Browsing by Subject "primary school"

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Now showing items 1-11 of 11
  • Sothayapetch, Pavinee; Lavonen, Jari; Juuti, Kalle (2013)
    A curriculum is a master plan that regulates teaching and learning. This paper compares Finnish and Thai primary school level science curricula to the PISA 2006 Scientific Literacy Framework. Curriculum comparison was made following the procedure of deductive content analysis. In the analysis, there were four main categories adopted from PISA framework: (1) knowledge of science (content knowledge), (2) knowledge about science, (3) competences, and (4) contexts. The analysis revealed that the Thai curriculum was more similar to the PISA framework than was the Finnish curriculum. The Thai curriculum emphasizes the scientific process and the Finnish curriculum the concepts and contexts in which these concepts meet, rather than the process.
  • Khawaja, Amna (2018)
    This design-based research describes the development process of an assessment tool for historical literacy at primary school level where existing assessment materials are scarce. The assessment task was tested thrice during a two-year-period in Finland and Sweden. Sixty pupils participated in a pen-and-paper-test while seven took part in think-aloud interviews. The task included three written documents on the relationship between Nicolaus Copernicus and the Catholic Church. The length of the original documents was reduced and the language simplified age-appropriately. The results revealed a tendency to read the sources as information rather than as evidence. Also, the concept of reliability proved difficult. Alterations during the re-design phases included dividing broad questions into smaller entities and directing pupils´ attention to the characteristics of source types. Many pupils responded to the weighted multiple-choice (WMC) items as if they were traditional multiple-choice questions: they chose the first correct sounding option without pondering over the others. However, one WMC item was particularly successful as all the think-aloud protocols showed that the item met its target construct. As a whole, the artefact did elicit historically literate observations among some pupils.
  • Nykänen, Kathleen Campano (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Code-switching is an interesting phenomenon that is present not only in a sociolinguistic context, in which a speaker switches from one language to another, but can be found in social and cultural ones as well. Over the decades, research done on code-switching has had an emphasis on bilingualism and multilingualism, therefore there is need for more research on code-switching in the English as a Foreign Language (EFL) context especially in Finland. Consequently, this study was conducted in hopes of adding more insight on code-switching in Finnish EFL classrooms and to serve as a reference to assist pre-service teachers of EFL to get a glimpse of how to utilize code-switching in their future classrooms. The present study is a longitudinal case study that focuses on a single EFL teacher’s language choice and code-switching in a primary school EFL classroom setting. It set out to answer the following questions: 1) What functions and characteristics do the Finnish language (L1) and English language (L2) have in this primary school EFL classroom? 2) How conscious is the EFL teacher of the different language choices and code-switching that occurs during their lessons? and 3) How does the EFL teacher’s code-switching change over time between the two school years? A mixed method of data collection and analysis was used for this study. Data was collected through interviews with the teacher, audio recordings of five observed lessons, three from fifth-grade and two from the sixth-grade, and field notes. Data analysis showed that the functions and characteristics of code-switching follow those of previous studies in that the L1, was used mainly, for classroom management, grammar teaching, clarification and assigning homework. It was found that the teacher consciously employed code-switching, mainly inter-sentential code-switching and tag-switching, and it was for the benefit of the students. There were noticeable differences in how code-switching was utilized in the sixth-grade. This proved that changes do occur and it showed that code-switching was utilized less and more there were more concentrated efforts in using the L2 in the classroom.
  • Holm, Alma (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    Aims. Touch is a part normal human interaction, in school too. By touching, people show for example friendship and empathy to one another. Touch has also a lot of significant positive effects on child's development and human well-being. On the other hand, touching is associated with norms and negative feelings that emerge especially when discussing touching in school. The purpose of this master's thesis was to find out, describe and analyse what kind of touching behaviour there is in the 6th grade interaction and who are the touch initiators. Other purpose of this thesis was also to bring more positive perspective to the discussion about touching in school. Methods. The data for this master's thesis was collected by observing 6th grade's Finnish and mathematics lessons. There were 6 lessons in total and they were recorded on video. The study was a qualitative case study. The analysis was made by applying a combination of quantification and content analysis. The touches that were observed from the videos were calculated and tabulated. After that the touches were categorized and the touch situations were described in detail. Results and conclusions. The physical interaction between pupils was mainly friendly and teasing. There was not any touching behaviour that would refer to bullying or violence. Touching between girls was a little more common than touching between boys, but otherwise there was not much difference in the two genders' touching behaviour. Physical interaction between teacher and pupils was very little. When a teacher touched a pupil, the touch was either encouraging or guiding. Because of the nature of case study, the results cannot be generalized. The results, however, give a good picture of the touching behaviour in the five 6th grade lessons observed.
