Browsing by Subject "practice"

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  • Segercrantz, Beata (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2011)
    Many Finnish IT companies have gone through numerous organizational changes over the past decades. This book draws attention to how stability may be central to software product development experts and IT workers more generally, who continuously have to cope with such change in their workplaces. It does so by analyzing and theorizing change and stability as intertwined and co-existent, thus throwing light on how it is possible that, for example, even if ‘the walls fall down the blokes just code’ and maintain a sense of stability in their daily work. Rather than reproducing the picture of software product development as exciting cutting edge activities and organizational change as dramatic episodes, the study takes the reader beyond the myths surrounding these phenomena to the mundane practices, routines and organizings in product development during organizational change. An analysis of these ordinary practices offers insights into how software product development experts actively engage in constructing stability during organizational change through a variety of practices, including solidarity, homosociality, close relations to products, instrumental or functional views on products, preoccupations with certain tasks and humble obedience. Consequently, the study shows that it may be more appropriate to talk about varieties of stability, characterized by a multitude of practices of stabilizing rather than states of stagnation. Looking at different practices of stability in depth shows the creation of software as an arena for micro-politics, power relations and increasing pressures for order and formalization. The thesis gives particular attention to power relations and processes of positioning following organizational change: how social actors come to understand themselves in the context of ongoing organizational change, how they comply with and/or contest dominant meanings, how they identify and dis-identify with formalization, and how power relations often are reproduced despite dis-identification. Related to processes of positioning, the reader is also given a glimpse into what being at work in a male-dominated and relatively homogeneous work environment looks like. It shows how the strong presence of men or “blokes” of a particular age and education seems to become invisible in workplace talk that appears ‘non-conscious’ of gender.
  • Holttinen, Heli (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2013)
    Economics and Society – 263
    This thesis investigates consumer value creation as an everyday sociocultural and situational phenomenon. The first objective was to understand and conceptualize how cultural ideals and practices inform consumer everyday value creation. I examined empirically how consumers enact cultural ideals in mundane consumption in the empirical context of a weekday dinner practice among Finnish households. The second objective was to contextualize a value proposition concept in customers’ practices. The approach consisted of a theoretical investigation of how consumers experience and evaluate value propositions in their practices in order to draw theoretical implications. Integrating complementing knowledge from S-D logic, Consumer Culture Theory, and Practice Theory provided me insightful theoretical lenses for the examinations. The findings highlight the primacy of cultural ideals and practices in consumer everyday value creation and value co-creation. They inform the consumers regarding which value propositions are desirable and thereby guide resource integration and thus purchasing decisions. This thesis portrays consumers as pragmatic, flexible and fragmented value-creating agents. It demonstrates how the consumers enact and compromise cultural ideals and identity projects in relation to practices. They compromise identity projects and cultural ideals in some practice(s) but not across practices. As the practices serve different ends for the consumers at different times, the meaning of the practices is constantly re-created by consumers. As resource integrators the consumers accept and use value propositions in the practices in their own ways irrespective of firms’ intentions, in order to enact cultural ideals. Value becomes co-created only when the consumers (as customers) can enact cultural ideals by integrating firms’ offerings with their other resources - and as a result experience value. While this thesis illuminates the interplay among cultural ideals, practices, value propositions, and consumer action, it offers a cultural and practice-theoretical conceptualization of how consumers, material objects and a sociocultural environment interact and co-create each other at a certain time in history and in the consumers’ lives. The findings represent the value of an offering as a dynamic, context-dependent, intersubjective and subjective notion that is constantly co-created and re-created by customers. This thesis introduces firms a sociocultural and practice-theoretical approach for the new offering development process. It means perceiving and investigating customers’ lives and value-creating activities as a mosaic of practices in which the customers try to enact cultural ideals by integrating value propositions with their other resources. By contextualizing the value propositions in the customers’ practices, the thesis helps firms to improve the effectiveness of the new offering development process. Effectiveness here refers to the ability of the firms to create offerings that are both culturally and practically desirable for the customers. By addressing the cultural ideals and the practical realities of everyday life, effective offerings make it possible for the customers to enact the cultural ideals in their everyday lives.
