Browsing by Subject "pragmatism"

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  • Määttänen, Pentti (Suomalainen Tiedeakatemia, 1993)
    Annales Academiae Scientiarum Fennicae, Dissertationes Humanarum Litterarum 64
  • Gronow, Antti (Helsinki Collegium for Advanced Studies, 2012)
    COLLeGIUM: Studies across Disciplines in the Humanities and Social Sciences 12
  • Kilpinen, Erkki (Helsinki Collegium for Advanced Studies, 2012)
    COLLeGIUM: Studies across Disciplines in the Humanities and Social Sciences 12
  • Muurinen, Heidi; Kääriäinen, Aino (2020)
    How could social workers apply theory in their everyday practice? According to John Dewey, theories are helpful instruments in analysing situations and forming hypotheses which are tested in practical experiments. Inspired by Dewey’s pragmatist philosophy, we designed a “Practice and Theory” pilot intervention group in which social workers were provided external, theory-driven supervision. This research is a three-case study of the pilot intervention group. Based on a thematic analysis of reflective discussions during the last group sessions and follow-up group interviews, we investigate the difficulties the social workers described in applying theoretical knowledge to practice. We explore what consequences they recognized when reflecting on and experimenting with theoretical knowledge. Our study demonstrates that the major barriers were lack of time and access to theories, difficulties in changing one’s own practice and establishing supportive structures, the lack of competence to understand the role theories and having become estranged theories. However, the positive consequences experienced in the three Practice and Theory groups suggest that the pilot intervention could serve as a potential model for integrating theoretical research into practice. The participants considered that reflecting theories enabled new understanding as well as allowed experimenting with new ways of operating. Participating in the group also improved social workers’ argumentation, helping them to recognize their own expertise. It also raised professional self-esteem and enabled self-development. In the group, the dialogical, reflective and experimental inquiry were key to understanding how theoretical knowledge can open new perspectives.
  • Sirén, Hanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2008)
    Pro graduni lähtökohtana on Wendy Holdenin romaani Bad Heir Day, jota käytän vertailevassa tutkimuksessani esimerkkiteoksena tarkastellessani englantilaisen ja suomalaisen kulttuurin ominaispiirteitä, huumoria ja kääntämistä monitieteisten lähteiden avulla. Pohdin myös tutkimusprosessin aikana esiin nousseita käännöstutkimukseen ja ylipäänsä tutkimukseen liittyviä aspekteja mahdollisia tulevia tutkimuksia tai muita soveltamiskohteita varten. Kappaleessa 2 käsittelen lähdetekstiä eli Bad Heir Day -romaania, minkä jälkeen siirryn tutkimaan vertailevasti englantilaista ja suomalaista kulttuuria, tärkeimpinä yhteiskunnallista ulottuvuutta käsittelevinä lähdeteoksina Anthony Giddensin Sociology (2006) ja Kimmo Jokisen & Kimmo Saariston Suomalainen yhteiskunta (2006). Kappaleissa 3 - 5 käsittelen Bad Heir Dayn kirjallisuusgenrejä ja huumoria. Kappaleessa 6 tarkastelen sekä kääntämistä että kulttuurienvälistä kommunikaatiota, lähteinä mm. Andrew Chesterman (1997), Fons Trompenaars (Charles 2003, HSE) ja Edward T. Hall (Varner & Beamer 1995). Kappale 7 taas käsittelee omaa tutkimuskohdettani kvalitatiivisen tutkimuksen keinoin. Käytän käännösnäytteiden luokittelussa Chestermanin (1997) kategorioita. Kappaleen 7 loppuosa keskittyy käännöksen lukijoihin, sisältäen mm. kolmen lukijan palautetta. Lopulta kappaleessa 8 käsittelen gradunteon aikana kiinnostukseni herättänyttä tutkimus- ja käännösprosessitutkimusta sekä käytän lähteitä tutkimusprosessin reflektointiin, painottaen eri metodien harjoittelemisen tärkeyttä. Tämän kappaleen lähteinä ovat mm. Riitta Jääskeläisen väitöskirja (1993), Juha Varron online-luento (2004) ja Mika Elon artikkeli (2007) taiteellisesta tutkimuksesta sekä Jussi Pakkasvirran Monitiede vai monta tiedettä (2003).
