Browsing by Subject "population-based"

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  • Broms, Ulla; Koskenvuo, Karoliina; Sillanmaki, Lauri H.; Mattila, Kari J.; Koskenvuo, Markku (2012)
  • Böckerman, Petri; Haapanen, Mika; Hakulinen, Christian; Karhunen, Hannu; Maczulskij, Terhi (2021)
    Background and aims Previous studies have shown that prescription opioid use is more common in socio-economicallydisadvantaged communities in the United States. This study examined the area and individual-level determinants of pre-scription opioiduse inFinlandduring the period 1995–2016. Design Logistic regression analysisusing nation-widedataonfilled opioid-related prescriptions dispensed at Finnish pharmacies and covered by National Health Insurance. Opioidconsumption was linked, using personal identification codes, to population-based data maintained by Statistics Finland,which records individual background and area-level characteristics. Setting and participants Working-age populationaged between 15 and 64 years in Finland during the periods 1995–2007 (n= 4315409) and 2009–16 (n=4116992). Measurements Annual prescription opioid use was measured using defined daily doses (DDD) and whether people usedopioids during a year. Findings Prescription opioid use increased in Finland from 1995 to 2016 (from less than 1 to 7%),but the increase was explained by the change in the treatment of codeine-based opioids in National Health Insurance. Thearea-level unemployment rate was positively correlated with the share of opioid users at the municipal level (r=0.36;P<0.001). In comparison with being employed, being outside the labour force was associated with increased opioiduse in 1995–2007 [odds ratio (OR) = 2.22, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.10–2.36] and non-codeine opioid use in2009–16 (OR = 2.16, 95% CI = 2.06–2.27), but not with codeine opioid use in 2009–16. Conclusions Prescriptionopioid use in Finland appears to be more common among low socio-economic status people, similar to the UnitedStates and the United Kingdom.
  • Virtanen, Aapo; Haukka, Jari; Loukovaara, Sirpa; Harju, Mika (2023)
    Purpose The aim of this study was to investigate the association of diabetes mellitus (DM) and risk of open-angle glaucoma (OAG). Methods This population-based historic cohort consisted of individuals at age >= 40 years with DM treatment initiated 2001-2010 and a reference population matched by age, gender and hospital district. Incidence of OAG was compared between individuals with DM and their matched non-diabetic reference pairs. New glaucoma cases were identified from medication reimbursement certificates and hospital billing records. Incidence rate ratios (IRR) were analysed with Poisson regression models adjusted for age, sex, hospital district, socioeconomic status, systemic medications and chronic diseases. We analysed the sensitivity of the results with adapted input variables and performed a competing events analysis. Results Of the 244 100 study subjects meeting inclusion criteria, 2721 (1.1%) developed OAG. Follow-up spanned from 2001 to 2017. DM was associated with a modestly reduced incidence of OAG when adjusted for confounding factors (IRR 0.92, CI 0.85-0.99). Conclusions In our longitudinal population-based study, we found a modest decrease in the risk of OAG for individuals with DM.
  • Kero, Mia; Raunio, Anna; Polvikoski, Tuomo; Tienari, Pentti J.; Paetau, Anders; Myllykangas, Liisa (2018)
    Background: There are only few population-based studies that have systemically investigated the prevalence of hippocampal sclerosis (HS) in the very old. The frequency of unilateral versus bilateral HS has been rarely studied. Objective: We investigated the prevalence and laterality of HS and its association with other neurodegenerative and vascular pathologies in a population-based sample of very elderly. Furthermore, the concomitant presence of immunoreactivity for TDP-43, p62, and HPtau was studied. Methods: The population-based Vantaa 85(+) study includes all inhabitants of the city of Vantaa, who were > 85 years in 1991 (n = 601). Neuropathological assessment was possible in 302 subjects. Severity of neuronal loss of CA sectors and subiculum was determined bilaterally by HE-staining. Immunohistochemistry performed using antibodies for TDP-43, p62, and HPtau. Results: Neuronal loss and pathological changes in the hippocampus sector CA1 and subiculum were observed in 47 of the 302 individuals (16%), and 51% of these changes were bilateral. HS without comorbid neurodegenerative pathology was found in 1/47 subjects with HS (2%). Dementia (p <0.001) and TDP-43 immunopositivity of the granular cell layer of the dentate fascia (p <0.001) were strongly associated with HS. The CERAD score, immunopositivity for HPtau and p62 in the granular cell layer of the fascia dentate were also associated. Conclusion: HS is prevalent (16%) in the oldest old population, but HS without any comorbid neurodegenerative pathology is rare. The high frequency of unilateral HS (49%) implied that bilateral sampling of hippocampi should be routine practice in neuropathological examination.