  • Myllyviita, Emilia (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    The National Core Curriculum for Basic Education 2014 provides an opportunity to teach Home Economics as a part of optional studies in primary schools. The National Curriculum emphasizes transversal competence, integrated curriculum and phenomenon-based learning. Integrative instruction, and approaching other subjects in the context of everyday life is the core of Home Economics. Until the 2016 Home Economics was mainly only taught in secondary and high schools and the goals for the competence and subject matter for teaching Home Economics in primary school is still not set in the National Curriculum. Consequently, there are no comprehensive educational material for Home Economics at the primary school level. Seven Master’s theses are completed with the focus on Home Economics in primary schools in 1990’s and 2010’s. There has been a demand for bringing back and re-branding Home Economics in international research field and discussions. Bringing Home Economics to primary schools can be seen as a step towards developing it into a subject that supports students’ growth as a human being throughout their studies by teaching important life skills. The aim of this study is to make groundwork to facilitate the planning of local curriculums, in-service education and teaching materials. The research data were collected by conducting nine expert interviews. The interviewees were selected to give the widest possible frame for Home Economics with different backgrounds like experience in teaching, writing teaching materials, working in third sector related to the field and being part of making the National Core Curriculum. The interviews were recorded, transcribed and analyzed using qualitative content analysis. The results of this study show that Home Economics is perceived as relevant and meaningful subject due to comprehensive life skills it teaches. It is important to teach Home Economics also in primary schools because learning those skills is worthwhile for all ages. Teaching Home Economics should be based on a complex and rich interpretation of the subject and the aims set in the curriculum. That is the only way the significance and effectiveness of the subject can come to fruition. Attention should be paid to the versatility of teaching materials and to provision of adequate in-service education to those who teach Home Economics in primary schools in order to ensure that the objectives of the subject are met.
  • Nurmi, Reetta (Helsingfors universitet, 2013)
    Aim of the study. Educating students to become active citizens has become more and more common in Finnish comprehensive schools. Civic knowledge and skills training is not a separate subject in Finnish primary schools (grades 1-6). In the 2004 national core curriculum for basic education civic knowledge and skills training is integrated within the other subjects. To what extent the civic education is included in everyday teaching depends a lot on the teacher. For this reason the amount of civil education can differ a lot depending on a particular class and school. Teacher's own knowledge, skills and attitude towards civic education has a strong influence on how civic education can be seen in the classroom. The aim of the study is to find out how a class of sixth graders and their teacher from the Helsinki metropolitan area see civic education in their classroom. Methods. 25 sixth graders and their teacher from a school in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area participated in the study. This study is a qualitative case study that includes different types of research data. The research data from the teacher was collected by interview. Students had written earlier essays about democracy that used in the study. The students also answered a questionnaire with open-ended questions that included questions about their possibilities to influence in matters of the classroom. research data was analysed by using qualitative content analysis. Both theory and content based analyses were used in this study. Results and conclusions. The results shows that the teacher and the students both feel that democracy is a relevant and important issue to be considered in the classroom. The students had a very positive view of democracy and how it worked in the classroom. Although the students participation in decision making was usually limited to matters outside teaching, most students felt that they had enough influence in the classroom. Based on the results, it can be said that the teacher has with teaching successfully supported her students to become active citizens.
