in centralderivations. Overall, the findings provide new evidence on how individual sleep spin-dle trajectories are influenced by genetic factors associated with circadian type. Thefinding may lead to new hypotheses on the associations previously observedbetween circadian types, psychiatric problems and spindle activity.
  • Kasurinen, Kaisu Julia (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Aims of the study. Evidence from previous studies suggests that slow breathing or listening to calming music before sleep would decrease subjects’ experience of fragmented and disturbed sleep. It has been proposed that experience of restless and non-restorative sleep could be explained by fragmented REM sleep. However, the possibility to decrease REM sleep fragmentation by increasing pre-sleep relaxation has not been investigated objectively before. The aim of this study was to investigate whether slow breathing or listening to music improve REM sleep quality and decrease REM sleep fragmentation. Methods. This study was a randomized controlled trial, where 20 participants were randomized to two intervention groups. The other group breathed five slow breaths in a minute for 30 minutes before sleep, while the other group listened to calming music for 30 minutes before sleep. Participants’ sleep was measured on two successive nights with polysomnography. The other night included the intervention, while the other night worked as a control night without treatment. The data was analyzed with a linear mixed model. Results and conclusions. Slow breathing decreased the percentage of macro-arousals (3–15 s) compared to control condition. Pre-sleep music listening did not influence REM sleep fragmentation or other REM sleep parameters. The results suggest that pre-sleep slow breathing could improve REM sleep quality by decreasing fragmentation of REM sleep. However, replications of this study with larger sample sizes and more diverse subject populations are needed to better understand the exact mechanisms underlying these associations.
  • Kajanto, Kristiina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Aims of the study. Evidence suggests that a slow breathing method called resonance frequency breathing may improve sleep quality, but many previous studies have suffered from methodological shortcomings. Music listening is a popular self-help strategy to promote sleep, but previous research assessing the efficacy of music in improving sleep has yielded inconsistent results. Sleep is known to promote the retention of newly learned material, but the effects of slow breathing and music listening on overnight declarative memory consolidation are unknown. This study explores the effects of two interventions, slow breathing approximating resonance frequency and music listening, on objective sleep quality and overnight declarative memory consolidation. Methods. This study was a randomized, controlled trial with a crossover design. 20 participants (10 females) were randomly allocated to an experimental group, who did a 30-minute slow breathing exercise, or a comparison group, who listened to relaxing music for 30 minutes. Participants’ sleep was measured on two consecutive nights with polysomnography. On one night, participants completed their assigned intervention before going to bed; the other night was used as a no-treatment control condition. Memory performance was measured with a word pair association task. Linear mixed-effects modeling was used to analyze the data. Results and conclusions. Slow breathing improved declarative memory performance, but it did not improve sleep quality when compared to the control condition. Music listening did not affect memory performance, but it improved sleep quality as manifested in reduced wake after sleep onset, decreased duration of stage N1, stage N2, and non-REM sleep, and an increased percentage of stage N3 sleep when compared to the control condition. The results suggest that music listening can improve objective sleep quality and slow breathing can promote overnight learning, but more research is needed to understand the exact mechanisms underlying these associations.