Browsing by Subject "population study"

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  • Sipilä, Pyry; Gulnara, Harrasova; Mustelin, Linda; Rose, Richard J.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Keski-Rahkonen, Anna (2017)
    Since medieval times, an association between religiosity and anorexia nervosa has been suggested, but few systematic studies exist. This study examines in a nationwide setting whether personal or family religiosity is associated with lifetime anorexia nervosa among women in adolescence and early adulthood. Women (N = 2,825) from the 1975 to 1979 birth cohorts of Finnish twins were screened for lifetime DSM-5 anorexia nervosa (N = 92). Parental religiosity was assessed by self-report when the women were aged 16 years. The women self-reported their religiosity at ages 16 and 22 to 27 years. Parental religiosity did not increase the risk of lifetime anorexia nervosa, and neither did religiosity of the women themselves in adolescence. In early adulthood, a J-shaped curve was compatible with the data, indicating increased risk both at low and high levels of religiosity, but this result was statistically non-significant. Religiosity was weakly negatively correlated with body dissatisfaction. There was some suggestive evidence for socioregional variation in the association of religiosity with lifetime anorexia nervosa. In this first population study to directly address religiosity and anorexia nervosa, no evidence was found for a significant association of religiosity with anorexia nervosa either at the personal or family level. Some regional differences are possible. A modest protective association of religiosity with body dissatisfaction is also possible. Despite compelling case descriptions of holy anorexia, religiosity does not appear to be a central factor in the development of anorexia nervosa in Finland, a highly secularized Christian country.
  • Lemma, Jasmiini; Nieminen, Tuomo; Kyhälä-Valtonen, Hanna; Nieminen, Markku; Salomaa, Veikko; Anttila, Ismo; Kerola, Anne; Rissanen, Harri; Jula, Antti; Koskinen, Seppo (Helsingfors universitet, 2017)
    Aims: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common long-standing arrhythmia in the adult population. This study aimed to assess which factors increase the likelihood of developing AF, and whether AF is associated with worsened survival in the new millennium. Methods: 6299 participants from a nationally representative Finnish health cohort were followed from 2000 to 2014. The mortality and risk of developing AF were analyzed using Cox regression and logistic regression models. Results: The overall prevalence of AF in baseline ECG was 1.5%. During the 13 year follow- up, 16.9% of those without baseline AF and as many as 85% of those with AF at baseline died. AF increased the risk of dying 5-fold in unadjusted and 1.86-fold in adjusted analysis. In addition, age, gender, hypertension, heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), diabetes and smoking were associated with increased mortality in the Cox regression model. During the first 10 years of follow-up, male gender, age, BMI and alcohol consumption were associated with developing AF. Conclusion: AF is clearly linked with mortality even after the emergence of modern anticoagulation therapy. BMI and alcohol consumption were the only modifiable health factors associated with the development of AF.
  • Edgren, Robert; Castrén, Sari; Jokela, Markus; Salonen, Anne H. (2016)
    AIMS - The aims were to compare past-year at-risk and problem gambling (ARPG) and other at-risk behaviours (computer gaming, risky alcohol consumption, tobacco smoking) by age and gender, and to explore how ARPG is associated with risky alcohol consumption, tobacco smoking, poor mental health and loneliness in males and females. DESIGN - Data from respondents aged 15-28 (n = 822) were derived from a cross-sectional random sample of population-based data (n = 4484). The data were collected in 2011-2012 by telephone interviews. The Problem Gambling Severity Index (PGSI, score >= 2) was used to evaluate ARPG. Prevalence rates for risk behaviours were compared for within gender-specific age groups. Regression models were gender-specific. RESULTS - The proportion of at-risk and problem gamblers was higher among males than females in all age groups except among 18-21-year-olds, while frequent computer gaming was higher among males in all age groups. The odds ratio (95% CI) of being a male ARPGer was 2.57 (1.40-4.74) for risky alcohol consumption; 1.95 (1.07-3.56) for tobacco smoking; 2.63 (0.96-7.26) for poor mental health; and 4.41 (1.20-16.23) for feeling lonely. Likewise, the odds ratio (95% CI) of being a female ARPGer was 1.19 (0.45-3.12) for risky alcohol consumption; 4.01 (1.43-11.24) for tobacco smoking; 0.99 (0.18-5.39) for poor mental health; and 6.46 (1.42-29.34) for feeling lonely. All 95% CIs of ARPG correlates overlapped among males and females. CONCLUSIONS - Overall, past-year at-risk and problem gambling and computer gaming seem to be more common among males than females; however, for risky alcohol consumption similar gender differences were evident only for the older half of the sample. No clear gender differences were seen in correlates associated with ARPG.
