Browsing by Subject "prevention"

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  • Blain, H.; Masud, T.; Dargent-Molina, P.; Martin, F. C.; Rosendahl, E.; van der Velde, N.; Bousquet, J.; Benetos, A.; Cooper, C.; Kanis, J. A.; Reginster, J. Y.; Rizzoli, R.; Cortet, B.; Barbagallo, M.; Dreinhofer, K. E.; Vellas, B.; Maggi, S.; Strandberg, T.; EUGMS Falls Fracture Interest Grp; Int Assoc Gerontology Geriatri; European Union Med Specialists EUM; Fragility Fracture Network FFN; European Soc Clinical Econ Aspects; Int Osteoporosis Fdn IOF (2016)
    Prevention of fragility fractures in older people has become a public health priority, although the most appropriate and cost-effective strategy remains unclear. In the present statement, the Interest Group on Falls and Fracture Prevention of the European Union Geriatric Medicine Society (EUGMS), in collaboration with the International Association of Gerontology and Geriatrics for the European Region (IAGG-ER), the European Union of Medical Specialists (EUMS), the International Osteoporosis Foundation - European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis and Osteoarthritis, outlines its views on the main points in the current debate in relation to the primary and secondary prevention of falls, the diagnosis and treatment of bone fragility, and the place of combined falls and fracture liaison services for fracture prevention in older people.
  • Shiri, Rahman; Heliövaara, Markku; Ahola, Kirsi; Kaila-Kangas, Leena; Haukka, Eija; Kausto, Johanna; Saastamoinen, Peppiina; Leino-Arjas, Päivi; Lallukka, Tea (2018)
    Objective This study aimed to develop and validate a risk screening tool using a points system to assess the risk of future disability retirement due to musculoskeletal disorders (MSD). Methods The development population, the Health 2000 Survey, consisted of a nationally representative sample of Finnish employees aged 30-60 years (N=3676), and the validation population, the Helsinki Health Study, consisted of employees of the City of Helsinki aged 40-60 years (N=6391). Both surveys were linked to data on disability retirement awards due to MSD from national register for an 11-year follow-up. Results The discriminative ability of the model with seven predictors was good (Gonen and Heller's K concordance statistic=0.821). We gave points to seven predictors: sex-dependent age, level of education, pain limiting daily activities, multisite musculoskeletal pain, history of arthritis, and surgery for a spinal disorder or carpal tunnel syndrome. A score of >= 3 out of 7 (top 30% of the index) had good sensitivity (83%) and specificity (70%). Individuals at the top 30% of the risk index were at 29 [95% confidence interval (CI) 15-55) times higher risk of disability retirement due to MSD than those at the bottom 40%. Conclusion This easy-to-use screening tool based on self-reported risk factor profiles can help identify individuals at high risk for disability retirement due to MSD.
  • Lehtisalo, J.; Lindstrom, J.; Ngandu, T.; Kivipelto, M.; Ahtiluoto, S.; Ilanne-Parikka, P.; Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, S.; Eriksson, J. G.; Uusitupa, M.; Tuomilehto, J.; Luchsinger, J.; Finnish Diabet Prevention Study DP (2016)
    Objectives: To investigate associations of long-term nutrient intake, physical activity and obesity with later cognitive function among the participants in the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study, in which a lifestyle intervention was successful in diabetes prevention. Design: An active lifestyle intervention phase during middle age (mean duration 4 years) and extended follow-up (additional 9 years) with annual lifestyle measurements, followed by an ancillary cognition assessment. Setting: 5 research centers in Finland. Participants: Of the 522 middle-aged, overweight participants with impaired glucose tolerance recruited to the study, 364 (70%) participated in the cognition assessment (mean age 68 years). Measurements: A cognitive assessment was executed with the CERAD test battery and the Trail Making Test A on average 13 years after baseline. Lifestyle measurements included annual clinical measurements, food records, and exercise questionnaires during both the intervention and follow-up phase. Results: Lower intake of total fat (p=0.021) and saturated fatty acids (p=0.010), and frequent physical activity (p=0.040) during the whole study period were associated with better cognitive performance. Higher BMI (p= 0.012) and waist circumference (p= 0.012) were also associated with worse performance, but weight reduction prior to the cognition assessment predicted worse performance as well (decrease vs. increase, p= 0.008 for BMI and p= 0.002 for waist). Conclusions: Long-term dietary fat intake, BMI, and waist circumference have an inverse association with cognitive function in later life among people with IGT. However, decreases in BMI and waist prior to cognitive assessment are associated with worse cognitive performance, which could be explained by reverse causality.