  • Nissilä, Juho-Jooel; Savelieva, Kateryna; Lampi, Jussi; Ung-Lanki, Sari; Elovainio, Marko; Pekkanen, Juha (2019)
    Poor indoor air quality (IAQ) in schools is related to increased symptom reporting in students. We investigated whether parental worry about school IAQ influences this association. Data came from survey collected from five Finnish primary schools with observed IAQ problems and five control schools. Parents (n = 1868) of primary school students reported worry about IAQ in schools and symptoms of their children. Associations between observed IAQ problems, worry, and five symptom scores (ie, respiratory, lower respiratory, eye, skin, and general symptoms) were analyzed using multivariate logistic regression and mediation analysis. Parents were on average more worried in schools with observed IAQ problems. Observed IAQ problems were strongly associated with increased worry and all symptoms under study (unadjusted ORs ranged between 1.48 [95% CI 1.48-2.16] and 2.70 [95% CI 1.52-5.17]). Parental worry was associated with all symptoms (unadjusted ORs ranged between 2.49 [95% CI 1.75-3.60] and 4.92 [95% CI 2.77-9.40]). Mediation analyses suggested that parental worry might partially explain the association between observed IAQ problems and symptom reporting (proportion mediated ranged between 67% and 84% for the different symptoms). However, prospective studies are needed to assess causal relationships between observed IAQ problems, worry, and symptom reporting in schools.
  • Nissilä, Juho-Jooel; Savelieva, Kateryna; Ung-Lanki, Sari; Lampi, Jussi; Elovainio, Marko; Pekkanen, Juha (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Koulun huono sisäilman laatu on yhteydessä oppilaan raportoimiin oireisiin. Tässä tutkimuksessa selvitimme, vaikuttaako vanhempien raportoima huoli lasten koulun sisäilman laadusta koulun todetun sisäilmaongelman ja oireiden lisääntyneen raportoinnin väliseen yhteyteen. Tutkimuksessa käytetty tietokanta kerättiin viidestä suomalaisesta alakoulusta, joissa oli todettu sisäilmaongelma ja viidestä kontrollikoulusta. Oppilaiden vanhemmat (n = 1868) raportoivat kyselyyn vastaamalla kokemansa huolestuneisuuden asteen sisäilman laatuun liittyen. Lisäksi vanhemmat raportoivat lastensa kokemat oireet. Todettujen sisäilmaongelmien, huolen ja viiden oiresumman (hengitystie-, alahengitystie-, silmä-, iho- ja yleisoireet) välisiä assosiaatioita tutkittiin logistisella regressioanalyysilla ja mediaatioanalyysilla. Vanhemmat olivat keskimäärin huolestuneempia kouluissa, joissa oli todettu sisäilmaongelma. Todetut sisäilmaongelmat olivat vahvassa yhteydessä huolestuneisuuden ja kaikkien tutkittujen oiresummien kanssa. Vanhempien huolestuneisuus oli yhteydessä kaikkien tutkittujen oiresummien kanssa. Mediaatioanalyysin tulosten perusteella näyttäisi siltä, että vanhempien huolestuneisuus saattaa selittää valtaosan todetun sisäilmaongelman ja oireraportoinnin välisestä yhteydestä. Jatkotutkimuksia tarvitaan kuitenkin kausaalisten suhteiden tarkemmaksi hahmottamiseksi todettujen sisäilmaongelmien, huolestuneisuuden ja oireraportoinnin välillä. Vanhempien huolestuneisuus saattaa olla keskeinen osa joidenkin suomalaisten koulujen sisäilmaongelmia. Sisäilmakyselyt ovat tärkeä informaationlähde, mutta niiden tuottamien tuloksien tulkinta tulee tehdä varoen, kun vastaajien keskuudessa tiedetään olevan merkittävää huolestuneisuutta. Päätökset rakennusten korjaustöiden aloittamisesta tulee tehdä asiamukaisiin rakennusteknisiin tarkastuksiin perustuen.