  • Kainu, Annette; Rouhos, Annamari; Sovijärvi, Anssi; Lindqvist, Ari; Sarna, Seppo; Lundback, Bo (2013)
  • Tenhola, Heli (Helsingfors universitet, 2013)
    Prostate cancer is the most common cancer among men in Finland. Today, new prostate cancers are diagnosed in an early phase of the disease when the cancer is still local and effectiveness of the treatments good. There are many effective treatment options for localised prostate cancer but all of them cause multiple side effects. No comprehensive information about prostate cancer patients' experiences, treatment consequences and outcomes has been available. National Institute for Health and Welfare (THL) carried out a nationwide survey to prostate cancer patients diagnosed in 2004. The questionnaire was sent by mail in 2009. Patients were asked to report their experiences during the diagnosis and treatment selection (prostatectomy, hormone therapy, external beam radiation, brachytherapy, surveillance). They were asked about amount and harmfulness of side effects and satisfaction with outcome of the treatment. An association between the side effects and satisfaction with the treatment outcome was also studied. A total of 1239 responses were accepted for the study (response rate 73%). All treatments caused several side effects, and up to half of the patients had some adverse effect still present at the time of the survey. Most of the side effects concerned urinary or sexual dysfunction, in external beam radiation also bowel dysfunction. All treatments caused sexual dysfunction, but radiation therapy less than the other treatments. Side effects caused by hormone therapy were specific for this treatment, like hot flashes and mood disturbances. Patients treated with prostatectomy were least satisfied with the outcome of the treatment and dissatisfaction was mostly associated with sexual and urinary dysfunction. Patients treated with radiation therapy were most satisfied with the outcome. Urinary and bowel dysfunction impaired the satisfaction in patients treated with external beam radiation. All prostate cancer treatments cause plenty of potentially harmful side effects that may be challenging for psychological and psychosocial well-being of the patients. Thus, both treatment modalities and means to support well-being of the patients should be developed further. Actions that enhance well-being and prevent and relieve side effects should be an essential part of standard clinical procedures for every prostate cancer patient.
  • Castren, Sari; Lind, Kalle; Hagfors, Heli; Salonen, Anne H. (2021)
    Aims This study explores the prevalence of being a past-year affected other (AO) of a problem gambler by gender. The aims were to study the amount and type of gambling-related harms (GRHs) for subgroups of AOs and to distinguish GRH profiles for AO subgroups. Methods A total of 7186 adults aged 18 years and over participated in the Gambling Harms Survey evaluating year 2016. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and binary logistic regression. Results Of all respondents, 12.9% were defined as past-year AOs (women 13.7%; men 12.1%). The proportion of affected non-family members (ANFs) was 8.4%, and 5.6% were affected family members (AFMs). AFMs were usually women, and ANFs were usually men. Emotional, relationship, and financial harms were the most common types of harm. The odds of experiencing financial harm were highest for the 18- to 34-year-olds (OR 1.82) and for those whose partner/ex-partner had a gambling problem (OR 3.91). Having a parent/step-parent (OR 1.93) and child/stepchild (OR 3.64) increased the odds of experiencing emotional harm, whereas male gender (OR 0.50) and being an ANF (OR 0.58) decreased emotional harm. Relationship harm was evident for partners/ex-partners (OR 1.97-5.07). Conclusions GRH profiles for AO subgroups varied, which emphasizes the need for effective harm minimization strategies for those in need.