  • Laine, Sonja-Riitta (Helsingin yliopisto, 2022)
    This thesis focuses on the understandings of the body among contemporary dancers in the western post-modern scene. In doing so, it aims to describe the ways contemporary dancers experience thinking, mind language and agency in their bodies. Further, the aim of this thesis is to understand how this affects experiences of self and being. Examining ethnographical examples and the discussions on the body-mind relations, this thesis endeavours to further the understanding of experienced relationships between body, mind and thinking in the West. Additionally it looks at the ways through which embodied knowledge is produced, shared, and evaluated among contemporary dancers. As such, it takes a critical stance towards dualistic notions of mind and body; rational and sensed; culture and nature. In this thesis, contemporary dancers are approached as a professional category. The ethnographic data was gathered during a two and a half month fieldwork period in Berlin in the summer 2021. The fieldwork comprised of participant observation in rehearsals, festivals, workshops and weekly professional dance classes, supplemented by seven semi-structured interviews with contemporary dance artists. The field notes and interviews were accompanied by auto-ethnographic description. Further, importance for the authotrs own bodily experience and understanding was granted in building analytical understanding The theoretical framework of this thesis draws from phenomenology, discussions of body and mind, and theories of personhood. Phenomenological discussions and theories of bodily practice and sensorial anthropology are used to examine how information is embodied in dance practices, and how the idea of embodied knowledge is constructed and shared. The ethnographical evidence suggests that contemporary dancers use strategies of embodiment to articulate, transmit, and integrate meaning and language. In the second part of the analysis, the focus lies on the experiences and conceptualizations of body, mind, thinking and their relations. The experiential concept of “observing while doing” is described and discussed. Finally, this thesis considers what kinds of notions of self, personhood and agency are attained in the experience of dancing. Here, theories on dividual subjects are used to examine ethnographical findings. The analysis and ethnographical evidence in this thesis suggest that the experience of a dancing body is multiple and can be altered using strategies of embodiment. The multiplicity of the body, as well as the multiplicities of thinking and mind, are sensed through somatic modes of attention. Further, the expansion of experiential understandings of the body has led to conceptual multiplicity of the body and mind. Finally, this thesis argues that the dancing subjects are dividual in the way that their experiences and expressions are constituted by distinct embodied knowledges from their training, education, dance work, and other environments. The findings of this thesis call for reflection of the body-mind relation and notions of thinking in the West, utilizing knowledge produced by contemporary dancers attending specific perceptual awareness and notions of bodily knowledge and thinking in their work.
  • Sorsa, Virpi (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2012)
    Economics and Society – 248
    “Strategizing has become one of the most important managerial practices. It is becoming harder and harder to find an organization, which wouldn't engage in yearly strategic planning and implementation cycles. Although the theorizing of "planning" is becoming less popular in strategy research and the theorization of "process" and "practice" is gaining more and more ground, the practice itself - the managerial elite's strategy workshops, the writing of official strategy documents and the employees' and interest groups' various innovative ways of interpreting and using those documents - has become accustomed, legitimate and even expected in contemporary organizations. This thesis examines the social practice of strategizing in municipal and congregational strategy work through various discursive perspectives and explains how strategy enters into and figures in the daily lives of people organizations. The contributions of this thesis are presented in six essays, which examine the actual strategy conversations and texts. This approach gives the reader a unique opportunity to access information and learn about issues which are typically kept out of sight to outside eyes. The results of this thesis emphasize the constitutive role of discourse and communication at different sites of social life within the context of strategizing. With its distinctive approach to studying the transcripts and videorecordings of strategy work, this thesis sensitizes scholars to pay careful attention to language and its role in social practice of strategy and will be invaluable to scholars, researchers, and graduate students in strategy communication.”