  • Osterlund, Emerik; Ristimäki, Ari; Kytölä, Soili; Kuopio, Teijo; Heervä, Eetu; Muhonen, Timo; Halonen, Päivi; Kallio, Raija; Soveri, Leena-Maija; Sundström, Jari; Keinänen, Mauri; Algars, Annika; Ristamäki, Raija; Sorbye, Halfdan; Pfeiffer, Per; Nunes, Luis; Salminen, Tapio; Lamminmäki, Annamarja; MÄkinen, Markus J.; Sjöblom, Tobias; Isoniemi, Helena; Glimelius, Bengt; Österlund, Pia (2022)
    BackgroundKRAS mutations, present in over 40% of metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC), are negative predictive factors for anti-EGFR therapy. Mutations in KRAS-G12C have a cysteine residue for which drugs have been developed. Published data on this specific mutation are conflicting; thus, we studied the frequency and clinical characteristics in a real-world and population-based setting. MethodsPatients from three Nordic population-based cohorts and the real-life RAXO-study were combined. RAS and BRAF tests were performed in routine healthcare, except for one cohort. The dataset consisted of 2,559 patients, of which 1,871 could be accurately classified as KRAS, NRAS, and BRAF-V600E. Demographics, treatments, and outcomes were compared using logistic regression. Overall survival (OS) was estimated with Kaplan-Meier, and differences were compared using Cox regression, adjusted for baseline factors. ResultsThe KRAS-G12C frequency was 2%-4% of all tested in the seven cohorts (mean 3%) and 4%-8% of KRAS mutated tumors in the cohorts (mean 7%). Metastasectomies and ablations were performed more often (38% vs. 28%, p = 0.040), and bevacizumab was added more often (any line 74% vs. 59%, p = 0.007) for patients with KRAS-G12C- vs. other KRAS-mutated tumors, whereas chemotherapy was given to similar proportions. OS did not differ according to KRAS mutation, neither overall (adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 1.03; 95% CI 0.74-1.42, reference KRAS-G12C) nor within treatment groups defined as "systemic chemotherapy, alone or with biologics", "metastasectomy and/or ablations", or "best supportive care", RAS and BRAF wild-type tumors (n = 548) differed similarly to KRAS-G12C, as to other KRAS- or NRAS-mutated (n = 66) tumors. ConclusionsIn these real-life and population-based cohorts, there were no significant differences in patient characteristics and outcomes between patients with KRAS-G12C tumors and those with other KRAS mutations. This contrasts with the results of most previous studies claiming differences in many aspects, often with worse outcomes for those with a KRAS-G12C mutation, although not consistent. When specific drugs are developed, as for this mutation, differences in outcome will hopefully emerge.
  • Syvänen, Johanna; Nietosvaara, Yrjänä; Hurme, Saija; Perheentupa, Antti; Gissler, Mika; Raitio, Arimatias; Helenius, Ilkka (2021)
    Background Risk factors for congenital limb deficiencies are poorly understood. Objective To investigate risk factors for congenital limb deficiencies. Methods We conducted a nationwide population-based case-control (1:5) study in Finland, using national registers on congenital anomalies, births, and induced abortions, cross-linked with data on maternal prescription medicine use obtained from the registers on Reimbursed Drug Purchases and Medical Special Reimbursements. Five hundred and four children with limb deficiencies (241 isolated, 181 syndromic, and 82 other associated anomalies) were identified, and 2,520 controls were matched to cases on residence and year of pregnancy. Non-syndromic cases (n = 323) were subdivided into longitudinal (n = 120), transverse (n = 123), intercalary (n = 24), mixed (n = 18), and unknown (n = 38) deficiencies. Results Pregestational diabetes was associated with all limb deficiencies (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 12.71, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.37, 68.25) and with isolated (OR 11.42, 95% CI 2.00, 64.60) deficiencies. Primiparity was associated with increased risk of congenital limb deficiencies among all cases (OR 1.49, 95% CI 1.15, 1.93), isolated cases (OR 1.46, 95% CI 1.09, 1.96), and among cases with longitudinal (OR 1.90, 95% CI 1.24, 2.90) and transverse deficiencies (OR 1.75, 95% CI 1.13, 2.70). Young maternal age (= 35 years) was associated with syndromic (OR 1.82, 95% CI 1.19, 2.78) and transverse deficiencies (OR 1.94, 95% CI 1.06, 3.57). Maternal antiepileptic medication was associated with all (OR 5.77, 95% CI 1.75, 19.04) and with isolated cases (OR 3.83, 95% CI 1.02, 14.34). Conclusions It is important that pregnant women taking medications, especially antiepileptics, or women with pregestational diabetes are carefully monitored with regard to the occurrence and risk of limb deficiencies in the fetus.
