Browsing by Subject "precision oncology"

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  • Tanoli, Ziaurrehman; Vähä-Koskela, Markus; Aittokallio, Tero (2021)
    Introduction: Drug repurposing provides a cost-effective strategy to re-use approved drugs for new medical indications. Several machine learning (ML) and artificial intelligence (AI) approaches have been developed for systematic identification of drug repurposing leads based on big data resources, hence further accelerating and de-risking the drug development process by computational means. Areas covered: The authors focus on supervised ML and AI methods that make use of publicly available databases and information resources. While most of the example applications are in the field of anticancer drug therapies, the methods and resources reviewed are widely applicable also to other indications including COVID-19 treatment. A particular emphasis is placed on the use of comprehensive target activity profiles that enable a systematic repurposing process by extending the target profile of drugs to include potent off-targets with therapeutic potential for a new indication. Expert opinion: The scarcity of clinical patient data and the current focus on genetic aberrations as primary drug targets may limit the performance of anticancer drug repurposing approaches that rely solely on genomics-based information. Functional testing of cancer patient cells exposed to a large number of targeted therapies and their combinations provides an additional source of repurposing information for tissue-aware AI approaches.
  • Tanoli, Ziaurrehman; Alam, Zaid; Ianevski, Aleksandr; Wennerberg, Krister; Vähä-Koskela, Markus; Aittokallio, Tero (2020)
    Knowledge of the full target space of drugs (or drug-like compounds) provides important insights into the potential therapeutic use of the agents to modulate or avoid their various on- and off-targets in drug discovery and precision medicine. However, there is a lack of consolidated databases and associated data exploration tools that allow for systematic profiling of drug target-binding potencies of both approved and investigational agents using a network-centric approach. We recently initiated a community-driven platform, Drug Target Commons (DTC), which is an open-data crowdsourcing platform designed to improve the management, reproducibility and extended use of compound-target bioactivity data for drug discovery and repurposing, as well as target identification applications. In this work, we demonstrate an integrated use of the rich bioactivity data from DTC and related drug databases using Drug Target Profiler (DTP), an open-source software and web tool for interactive exploration of drug-target interaction networks. DTP was designed for network-centric modeling of mode-of-action of multi-targeting anticancer compounds, especially for precision oncology applications. DTP enables users to construct an interaction network based on integrated bioactivity data across selected chemical compounds and their protein targets, further customizable using various visualization and filtering options, as well as cross-links to several drug and protein databases to provide comprehensive information of the network nodes and interactions. We demonstrate here the operation of the DTP tool and its unique features by several use cases related to both drug discovery and drug repurposing applications, using examples of anticancer drugs with shared target profiles. DTP is freely accessible at
  • He, Liye; Bulanova, Daria; Oikkonen, Jaana; Häkkinen, Antti; Zhang, Kaiyang; Zheng, Shuyu; Wang, Wenyu; Erkan, Erdogan Pekcan; Carpén, Olli; Joutsiniemi, Titta; Hietanen, Sakari; Hynninen, Johanna; Huhtinen, Kaisa; Hautaniemi, Sampsa; Vähärautio, Anna; Tang, Jing; Wennerberg, Krister; Aittokallio, Tero (2021)
    Each patient’s cancer consists of multiple cell subpopulations that are inherently heterogeneous and may develop differing phenotypes such as drug sensitivity or resistance. A personalized treatment regimen should therefore target multiple oncoproteins in the cancer cell populations that are driving the treatment resistance or disease progression in a given patient to provide maximal therapeutic effect, while avoiding severe co-inhibition of non-malignant cells that would lead to toxic side effects. To address the intra- and inter-tumoral heterogeneity when designing combinatorial treatment regimens for cancer patients, we have implemented a machine learning-based platform to guide identification of safe and effective combinatorial treatments that selectively inhibit cancer-related dysfunctions or resistance mechanisms in individual patients. In this case study, we show how the platform enables prediction of cancer-selective drug combinations for patients with high-grade serous ovarian cancer using single-cell imaging cytometry drug response assay, combined with genome-wide transcriptomic and genetic profiles. The platform makes use of drug-target interaction networks to prioritize those combinations that warrant further preclinical testing in scarce patient-derived primary cells. During the case study in ovarian cancer patients, we investigated (i) the relative performance of various ensemble learning algorithms for drug response prediction, (ii) the use of matched single-cell RNA-sequencing data to deconvolute cell population-specific transcriptome profiles from bulk RNA-seq data, (iii) and whether multi-patient or patient-specific predictive models lead to better predictive accuracy. The general platform and the comparison results are expected to become useful for future studies that use similar predictive approaches also in other cancer types.