  • Järvenpää, Juulia (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Among the clients of social work, the people who have traumatic experiences are more common than in the general population. In the recent years MDMA, also known by its street name ecstasy, has been studied for treating posttraumatic stress disorder, with promising results. As the research goes on, it is possible that some people turn to MDMA for the purpose of treating their own traumas by themselves. Social workers should be able to evaluate realistically the risks and potential benefits of such behavior, and also think about the problems of the current prohibition and punishment-based drug laws in terms of human rights. If MDMA-assisted therapies become a legal treatment option, social workers should know how to assist and guide their clients in case they wish to engage in such treatment. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has granted a breakthrough status to psilocybin (a psychedelic compound found in some mushroom species) and MDMA-assisted psychotherapies. This means that the preliminary results have been so promising it is possible to make these treatments available faster, in case the further research provides results as good as the previous research. Currently phase 3 studies are ongoing. Lately there have also been discussions about whether these substances are dangerous or even beneficial outside the clinical context. Multiple studies have been done on psychedelics regarding this matter, and the researchers have found out that lifetime use of psychedelics is associated with reduced risk for mental health problems and suicidality instead of increased risk. A similar investigation has not yet been done to the same extent on MDMA. The purpose of this analysis is to fill the void in the research regarding MDMA and find out whether MDMA use is linked to increased likelihood of past month psychological distress, measured by K6 scale, and past year suicidality, defined as suicidal thoughts, suicide plans and suicide attempts. The dataset used for this study is National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) from the years 2016–2019. The data of NSDUH is collected via randomized selection of a representative population of the US. The main method of the analysis is multivariate logistic regression. Among the lifetime use of MDMA and other drugs, also the effects of recency have been investigated. The weighted odds ratios were compared to the odds ratios of other drug use groups. Based on the results of this analysis, MDMA use was not associated with increased likelihoods of past month psychological distress or past year suicidality, after adjusting for sociodemographic factors, risk-taking tendency and other illicit/non-medical drug use. Instead, lifetime use of MDMA was associated in most of the models to decreased likelihood of the predicted variables. The odds ratios of MDMA groups were smaller than the odds ratios for other substances in almost every model. Among the other substances, the results of psilocybin were the closest to the results of MDMA. The study suggests that the increased risk for mental health problems and suicidality among the people who use MDMA is likely to be more linked to other drug use than specifically to MDMA use. This analysis does not suggest that MDMA would be an independent risk factor for psychological distress or suicidality.
  • EClipSE Collaboration; Hokkanen, Suvi R. K.; Kero, Mia; Kaivola, Karri; Hunter, Sally; Keage, Hannah A. D.; Kiviharju, Anna; Raunio, Anna; Tienari, Pentti J.; Paetau, Anders; Matthews, Fiona E.; Fleming, Jane; Graff, Caroline; Polvikoski, Tuomo M.; Myllykangas, Liisa; Brayne, Carol (2020)
    Limbic-predominant age-related TAR-DNA-binding protein-43 (TDP-43) encephalopathy with hippocampal sclerosis pathology (LATE-NC + HS) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by severe hippocampal CA1 neuron loss and TDP-43-pathology, leading to cognitive dysfunction and dementia. Polymorphisms in GRN, TMEM106B and ABCC9 are proposed as LATE-NC + HS risk factors in brain bank collections. To replicate these results in independent population-representative cohorts, hippocampal sections from brains donated to three such studies (Cambridge City over 75-Cohort [CC75C], Cognitive Function and Ageing Study [CFAS], and Vantaa 85+ Study) were stained with hematoxylin-eosin (n = 744) and anti-pTDP-43 (n = 713), and evaluated for LATE-NC + HS and TDP-43 pathology. Single nucleotide polymorphism genotypes in GRN rs5848, TMEM106B rs1990622 and ABCC9 rs704178 were determined. LATE-NC + HS (n = 58) was significantly associated with the GRN rs5848 genotype (chi(2)(2) = 20.61, P <0.001) and T-allele (chi(2)(1) = 21.04, P <0.001), and TMEM106B rs1990622 genotype (Fisher's exact test, P <0.001) and A-allele (chi(2)(1) = 25.75, P <0.001). No differences in ABCC9 rs704178 genotype or allele frequency were found between LATE-NC + HS and non-LATE-NC + HS neuropathology cases. Dentate gyrus TDP-43 pathology associated with GRN and TMEM106B variations, but the association with TMEM106B nullified when LATE-NC + HS cases were excluded. Our results indicate that GRN and TMEM106B are associated with severe loss of CA1 neurons in the aging brain, while ABCC9 was not confirmed as a genetic risk factor for LATE-NC + HS. The association between TMEM106B and LATE-NC + HS may be independent of dentate TDP-43 pathology.