  • Basnet, Syaron; Merikanto, Ilona; Lahti, Tuuli; Männistö, Satu; Laatikainen, Tiina; Vartiainen, Erkki; Partonen, Timo (2016)
  • Neuvonen, Elisa; Lehtisalo, Jenni; Ngandu, Tiia; Levälahti, Esko; Antikainen, Riitta; Hänninen, Tuomo; Laatikainen, Tiina; Lindström, Jaana; Paajanen, Teemu; Soininen, Hilkka; Strandberg, Timo; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Kivipelto, Miia; Solomon, Alina (2022)
    Depression and cognition are associated, but the role of depressive symptoms in lifestyle interventions to prevent dementia needs further study. We investigated the intervention effect on depressive symptoms and their associations with cognition in the Finnish Geriatric Intervention Study to Prevent Cognitive Impairment and Disability (FINGER; NCT01041989), a two-year multidomain lifestyle trial. One thousand two-hundred and sixty individuals (60-77 years) at risk for dementia were randomised into a multidomain intervention (diet, exercise, cognitive training, and vascular/metabolic risk monitoring) or control group (regular health advice). Depressive symptoms (Zung scale) and cognition (modified Neuropsychological Test Battery) were evaluated at baseline, 12, and 24 months. One thousand one-hundred and twenty-five participants had baseline Zung data. Mean Zung score decreased 0.73 (SD 5.6) points in the intervention and 0.36 (5.6) points in the control group, with nonsignificant between-group difference (group x time coefficient -0.006, 95% CI -0.019 to 0.007). Overall, higher baseline Zung score was associated with less improvement in global cognition (-0.140, p = 0.005) and memory (-0.231, p = 0.005). Participants with clinically significant baseline depressive symptoms (Zung >= 40 points) had less intervention benefit to executive functioning (group x time x Zung -0.096, 95% CI -0.163 to -0.028). Change in Zung score was not associated with change in cognition. Clinically significant depressive symptoms warrant more attention when designing dementia-prevention interventions.
  • Young, T. Kue; Kelly, Janet J.; Friborg, Jeppe; Soininen, Leena; Wong, Kai O. (2016)
    Objectives. To determine and compare the incidence of cancer among the 8 Arctic States and their northern regions, with special focus on 3 cross-national indigenous groups - Inuit, Athabaskan Indians and Sami. Methods. Data were extracted from national and regional statistical agencies and cancer registries, with direct age-standardization of rates to the world standard population. For comparison, the "world average'' rates as reported in the GLOBOCAN database were used. Findings. Age-standardized incidence rates by cancer sites were computed for the 8 Arctic States and 20 of their northern regions, averaged over the decade 2000 - 2009. Cancer of the lung and colon/rectum in both sexes are the commonest in most populations. We combined the Inuit from Alaska, Northwest Territories, Nunavut and Greenland into a "Circumpolar Inuit'' group and tracked cancer trends over four 5-year periods from 1989 to 2008. There has been marked increase in lung, colorectal and female breast cancers, while cervical cancer has declined. Compared to the GLOBOCAN world average, Inuit are at extreme high risk for lung and colorectal cancer, and also certain rare cancers such as nasopharyngeal cancer. Athabaskans (from Alaska and Northwest Territories) share some similarities with the Inuit but they are at higher risk for prostate and breast cancer relative to the world average. Among the Sami, published data from 3 cohorts in Norway, Sweden and Finland show generally lower risk of cancer than non-Sami. Conclusions. Cancer among certain indigenous people in the Arctic is an increasing public health concern, especially lung and colorectal cancer.