  • Holvio, Anna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Whereas primary school enrolment has grown to be nearly universal on a global scale, learning results have not kept up with the rapidly expanding systems. This is particularly true in Mozambique, where fourth-grade students lack basic skills of literacy and numeracy. Research has established that teacher quality has a large effect on student achievement. Out of the observable teacher characteristics, teacher content knowledge has most consistently been found to have a positive impact on student achievement. This study seeks to answer how large a causal impact teacher content knowledge has on student achievement in Mozambican primary schools. The data for this study come from a Service Delivery Indicator survey in Mozambique from 2014. They include assessments of fourth-grade students and their teachers in math and Portuguese, and are nationally representative. The empirical analysis exploits within-student across-subject variation. This allows to introduce not only student fixed effects, but also teacher fixed effects into the model, because all students in the sample are taught by a same teacher in both subjects, therefore strengthening the causal identification. First-differencing is then used to derive the estimable equation, which explains student achievement by teacher content knowledge only. The main results suggest that teacher content knowledge in math and Portuguese does not have a statistically significant impact on student achievement. However, further analyses show that there is considerable heterogeneity in the results. This is not unexpected, as Mozambique itself is a rather heterogenous country with large contrasts. Increasing teacher content knowledge by 1 SD increases student achievement by 0.14 SD among students with Portuguese as their first language, and by 0.13 SD among students in urban schools. Increasing the content knowledge of teachers whose knowledge is above the median also increases the achievement of students whose knowledge is above the median by over 0.12 SD. Based on the results, it is plausible that students’ poor knowledge of Portuguese is a fundamental problem for their learning, and something that should be prioritised. This could be done by improving language education at the earlier grades, or by expanding bilingual education, for instance. Because students with their knowledge below the median are unaffected by teacher content knowledge, this suggests that teaching is perhaps targeted to the more advanced students, and those who have already fallen behind benefit very little from it.
  • Näveri, Liisa; Laine, Anu; Pehkonen, Erkki; Hannula, Markku S. (Suomen ainedidaktinen tutkimusseura ry, 2013)
    Suomen ainedidaktisen tutkimusseuran julkaisuja : Ainedidaktisia tutkimuksia
    This study compares six teachers’ learning goals for two problem solving lessons and their 9 to 11 year-old students’ solutions to two open-ended problems. Some of the learning aims were explicitly given before the lesson and some were revealed during the lessons. The pupils worked on the first open problem in primary three and the second problem in the primary four. The problem solving lessons were video-recorded and transcribed, and pupils´ solutions were collated and examined. An additional data source was the teachers´ lesson plans, and the videos taken in the teachers´ meeting sessions. The classification of teachers´ actions was based on the teaching model developed from Polya’s problem solving model (planning, introduction, guidance, feedback). This paper examines the significance of the teachers´ aims of the lessons and the introduction of the two problems, with the focus on the pupils´ justification of the solution for both tasks
  • Uusikylä, Jane Diana (Helsingfors universitet, 2013)
    Background and aims. Multiculturalism and religious diversity are currently part of everyday life in primary schools, especially in Helsinki-Vantaa-Espoo area. Diversity of religions can be a resource and a way to involve students more in education. Purpose of this study was to find out how home economics teachers plan and implement the teaching of the household, considering the religious and cultural diversity. The study was intended to obtain answers to the questions: How multiculturalism is shown in primary schools and the teaching of the home economics? Which food regulations affect to teaching of the home economics and how they affect? How do teachers plan home economics lessons for groups involved of students who have food rules? How home economics education should be developed in the future, taking into account the religion and multiculturalism? Methods. The study was conducted in two parts a questionnaire and interviews. Questionnaire was answered by 55 7-9-graders elementary school household teachers. For interview were chosen six home economics teachers working in Helsinki and Espoo. All those interviewed were women and they had a teaching experience more than 3 years. The data were analyzed by the method of the concept map and concepts were written in text. Results and conclusions. Multiculturalism and religious diversity were taken into account in home economics teaching in small acts of everyday life. Students are treated same way regardless of their background and diversity were rarely emphasized. Students' food rules were taken into account and in small group of them can talk about religion. Students banned raw material is replaced with authorized and students which have Lent did replacing exercises instead cooking. Students may participate in the teaching as the experts if they wanted. Home economics teachers do not actively encouraging them to share their ethnical background over the entire group, but the conversation was more common in small groups at the level of practical work between them. Home economics teachers could possibly involve students more in expert role and to give students the opportunity to experience acting as an expert.