  • Koota, Elina; Kääriäinen, Maria; Kyngäs, Helvi; Lääperi, Mitja; Melender, Hanna-Leena (2021)
    Background Emergency care clinicians are expected to use the latest research evidence in practice. However, emergency nurses do not always consistently implement evidence-based practice (EBP). An educational intervention on EBP was implemented to promote emergency nurses' use of EBP, and the effectiveness of it was evaluated. Aims This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of an EBP educational intervention on emergency nurses' EBP attitudes, knowledge, self-efficacy, skills, and behavior. The study also examined learners' satisfaction with the EBP educational intervention. Methods A randomized controlled trial with parallel groups with evaluations before the education, immediately after it, and 6 and 12 months after the education was conducted at four emergency departments in two university hospitals. The experimental group (N = 40) received EBP education while the control group (N = 40) completed self-directed EBP education. The primary outcomes were emergency nurses' EBP attitudes, knowledge, self-efficacy, skills, and behavior, while the secondary outcome was satisfaction with the EBP education. Results Thirty-five participants of an experimental and 29 participants of a control group completed the study. There were no statistically significant (p <.05) improvements and differences between groups in EBP attitude, self-efficacy, or behavior immediately after the EBP education. At the 6-month measurement point, the experimental group showed significantly better EBP attitudes, behavior, knowledge, and self-efficacy than the control group. At the 12-month measurement point, the improvements began to decrease. The groups also differed significantly in terms of participant satisfaction with how the teacher encouraged learners to ask clinical questions. Linking Evidence to Action The EBP educational intervention implemented in this study had a positive effect on emergency nurses' EBP attitudes, knowledge, self-efficacy, skills, and behavior. The effects of the education appeared the best 6 months after the education. After this point, the results began to decrease and approached baseline levels. EBP educational interventions designed for emergency nurses should apply various teaching strategies to improve their EBP attitude, knowledge, self-efficacy, skills, behavior, and satisfaction with the education.
  • Lizardo, Omar (Helsinki Collegium for Advanced Studies, 2012)
    COLLeGIUM: Studies across Disciplines in the Humanities and Social Sciences 12
  • Helantera, Ilkka; Gissler, Mika; Rimhanen-Finne, Ruska; Ikonen, Niina; Kanerva, Mari; Lempinen, Marko; Finne, Patrik (2021)
    Seasonal influenza causes morbidity and mortality after organ transplantation. We quantified the detection of laboratory-confirmed influenza among kidney transplant recipients compared to the general population in a nationwide cohort. All laboratory-confirmed cases of influenza and hospitalizations due to influenza among all kidney transplant recipients in our country between 1995 and 2017 were captured with database linkage from statutory national registries. Data from the general population of Finland, population 5.5 million, were used for comparisons. Annual incidences of influenza and hospitalizations due to influenza, and standardized incidence ratios (SIR) were calculated. Altogether 3904 kidney transplant recipients with a total follow-up of 37 175 patient-years were included. Incidence of laboratory-confirmed influenza was 9.0 per 1000 patient years in 2003-2019, and 18.0 per 1000 patient years during 2015-2019. The risk of laboratory-confirmed influenza was significantly higher among kidney transplant recipients compared to the general population (SIR 5.1, 95% CI 4.5-5.7). SIR for hospitalization due to influenza was 4.4 (95% CI 3.4-4.7). Mortality of the hospitalized patients was 9%, and 5% of the patients with laboratory-confirmed influenza. Detection of laboratory-confirmed influenza is increased fivefold and risk of hospitalization due to influenza more than fourfold among kidney transplant recipients compared to the general population.