  • Sahraravand, Ahmad; Haavisto, Anna-Kaisa; Holopainen, Juha M.; Leivo, Tiina (2018)
    Purpose To describe epidemiology, causes, treatments and outcomes of all ocular injuries in southern Finland among people aged 61 and older. MethodsResultsAll new ocular trauma patients, admitted to the Helsinki University Eye Hospital, during 1year in 2011-2012. The data were from hospital records and prospectively from patient questionnaires. The follow-up time was 3months. The incidence for ocular injuries among the elderly was 38/100000/year. From 118 patients 69% were men. The mean age was 70.9years old (median 67). The hospitalization rate was 14%. Injury types were minor traumas (48%), contusions (22%), chemical injuries (10%), eyelid wounds (8%), open globe injuries (OGI; 7%) and orbital fractures (5%). The injuries occurred at home (58%), institutions (12%) and in other public places (12%). The main causes of ocular injury were falls (22%), sticks (19%), superficial foreign bodies (18%) and chemicals (12%). All OGI and 88% of contusions needed a lifelong follow-up. A permanent visual or functional impairment occurred in 15 (13%) patients. Of these 53% were OGI, 40% contusions and 7% chemical injuries. The causes of permanent injuries were falls (seven cases, 47%), work tools, sports equipment, sticks, chemicals and eyeglasses. The incidence for legal blindness was 2.3/100000. ConclusionMinor trauma was the most frequent type, and home was the location of the most occurred eye injuries. Falls were the most frequent and serious cause, but behavioural causes were not significant. Preventive measures should be directed towards the main identified causes and risk factors of the eye injuries in the elderly.
  • Hjort, Rebecka; Ahlqvist, Emma; Andersson, Tomas; Alfredsson, Lars; Carlsson, Per-Ola; Grill, Valdemar; Groop, Leif; Martinell, Mats; Sorgjerd, Elin Pettersen; Tuomi, Tiinamaija; Asvold, Bjørn Olav; Carlsson, Sofia (2020)
    Purpose: Physical activity (PA) has been linked to a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes by reducing weight and improving insulin sensitivity. We investigated whether PA is associated with a lower incidence of latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA) and whether the association is modified by genotypes of human leukocyte antigen (HLA), transcription factor 7-like 2 ( TCF7L2)-rs7903146, or the fat mass and obesity-associated gene, FTO-rs9939609. Methods: We combined data from a Swedish case-control study and a Norwegian prospective study including 621 incident cases of LADA and 3596 cases of type 2 diabetes. We estimated adjusted pooled relative risks (RRs) and 95% CI of diabetes in relation to high (>= 30 minutes of moderate activity 3 times/ week) self-reported leisure time PA, compared to sedentariness. Results: High PA was associated with a reduced risk of LADA (RR 0.61; CI, 0.43-0.86), which was attenuated after adjustment for body mass index (BMI) (RR 0.90; CI, 0.63-1.29). The reduced risk applied only to noncarriers of HLA-DQB1 and -DRB1 (RR 0.49; CI, 0.33-0.72), TCF7L2 (RR 0.62; CI, 0.45-0.87), and FTO (RR 0.51; CI, 0.32-0.79) risk genotypes. Adjustment for BMI attenuated but did not eliminate these associations. For type 2 diabetes, there was an inverse association with PA (RR 0.49; CI, 0.42-0.56), irrespective of genotype. Main Conclusions: Our findings indicate that high PA is associated with a reduced risk of LADA in individuals without genetic susceptibility.
  • Savola, Sara; Kaivola, Karri; Raunio, Anna; Kero, Mia; Mäkelä, Mira; Pärn, Kalle; Palta, Priit; Tanskanen, Maarit; Tuimala, Jarno; Polvikoski, Tuomo; Tienari, Pentti J.; Paetau, Anders; Myllykangas, Liisa (2022)
    Abstract Aims Few studies have investigated primary age-related tauopathy (PART) in a population-based setting. Here, we assessed its prevalence, genetic background, comorbidities and features of cognitive decline in an unselected elderly population. Methods The population-based Vantaa 85+ study includes all 601 inhabitants of Vantaa aged ≥ 85 years in 1991. Neuropathological assessment was possible in 301. Dementia (DSM IIIR criteria) and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores were assessed at the baseline of the study and follow-ups. PART subjects were identified according to the criteria by Crary et al and were compared with subjects with mild and severe Alzheimer's disease (AD) neuropathological changes. The effects of other neuropathologies were taken into account using multivariate and sensitivity assays. Genetic analyses included APOE genotypes and 29 polymorphisms of the MAPT 3′ untranslated region (3′UTR region). Results The frequency of PART was 20n = 61/301, definite PART 5. When PART subjects were compared with those with severe AD pathology, dementia was less common, its age at onset was higher and duration shorter. No such differences were seen when compared with those with milder AD pathology. However, both AD groups showed a steeper decline in MMSE scores in follow-ups compared with PART. APOE ε4 frequency was lower, and APOE ε2 frequency higher in the PART group compared with each AD group. The detected nominally significant associations between PART and two MAPT 3′UTR polymorphisms and haplotypes did not survive Bonferroni correction. Conclusions PART is common among very elderly. PART subjects differ from individuals with AD-type changes in the pattern of cognitive decline, associated genetic and neuropathological features.