  • Seppänen, H.; Puolakkainen, P. (2020)
    Background: Acute pancreatitis is a common disease, the incidence of which is 75-100/100,000/year in Finland. The worldwide incidence of acute pancreatitis is increasing. The identified mildcases usually show rapid recovery with conservative treatment allowing early discharge. Severe cases need early intensive care to reduce the risk of serious complications such as multi-organ failure. The revised Atlanta classification of acute pancreatitis was introduced in 2012-2013. A recurrent acute pancreatitis is defined as two or more well-documented separate attacks of acute pancreatitis with complete resolution in between. Alcoholic pancreatitis is the most common recurrent acute pancreatitis type. Methods: In this review current severity classifications and literature on the prevention of recurrent acute pancreatitis are analyzed. Results: The severity of the disease is classified as mild, moderately severe, and severe acute pancreatitis. Novel entities include acute peripancreatic fluid collections in mild acute pancreatitis and acute necrotic collections in necrotizing acute pancreatitis lesser than 4 weeks after the onset and pancreatic pseudocyst in mild acute pancreatitis and walled-off necrosis in necrotizing acute pancreatitis more than 4 weeks after the onset of the disease. After the first attack of alcohol-induced acute pancreatitis, 46% of the patients develop at least one recurrence within 10- to 20-year follow-up. With repeated intervention against alcohol consumption, it is possible to reduce the recurrences. Removing the gall bladder after biliary pancreatitis is the key preventing recurrences. In mild cases, even during the index admission; in severe cases, it is recommended to wait until the inflammatory changes have resolved. Of total, 59% of the idiopathic pancreatitis had sludge of stones in the gall bladder. In other etiologies, addressing the etiological factor may prevent recurrent acute pancreatitis. Conclusions: This review describes current use of novel severity classifications and also different possibilities to prevent recurrent acute pancreatitis with different etiologies including idiopathic.
  • Akerstrom, Ulf; Reitamo, Sakari; Langeland, Tor; Berg, Mats; Rustad, Lisbeth; Korhonen, Laura; Loden, Marie; Wiren, Karin; Grande, Mats; Skare, Petra; Svensson, Ake (2015)
    Atopic dermatitis (AD) affects adults and children and has a negative impact on quality of life. The present multicentre randomized double-blind controlled trial showed a barrier-improving cream (5% urea) to be superior to a reference cream in preventing eczema relapse in patients with AD (hazard ratio 0.634, p = 0.011). The risk of eczema relapse was reduced by 37% (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 10-55%). Median time to relapse in the test cream group and in the reference cream group was 22 days and 15 days, respectively (p = 0.013). At 6 months 26% of the patients in the test cream group were still eczema free, compared with 10% in the reference cream group. Thus, the barrier-improving cream significantly prolonged the eczema-free time compared with the reference cream and decreased the risk of eczema relapse. The test cream was well tolerated in patients with AD.
  • Sorsa, Minna Anneli; Kylmä, Jari; Bondas, Terese Elisabet (2021)
    Perinatal psychological distress (PPD) may cause delays in help-seeking in the perinatal period, which is crucial for families with small children. Help-seeking theories focus on rational processes of behavior wherein 'help-seeking' is viewed as a decision-making process, in which action is preceded by recognizing a problem. We identified the phase prior to actual help-seeking actions as a life situation and a phenomenon through which to gain a deeper understanding from women's own perspectives. The aim of this study was to integrate and synthesize knowledge of women's experiences of contemplating seeking help for PPD. We chose interpretative meta-ethnography by Noblit and Hare (1988) and implemented eMERGe guidelines in reporting. The search was performed systematically, and the 14 included studies were evaluated with Critical Appraisal Skills Programme checklist (CASP). We identified seven themes and a metaphor in a lines-of-argument synthesis, showing that contemplating help-seeking is a multidimensional phenomenon. We did not observe a straightforward and linear process (as previous research suggests) but instead a complex process of contemplating help-seeking. A clinical implication is that service providers should work with outreach and develop their tools to connect with mothers with PPD. Another suggestion is to improve training in mental health literacy prior to or during pregnancy.