  • Hirvonen, Jouni; Salminen, Outi; Vuorensola, Katariina; Katajavuori, Nina; Huhtala, Helena; Atkinson, Jeffrey (2019)
    The Pharmacy Education in Europe (PHARMINE) project studies pharmacy practice and education in the European Union (EU) member states. The work was carried out using an electronic survey sent to chosen pharmacy representatives. The surveys of the individual member states are now being published as reference documents for students and staff interested in research on pharmacy education in the EU, and in mobility. This paper presents the results of the PHARMINE survey on pharmacy practice and education in Finland. Pharmacies have a monopoly on the dispensation of medicines. They can also provide diagnostic services. Proviisori act as pharmacy owners and managers. They follow a five-year (M.Sc. Pharm.) degree course with a six-month traineeship. Farmaseutti, who follow a three-year (B.Sc. Pharm.) degree course (also with a six-month traineeship), can dispense medicines and counsel patients in Finland. The B.Sc. and the first three years of the M.Sc. involve the same course. The current pharmacy curriculum (revised in 2014) is based on five strands: (1) pharmacy as a multidisciplinary science with numerous opportunities in the working life, (2) basics of pharmaceutical sciences, (3) patient and medication, (4) optional studies and selected study paths, and (5) drug development and use. The learning outcomes of the pharmacy graduates include (1) basics of natural sciences: chemistry, physics, technology, biosciences required for all the students (B.Sc. and M.Sc.), (2) medicine and medication: compounding of medicines, holism of medication, pharmacology and biopharmaceutics (side-effects and interactions), patient counseling, efficacy and safety of medicines and medication, (3) comprehensive and supportive interactions of the various disciplines of pharmacy education and research: the role and significance of pharmacy as a discipline in society, the necessary skills and knowledge in scientific thinking and pharmaceutical research, and (4) basics of economics and management, multidisciplinarity, hospital pharmacy, scientific writing skills, management skills. In addition, teaching and learning of "general skills", such as the pharmacist's professional identity and the role in society as a part of the healthcare system, critical and creative thinking, problem-solving skills, personal learning skills and life-long learning, attitude and sense of responsibility, and communication skills are developed in direct association with subject-specific courses. Professional specialization studies in industrial pharmacy, and community and hospital pharmacy are given at the post-graduate level at the University of Helsinki.
  • Appelroth, Eric (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1959)
  • Taipale, Jaakko (2019)
    This study examines two different approaches in empirical analysis of judges' evaluation of expertise in court: first, an analyst-based approach that employs predefined normative criteria to measure judges' performance, and second, an actor-based approach that emphasizes interpretative flexibility in judges' evaluation practice. I demonstrate how these different approaches to investigating judges' adjudication lead to differing understandings about judges' abilities to evaluate scientific evidence and testimonial. Although the choice of analytical approach might depend on context and purpose in general, I contend that in assessing judges' competence, an actor-based approach that adequately describes the way in which judges relate to and handle expertise is required to properly understand and explain how judges evaluate expertise. The choice of approach is especially important if the resulting understanding of judges' competence is subsequently used as a basis for making normative and prescriptive claims with potential consequences for trial outcomes.
  • Vaara, Eero; Fay, Eric (Hanken School of Economics, 2012)
    Accepted Article/Accepted Manuscript on the 3 Feb 2012
    Despite a proliferation of critical studies on management education, there is a paucity of knowledge of the ways in which problematic beliefs, values and practices are reproduced in and through management education. By drawing on and extending Bourdieu’s seminal work, this paper offers a new perspective on reproduction on the global scale. Our framework spans three inter-related levels of analysis: the dominant beliefs, values and practices (nomos and doxa) of management in global society, the structuration of the field of management education on a global scale, and the prevailing pedagogical practices in management education programs. Our analysis adds to critical studies of management education by elucidating the overwhelming institutional forces of reproduction and thus explaining how difficult it is to effect change in the prevailing ideas, values and practices. Unlike most critical analyses, we also explain how change might take place and what it would require. Thus, our analysis advances studies of reproduction in this era of globalization more generally. It also provides an example of how Bourdieusian ideas can be applied and expanded upon in novel ways in research on education in general and management education in particular.
  • Säntti, Janne; Puustinen, Mikko; Salminen, Jari (2018)
    Our aim in this article is to examine the relationship between theory and practice in Finnish teacher education from the 1960s to the present. We identify four different periods to represent this relationship based on our analysis of national committee and evaluation reports. Theory and practice gradually converged, culminating in a research-based agenda that reflects the current situation. This relationship between theory and practice also reflects the ideal teacher of different times and what a teacher's working orientation should be. We use rhetorical analysis and the concept of a 'philosophical pair' introduced by Perelman and Olbrechts-Tyteca to interpret this development.