  • Lallukka, Tea; Ervasti, Jenni; Mittendorfer-Rutz, Ellenor; Tinghog, Petter; Kjeldgard, Linnea; Pentti, Jaana; Virtanen, Marianna; Alexanderson, Kristina (2016)
    Aims: We aimed to examine how newly diagnosed diabetes and work disability jointly predict death during working age. Methods: We used prospective population-based register data of 25-59-year-old adults who had lived in Sweden since 2002. All those with onset of diabetes recorded in 2006 were included (n=14266). A 2% random sample (n=78598) was drawn from the general population, comprising people with no indication of diabetes during 2003-2010. Net days of sickness absence and disability pension in 2005-2006 were examined; the follow-up time for mortality was 2007-2010. Cox regression models were fitted (hazard ratios, HR, 95% confidence interval, CI) adjusting for sociodemographics and time-dependent health conditions. Results: Individuals with diabetes and work disability for over 6 months were at a higher risk of premature death (HR=14.2, 95% CI 12.0-16.8) than their counterparts without diabetes and work disability. A high risk was also observed among people without diabetes but equally prolonged work disability (HR=6.4, 95% CI 5.4-7.6). Diabetes was associated with premature death even without work disability (HR=3.5, 95% CI 2.8-4.4). The associations were particularly attenuated after adjustment for health conditions assessed over the follow-up. Conclusions: Diabetes and work disability jointly increase the risk of death during working age. Diabetes with long-term work disability is associated with the highest risk of premature death, which highlights the importance of their prevention and early detection.
  • Nordic Study Grp Pediat Rheumatolo; Rypdal, Veronika; Glerup, Mia; Songstad, Nils Thomas; Aalto, Kristiina; Leinonen, Sanna (2021)
    Purpose: To assess the long-term outcome of uveitis in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Design: Population-based, multicenter, prospective JIA cohort, with a cross-sectional assessment of JIA-associated uveitis (JIA-U) 18 years after the onset of JIA. Participants: A total of 434 patients with JIA, of whom 96 had uveitis, from defined geographic areas of Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden. Methods: Patients with onset of JIA between January 1997 and June 2000 were prospectively followed for 18 years. Pediatric rheumatologists and ophthalmologists collected clinical and laboratory data. Main Outcome Measures: Cumulative incidence of uveitis and clinical characteristics, JIA and uveitis disease activity, ocular complications, visual outcome, and risk factors associated with the development of uveitis-related complications. Results: Uveitis developed in 96 (22.1%) of 434 patients with JIA. In 12 patients (2.8%), uveitis was diagnosed between 8 and 18 years of follow-up. Systemic immunosuppressive medication was more common among patients with uveitis (47/96 [49.0%]) compared with patients without uveitis (78/338 [23.1 %]). Active uveitis was present in 19 of 78 patients (24.4%) at the 18-year visit. Ocular complications occurred in 31 of 80 patients (38.8%). Short duration between the onset of JIA and the diagnosis of uveitis was a risk factor for developing ocular complications (odds ratio [OR], 1.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1-1.8). Patients with a diagnosis of uveitis before the onset of JIA all developed cataract and had an OR for development of glaucoma of 31.5 (95% CI, 3.6-274). Presence of antinuclear antibodies (ANAs) was also a risk factor for developing 1 or more ocular complications (OR, 3.0; 95% CI, 1.2-7.7). Decreased visual acuity (VA) Conclusions: Our results suggest that uveitis screening should start immediately when the diagnosis of JIA is suspected or confirmed and be continued for more than 8 years after the diagnosis of JIA. Timely systemic immunosuppressive treatment in patients with a high risk of developing ocular complications must be considered early in the disease course to gain rapid control of ocular inflammation. (C) 2020 by the American Academy of Ophthalmology.