  • Niemi, Jarkko K.; Edwards, Sandra A.; Papanastasiou, Dimitris K.; Piette, Deborah; Stygar, Anna H.; Wallenbeck, Anna; Valros, Anna (2021)
    Tail biting is an important animal welfare issue in the pig sector. Studies have identified various risk factors which can lead to biting incidents and proposed mitigation measures. This study focused on the following seven key measures which have been identified to affect the risk of tail biting lesions: improvements in straw provision, housing ventilation, genetics, stocking density, herd health, provision of point-source enrichment objects, and adoption of early warning systems. The aim of this study was to examine whether these selected measures to reduce the risk of tail biting lesions in pig fattening are cost-effective. The problem was analyzed by first summarizing the most prospective interventions, their costs and expected impacts on the prevalence of tail biting lesions, second, by using a stochastic bio-economic model to simulate the financial return per pig space unit and per pig at different levels of prevalence of tail biting lesions, and third by looking at how large a reduction in tail biting lesions would be needed at different levels of initial prevalence of lesions to cover the costs of interventions. Tail biting lesions of a severity which would require an action (medication, hospitalization of the pig or other care, or taking preventive measures) by the pig producer were considered in the model. The results provide guidance on the expected benefits and costs of the studied interventions. According to the results, if the average prevalence of tail biting lesions is at a level of 10%, the costs of this damaging behavior can be as high as euro2.3 per slaughtered pig (similar to 1.6% of carcass value). Measures which were considered the least expensive to apply, such as provision of point-source enrichment objects, or provided wider production benefits, such as improvements in ventilation and herd health, became profitable at a lower level of efficacy than measures which were considered the most expensive to apply (e.g., straw provision, increased space allowance, automated early warning systems). Measures which were considered most efficient in reducing the risk of tail biting lesions, such as straw provision, can be cost-effective in preventing tail biting, especially when the risk of tail biting is high. At lower risk levels, the provision of point-source objects and other less costly but relatively effective measures can play an important role. However, selection of measures appropriate to the individual farm problem is essential. For instance, if poor health or barren pens are causing the elevated risk of tail biting lesions, then improving health management or enriching the pens may resolve the tail biting problem cost-effectively.
  • Martikainen, Janne; Lehtimaki, Aku-Ville; Jalkanen, Kari; Lavikainen, Piia; Paajanen, Teemu; Marjonen, Heidi; Kristiansson, Kati; Lindström, Jaana; Perola, Markus (2022)
    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) with increasing prevalence is a significant global public health challenge. Obesity, unhealthy diet, and low physical activity are one of the major determinants of the rise in T2D prevalence. In addition, family history and genetic risk of diabetes also play a role in the process of developing T2D. Therefore, solutions for the early identification of individuals at high risk for T2D for early targeted detection of T2D, prevention, and intervention are highly preferred. Recently, novel genomic-based polygenic risk scores (PRSs) have been suggested to improve the accuracy of risk prediction supporting the targeting of preventive interventions to those at highest risk for T2D. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess the cost-utility of an additional PRS testing information (as a part of overall risk assessment) followed by a lifestyle intervention and an additional medical therapy when estimated 10-year overall risk for T2D exceeded 20% among Finnish individuals screened as at the high-risk category (i.e., 10%-20% 10-year overall risk of T2D) based on traditional risk factors only. For a cost-utility analysis, an individual-level state-transition model with probabilistic sensitivity analysis was constructed. A 1-year cycle length and a lifetime time horizon were applied in the base-case. A 3% discount rate was used for costs and QALYs. Cost-effectiveness acceptability curve (CEAC) and estimates for the expected value of perfect information (EVPI) were calculated to assist decision makers. The use of the targeted PRS strategy reclassified 12.4 percentage points of individuals to be very high-risk individuals who would have been originally classified as high risk using the usual strategy only. Over a lifetime horizon, the targeted PRS was a dominant strategy (i.e., less costly, more effective). One-way and scenario sensitivity analyses showed that results remained dominant in almost all simulations. However, there is uncertainty, since the probability (EVPI) of cost-effectiveness at a WTP of 0(sic)/QALY was 63.0% (243(sic)) indicating the probability that the PRS strategy is a dominant option. In conclusion, the results demonstrated that the PRS provides moderate additional value in Finnish population in risk screening leading to potential cost savings and better quality of life when compared with the current screening methods for T2D risk.