  • Rosenström, Tom; Torvik, Fartein Ask; Ystrom, Eivind; Aggen, Steven H.; Gillespie, Nathan A.; Krueger, Robert F.; Czajkowski, Nikolai Olavi; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted (2021)
    Antisocial (ASPD) and borderline (BPD) personality disorders (PDs) are associated with increased risk for substance use. They are "specific" risk factors among PDs in that they withstand adjusting for the other PDs, whereas the reverse does not hold. Specificity is a classic sign of causation. This empirical work addresses 3 further problems that can undermine causal inferences in personality and substance-use research: hierarchical nature of etiologic factors in psychiatry, imperfectly operationalized PD criteria, and possible genetic or environmental confounding, as seen in lack of "etiologic continuity." We used exploratory structural equation bifactor modeling and biometric models to mitigate these problems. The participants were Norwegian adult twins of ages 19-36 years (N = 2,801). Criteria for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), PDs were assessed using a structured interview. General substance-use risk was indicated by World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interviewed alcohol use disorder and illicit drug use, and by self-reported regular smoking. A general risk factor for all criteria of both ASPD and BPD was the strongest individual correlate of general substance use and showed etiologic continuity, though just 3 specific PD criteria could predict substance use to the same extent. The findings indicate that a broad latent factor for both ASPD and BPD may be a specific and a genetically and environmentally unconfounded risk factor for substance use. Substance-use treatment research might benefit from attending to transdiagnostic models of ASPD, BPD, and related behavioral disinhibition.
  • Salonen, Anne H.; Alho, Hannu; Castren, Sari (2016)
    Aims: This study investigates the proportion of concerned significant others (CSOs) of problem gamblers at population level and describes the extent and type of gambling harms for CSOs. Methods: Cross-sectional random sample data (n = 4515) were collected in 2015. The data were weighted based on age, gender and residence. CSOs were identified using a question including seven options. Gambling harms were inquired using structured questions. Descriptive statistics and Chi-Squared and Fischer's exact tests were used. Results: Overall, the proportion of CSOs was 19.3%. Males had close friends with gambling problems more often than females, while females had family members with gambling problems more often than males. Of the CSOs, 59.5% had experienced one or more harms. Females experienced more harms than males. Typical harms were worry about health or well-being of close ones, emotional distress and problems in interpersonal relationships. CSOs with a problem gambler in the family, particularly a partner, child/children or mother, experienced harms more often than CSOs with a problem gambler as a close friend. Conclusions: Female gender was associated with a larger extent of harms. The extent of harms was greatest if the problem gambler was a family member; however, a substantial amount of harms were experienced when the problem gambler was a close friend. CSOs and their position in evaluating gambling harms in general should be acknowledged. Persons beyond the nuclear family and the harms they encounter should be better acknowledged in prevention and harm minimisation. Early identification and a clear referral path to tailored support in occupational, social and healthcare settings may be considered.
  • Istolahti, Tiia; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Huhtala, Heini; Nieminen, Tuomo; Kähönen, Mika; Lehtimäki, Terho; Eskola, Markku; Anttila, Ismo; Jula, Antti; Rissanen, Harri; Nikus, Kjell; Hernesniemi, Jussi (2021)
    Background Inverted T waves in the electrocardiogram (ECG) have been associated with coronary heart disease (CHD) and mortality. The pathophysiology and prognostic significance of T-wave inversion may differ between different anatomical lead groups, but scientific data related to this issue is scarce. Methods A representative sample of Finnish subjects (n = 6,354) aged over 30 years underwent a health examination including a 12-lead ECG in the Health 2000 survey. ECGs with T-wave inversions were divided into three anatomical lead groups (anterior, lateral, and inferior) and were compared to ECGs with no pathological T-wave inversions in multivariable-adjusted Fine-Gray and Cox regression hazard models using CHD and mortality as endpoints. Results The follow-up for both CHD and mortality lasted approximately fifteen years (median value with interquartile ranges between 14.9 and 15.3). In multivariate-adjusted models, anterior and lateral (but not inferior) T-wave inversions associated with increased risk of CHD (HR: 2.37 [95% confidence interval 1.20-4.68] and 1.65 [1.27-2.15], respectively). In multivariable analyses, only lateral T-wave inversions associated with increased risk of mortality in the entire study population (HR 1.51 [1.26-1.81]) as well as among individuals with no CHD at baseline (HR 1.59 [1.29-1.96]). Conclusions The prognostic information of inverted T waves differs between anatomical lead groups. T-wave inversion in the anterior and lateral lead groups is independently associated with the risk of CHD, and lateral T-wave inversion is also associated with increased risk of mortality. Inverted T wave in the inferior lead group proved to be a benign phenomenon.