  • Pihlström, Sami (Helsinki University Press, 2020)
    As a traditional theological issue and in its broader secular varieties, theodicy remains a problem in the philosophy of religion. In this remarkable book, Sami Pihlström provides a novel critical reassessment of the theodicy discourse addressing the problem of evil and suffering. He develops and defends an antitheodicist view, arguing that theodicies seeking to render apparently meaningless suffering meaningful or justified from a ‘God’s-Eye-View’ ultimately rely on metaphysical realism failing to recognize the individual perspective of the sufferer. Pihlström thus shows that a pragmatist approach to the realism issue in the philosophy of religion is a vital starting point for a re-evaluation of the problem of theodicy. With its strong positions and precise arguments, the volume provides a new approach which is likely to stimulate discussion in the wider academic world of philosophy of religion. Sami Pihlström is professor of philosophy of religion at the University of Helsinki. He has published widely on, e.g., the pragmatist tradition, the problem of realism, and the philosophy of religion.
  • Pyysiäinen, Jarkko (2021)
    This article argues that when attempting to extend the concept of affordances to encompass action possibilities characteristic of our sociocultural environments, a transactionally informed relational perspective—along the lines formulated by classical pragmatist thinkers (especially Dewey and Bentley but also Peirce and Mead)—proves useful. A transactional perspective helps to reveal the intimate conceptual connections between sociocultural affordances (SCAs) and agency: both are crucially about contextually defined goal-directed doings, and about learning to fluently master particular patterns of habits, skills, and sociocultural practices in culturally appropriate and socially feasible ways. The paper outlines first, critical issues in the conceptualization of SCAs; second, how the concept of SCAs also points towards a transactional conception of agency enactment; and third, how a transactional view helps to make sense of some of the apparently puzzling tensions and fringe areas between various conceptualizations of (sociocultural) affordances and agency.
  • Lehtonen, Saana (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    The purpose of this thesis is to investigate how a poetic metaphor challenges our common sense notions about the world (the estrangement effect) and enables unorthodox ways of thinking and acting (creative imagination). In the study, I will compare and evaluate theories that investigate the role that metaphor has in lived human experience. All the theories discussed share the view that metaphor is epistemologically important for humans. Two different characterisations of this epistemic importance can be identified: 1) the cognitive view, which emphasises the role of metaphor in unconscious, prelinguistic and embodied thought; 2) the pragmatic and phenomenological view of metaphor as a creative activity, a re-imagining of experience and a communicative phenomenon. Defending the latter position, I argue that metaphor has epistemic value, but not because metaphor serves as a cognitive foundation for shared human knowledge, but because it is a creative human pursuit of imagining new possibilities and ways of being. I will criticise the cognitive metaphor theory (CMT), as proposed by Lakoff and Johnson, which holds that metaphors are the foundation of human thought and reasoning. This position advocates ideas about global and fixed ways of interpreting metaphor. As such, it fails to explain novel poetic or scientific metaphors, but fairs better with common everyday metaphors, which already have fixed meanings. I will argue that the existence of universal cognitive metaphors is highly doubtful. As an alternative to the problematic framework of the cognitive metaphor theory, I propose pragmatic and phenomenological theories. The pragmatic view of metaphor, proposed by Davidson and Rorty, succeeds better at describing the experience which a novel metaphor incites in the reader. This position suggests that metaphor has an effect, which cannot be explained by extension of a word’s meaning. Metaphor is a linguistic stimulus, which forces the reader to do some creative guesswork about its intention and meaning. Metaphor has pragmatic potential, because it motivates human innovation and discovery. The phenomenological position, espoused by Ricoeur, describes the sense of wonder and excitement that living metaphor evokes in us. This view suggests that metaphorical estrangement is closely aligned with the phenomenological method of epoché, suspension of everyday judgment. Ricoeur suggests that poetic metaphor, similar to the epoché, can help us distance ourselves from the natural attitude and reveal novel ontological possibilities for humans. Despite their differences, both the pragmatist and the phenomenological position characterise metaphor as a creative use of language and arrive at similar conclusions. Committing metaphoric acts has positive consequences because metaphors motivate critical thought, prompt self-reflection and re-evaluation of our previous thought, and enable creative problem solving, speculation and invention.
  • D'Amato, Dalia; Droste, Nils; Chan, Sander; Hofer, Anton (2017)
    The Green Economy is a strategic development concept of the United Nations incorporating a broad array of potential meanings and implications. It is subject to academic conceptualisation, operationalisation, reflection and criticism. The aim of our paper is to conceptualise a subset of the multi-faceted and at times polarised debate around the implications and applications of the Green Economy concept, and to provide reflective grounds for approaches towards the concept. By using qualitative content analysis and a participatory approach, we investigate perceptions of young researchers from various disciplines working on issues related to the Green Economy. The spectrum of disparate perceptions observed among the respondents is accommodated within a two-dimensional model. The dimensions are 1) the degree and nature of desired societal change in relation to the current economic model and set of institutions; and 2) the role of research in delivering such change. We discuss the model in light of the existing literature.