  • Laajasalo, Taina Tuulikki; Ellonen, Noora; Horselenberg, Robert; Izura, Christina; Wager, Nadia (2022)
  • Solomon, Alina; Handels, Ron; Wimo, Anders; Antikainen, Riitta; Laatikainen, Tiina; Levälahti, Esko; Peltonen, Markku; Soininen, Hilkka; Strandberg, Timo; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Kivipelto, Miia; Ngandu, Tiia (2021)
    We investigated the effect of a multidomain lifestyle intervention on the risk of dementia estimated using the validated CAIDE risk score (post-hoc analysis). The Finnish Geriatric Intervention Study to Prevent Cognitive Impairment and Disability (FINGER) is a 2-year randomized controlled trial among 1,260 at-risk older adults (60-77 years). Difference in the estimated mean change in CAIDE score at 2 years in the intervention compared to the control group was -0.16 (95 % CI -0.31 to 0.00) (p = 0.013), corresponding to a relative dementia risk reduction between 6.04-6.50%. This could be interpreted as a reflection of the prevention potential of the intervention.
  • Nurmi, Johanna; Knittle, Keegan; Ginchev, Todor; Khattak, Fida; Helf, Christopher; Zwickl, Patrick; Castellano-Tejedor, Carmina; Lusilla-Palacios, Pilar; Costa-Requena, Jose; Ravaja, Niklas; Haukkala, Ari (2020)
    Background: Most adults do not engage in sufficient physical activity to maintain good health. Smartphone apps are increasingly used to support physical activity but typically focus on tracking behaviors with no support for the complex process of behavior change. Tracking features do not engage all users, and apps could better reach their targets by engaging users in reflecting their reasons, capabilities, and opportunities to change. Motivational interviewing supports this active engagement in self-reflection and self-regulation by fostering psychological needs proposed by the self-determination theory (ie, autonomy, competence, and relatedness). However, it is unknown whether digitalized motivational interviewing in a smartphone app engages users in this process. Objective: This study aimed to describe the theory- and evidence-based development of the Precious app and to examine how digitalized motivational interviewing using a smartphone app engages users in the behavior change process. Specifically, we aimed to determine if use of the Precious app elicits change talk in participants and how they perceive autonomy support in the app. Methods: A multidisciplinary team built the Precious app to support engagement in the behavior change process. The Precious app targets reflective processes with motivational interviewing and spontaneous processes with gamified tools, and builds on the principles of self-determination theory and control theory by using 7 relational techniques and 12 behavior change techniques. The feasibility of the app was tested among 12 adults, who were asked to interact with the prototype and think aloud. Semistructured interviews allowed participants to extend their statements. Participants’ interactions with the app were video recorded, transcribed, and analyzed with deductive thematic analysis to identify the theoretical themes related to autonomy support and change talk. Results: Participants valued the autonomy supportive features in the Precious app (eg, freedom to pursue personally relevant goals and receive tailored feedback). We identified the following five themes based on the theory-based theme autonomy support: valuing the chance to choose, concern about lack of autonomy, expecting controlling features, autonomous goals, and autonomy supportive feedback. The motivational interviewing features actively engaged participants in reflecting their outcome goals and reasons for activity, producing several types of change talk and very little sustain talk. The types of change talk identified were desire, need, reasons, ability, commitment, and taking steps toward change. Conclusions: The Precious app takes a unique approach to engage users in the behavior change process by targeting both reflective and spontaneous processes. It allows motivational interviewing in a mobile form, supports psychological needs with relational techniques, and targets intrinsic motivation with gamified elements. The motivational interviewing approach shows promise, but the impact of its interactive features and tailored feedback needs to be studied over time. The Precious app is undergoing testing in a series of n-of-1 randomized controlled trials. KEYWORDS health app; mHealth; human-computer interaction; prevention; service design; usability design; intrinsic motivation; reflective processes; spontaneous processes; engagement; self-determination theory; autonomous motivation; gamification; physical activity
  • Wardlaw, Joanna M; Debette, Stephanie; Jokinen, Hanna; De Leeuw, Frank-Erik; Pantoni, Leonardo; Chabriat, Hugues; Staals, Julie; Doubal, Fergus; Rudilosso, Salvatore; Eppinger, Sebastian; Schilling, Sabrina; Ornello, Raffaele; Enzinger, Christian; Cordonnier, Charlotte; Taylor-Rowan, Martin; Lindgren, Arne G. (2021)
    'Covert' cerebral small vessel disease (ccSVD) is common on neuroimaging in persons without overt neurological manifestations, and increases the risk of future stroke, cognitive impairment, dependency, and death. These European Stroke Organisation (ESO) guidelines provide evidence-based recommendations to assist with clinical decisions about management of ccSVD, specifically white matter hyperintensities and lacunes, to prevent adverse clinical outcomes. The guidelines were developed according to ESO standard operating procedures and Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) methodology. We prioritised the clinical outcomes of stroke, cognitive decline or dementia, dependency, death, mobility and mood disorders, and interventions of blood pressure lowering, antiplatelet drugs, lipid lowering, lifestyle modifications, glucose lowering and conventional treatments for dementia. We systematically reviewed the literature, assessed the evidence, formulated evidence-based recommendations where feasible, and expert consensus statements. We found little direct evidence, mostly of low quality. We recommend patients with ccSVD and hypertension to have their blood pressure well controlled; lower blood pressure targets may reduce ccSVD progression. We do not recommend antiplatelet drugs such as aspirin in ccSVD. We found little evidence on lipid lowering in ccSVD. Smoking cessation is a health priority. We recommend regular exercise which may benefit cognition, and a healthy diet, good sleep habits, avoiding obesity and stress for general health reasons. In ccSVD, we found no evidence for glucose control in the absence of diabetes or for conventional Alzheimer dementia treatments. Randomised controlled trials with clinical endpoints are a priority for ccSVD.
  • Lindholm, Vivian M.; Isoherranen, Kirsi M.; Schröder, Marika T.; Pitkänen, Sari T. (2020)
    Below-knee dermatological surgery has a high risk of complications such as wound infection, bleeding, and necrosis. In this study, we evaluated the impact of preoperative appointments on complication risks. We searched the medical records of the Helsinki University Central Hospital (HUS) Dermatosurgery unit for all below-knee surgeries during 2016, when no preoperative nurse appointments were carried out, and compared it with 2018, when preoperative appointments for risk patients were introduced. The study included 187 patients in 2016 and 179 patients in 2018, of whom 68 (about one third) attended preoperative appointments. At the appointments, risk factors were evaluated, and compression therapy was introduced when possible. The results show complication rates of 13.4% in 2016 vs 10.1% in 2018 (P = .33), despite significantly higher risks in the 2018 patient group. The odds ratio for complications in appointment attendees vs non-attendees was reduced after adjustments to 0.58; however, this was insignificant (P = .47). The odds of complications for skin grafts were considerably higher: 11.33 vs other surgery techniques (P = .00). In conclusion, the introduction of preoperative appointments appeared to reduce complications in below-knee surgery. For graft reconstructions, complication risk is high, even with carefully planned pre- and postoperative care. Further studies are needed to evaluate preventable risk factors of below-knee graft reconstructions.
  • Järvinen-Tassopoulos, Johanna; Marionneau, Virve; Nikkinen, Janne (2021)
    Unlike in other Nordic countries, most of the electronic gambling machines (EGMs) are placed outside the Casino Helsinki and the gambling arcades in Finland. The placement of EGMs in non-casino locations, such as supermarkets, kiosks, and petrol stations, is matter of serious concern. We argue that availability and accessibility of EGMs has led to normalisation and banalisation of gambling in Finland. Exposure to EGMs also put at risk vulnerable populations and problem gamblers, who already suffer from the negative consequences of gambling harms. Gambling companies’ self-regulation initiatives and corporate social responsibility programmes are not enough to prevent and limit EGM related gambling harms. We suggest that Finland should follow Norway’s example and limit the availability of EGMs and transfer them from non-casino locations to gambling arcades. Finnish EGM policy should be a question of public policy guided by public health concerns.
  • Somersalo, Erik Sakari Johannes (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    Målet med avhandlingen är att undersöka hur kvinnor som insjuknade i graviditetsdiabetes (GDM) under den första trimestern skiljer sig från andra överviktiga kvinnor med hög risk för GDM. Undersökningen gjordes på ett material som insamlats för The Finnish Gestational Diabetes Study (RADIEL), som är ett randomiserat livsstilsinterventionsprojekt som riktar in sig på kvinnor som befinner sig i riskgruppen för GDM. Informationen insamlades i huvudsak via frågeformulär, blodprov och kostdagböcker. Studien påvisade att tidigare graviditeter och övervikt ökar risken för graviditetsdiabetes i ett tidigt skede. l laboratorieundersökningarna sågs att HDL-kolesterol var lägre, hs-CRP högre och adiponektin lägre i gruppen med GDM under den första trimestern. Förutom två timmars glukosbelastningsprovet (OGTT) kunde dessa laboratorieundersökningar användas vid sållandet av GDM. Förhoppningsvis skulle då flera högriskindividers GDM upptäckas i ett tidigt skede vilket skulle minska komplikationerna hos både mamman och barnet.
  • Christensen, Pia; Larsen, Thomas Meinert; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet; Macdonald, Ian; Martinez, J. Alfredo; Handjiev, Svetoslav; Poppitt, Sally; Hansen, Sylvia; Ritz, Christian; Astrup, Arne; Pastor-Sanz, Laura; Sando-Pedersen, Finn; Pietiläinen, Kirsi H.; Sundvall, Jouko; Drummen, Mathijs; Taylor, Moira A.; Navas-Carretero, Santiago; Handjieva-Darlenska, Teodora; Brodie, Shannon; Silvestre, Marta P.; Huttunen-Lenz, Maija; Brand-Miller, Jennie; Fogelholm, Mikael; Raben, Anne (2018)
    Aims Materials and methods The PREVIEW lifestyle intervention study ( Identifier: NCT01777893) is, to date, the largest, multinational study concerning prevention of type-2 diabetes. We hypothesized that the initial, fixed low-energy diet (LED) would induce different metabolic outcomes in men vs women. All participants followed a LED (3.4 MJ/810 kcal/daily) for 8 weeks (Cambridge Weight Plan). Participants were recruited from 8 sites in Europe, Australia and New Zealand. Those eligible for inclusion were overweight (BMI >= 25 kg/m(2)) individuals with pre-diabetes according to ADA-criteria. Outcomes of interest included changes in insulin resistance, fat mass (FM), fat-free mass (FFM) and metabolic syndrome Z-score. Results Conclusions In total, 2224 individuals (1504 women, 720 men) attended the baseline visit and 2020 (90.8%) completed the follow-up visit. Following the LED, weight loss was 16% greater in men than in women (11.8% vs 10.3%, respectively) but improvements in insulin resistance were similar. HOMA-IR decreased by 1.50 +/- 0.15 in men and by 1.35 +/- 0.15 in women (ns). After adjusting for differences in weight loss, men had larger reductions in metabolic syndrome Z-score, C-peptide, FM and heart rate, while women had larger reductions in HDL cholesterol, FFM, hip circumference and pulse pressure. Following the LED, 35% of participants of both genders had reverted to normo-glycaemia. An 8-week LED induced different effects in women than in men. These findings are clinically important and suggest gender-specific changes after weight loss. It is important to investigate whether the greater decreases in FFM, hip circumference and HDL cholesterol in women after rapid weight loss compromise weight loss maintenance and future cardiovascular health.
  • Taipale, Heidi; Tanskanen, Antti; Luykx, Jurjen J.; Solmi, Marco; Leucht, Stefan; Correll, Christoph U.; Tiihonen, Jari (2022)
    Background and Hypothesis Optimal doses of most antipsychotics in the maintenance treatment of schizophrenia are unknown. We aimed to study the risk of severe relapse indicated by rehospitalization for different dose categories of 15 most frequently used antipsychotics in monotherapy in Finland. Study Methods We studied the risk of rehospitalization (Adjusted Hazard Ratio, aHR) associated with six antipsychotic monotherapy dose categories (as time-varying dose, measured in defined daily dose, DDDs/day) in a nationwide cohort of persons diagnosed with schizophrenia (n = 61 889), using within-individual analyses to eliminate selection bias. Study Results Among the 15 most widely used antipsychotics, 13 had a U- or J-shaped dose-response curve, showing the lowest risks of relapse for doses of 0.6-0.9 DDD/day, and especially at 1.4-