Browsing by Subject "primates"

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  • Cárdenas, Glenda; Jones, Mirkka M.; Heymann, Eckhardt; Tuomisto, Hanna (2021)
    The habitats present in research sites across Amazonia have usually been characterized only very broadly, for example, as inundated or non-inundated (terra firma) forests. However, within each of these categories there is considerable variation in soil properties and floristic composition. This variation is likely to determine habitat quality for animal populations through its effects on primary productivity and food availability, thereby affecting carrying capacity. Therefore, comparison of edaphic properties across sites could provide new insight into which factors affect animal foraging patterns, population densities, and home-range sizes. We provide an example from Estacion Biologica Quebrada Blanco in Peruvian Amazonia, where behavioral studies on primates (especially tamarins) have been conducted for more than three decades but little is known about the edaphic or floristic characteristics of the forest they occupy. We used indicator plant species to estimate and map soil base cation concentration and its variability at Estacion Biologica Quebrada Blanco. We found that soils in the study area are relatively cation-poor in a western Amazonian context, which probably translates into low primary productivity. Some differences in soils among the home-ranges of three tamarin groups were also observed, illustrating the usefulness of the method for detailed habitat mapping. in Spanish is available with online material.
  • Koski, Sonja E.; Buchanan-Smith, Hannah M.; Ash, Hayley; Burkart, Judith M.; Bugnyar, Thomas; Weiss, Alexander (2017)
    Increasing evidence suggests that personality structure differs between species, but the evolutionary reasons for this variation are not fully understood. We built on earlier research on New World monkeys to further elucidate the evolution of personality structure in primates. We therefore examined personality in 100 family-reared adult common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) from 3 colonies on a 60-item questionnaire. Principal components analyses revealed 5 domains that were largely similar to those found in a previous study on captive, ex-pet, or formerly laboratory-housed marmosets that were housed in a sanctuary. The interrater reliabilities of domain scores were consistent with the interrater reliabilities of domain scores found in other species, including humans. Four domainsdmdash; conscientiousness, agreeableness, inquisitiveness, and assertiveness-resembled personality domains identified in other nonhuman primates. The remaining domain, patience, was specific to common marmosets. We used linear models to test for sex and age differences in the personality domains. Males were lower than females in patience, and this difference was smaller in older marmosets. Older marmosets were lower in inquisitiveness. Finally, older males and younger females had higher scores in agreeableness than younger males and older females. These findings suggest that cooperative breeding may have promoted the evolution of social cognition and influenced the structure of marmoset prosocial personality characteristics.
  • Rinne, Teemu; Muers, Ross S.; Salo, Emma; Slater, Heather; Petkov, Christopher I. (2017)
    The cross-species correspondences and differences in how attention modulates brain responses in humans and animal models are poorly understood. We trained 2 monkeys to perform an audio-visual selective attention task during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), rewarding them to attend to stimuli in one modality while ignoring those in the other. Monkey fMRI identified regions strongly modulated by auditory or visual attention. Surprisingly, auditory attention-related modulations were much more restricted in monkeys than humans performing the same tasks during fMRI. Further analyses ruled out trivial explanations, suggesting that labile selective-attention performance was associated with inhomogeneous modulations in wide cortical regions in the monkeys. The findings provide initial insights into how audio-visual selective attention modulates the primate brain, identify sources for "lost" attention effects in monkeys, and carry implications for modeling the neurobiology of human cognition with nonhuman animals.
  • Villani, Giovanna Marques (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Hypotheses to explain the emergence and maintenance of trichromacy in primates have long focused on the role of diet, often suggesting trichromats are better able to detect ripe fruits and nutritious leaves. However, many neotropical primate species also need to avoid eating conspicuous food items like insects that have evolved to warn potential predators of their unprofitability. This factor has largely been ignored in work on primate colour vision. We suggest here that dichromatic and trichromatic individuals vary in their ability to learn about conspicuous but unprofitable food and that trichromats could be more effective than dichromats at detecting conspicuous unprofitable prey. To test this hypothesis, three females and one male white-faced saki (Pithecia pithecia) participated in behavioral experiments at Korkeasaari zoo (Helsinki, Finland) where choice boxes were presented marked with two symbols against a green background. Only trichromats could discriminate orange symbols that provided an unprofitable food reward from the more profitable green symbols. Each saki made 80 choices over 10 trials. While we did not detect any evidence for learning about symbol profitability, we found two females significantly avoided the conspicuous prey meaning they received greater food rewards than the dichromat male and one putative dichromat female. Further analysis is needed of the opsin genes of the females in this study to confirm the role of unprofitable food in Saki colour vision.
  • Aivelo, Tuomas Juho Eero; Norberg, Anna Marja Ilona (2018)
    1. Detecting interaction between species is notoriously difficult, and disentangling species associations in host-related gut communities is especially challenging. Nevertheless, due to contemporary methods, including metabarcoding and 16S sequencing, collecting observational data on community composition has become easier and much more common. 2. We studied the previously collected datasets of intestinal bacterial microbiota and parasite compositions within longitudinally followed mouse lemurs by analysing the potential interactions with diversity metrics and novel joint species distribution modelling. 3. Both methods showed statistical association between certain parasite species and bacterial microbiota composition. Unicellular Eimeria sp. had an effect on diversity of gut microbiota. The cestode Hymenolepis diminuta had negative associations with several bacterial orders, whereas closely related species Hymenolepis nana had positive associations with several bacterial orders. 4. Our results reveal potential interactions between some, but not all, intestinal parasites and gut bacterial microbiota. Host variables contributed over half of the total variation explained with the model, and sex was the most important single host variable; especially with microbiota, there were sex-related differences in the community composition. 5. This study shows how joint species distribution modelling can incorporate both within-host dynamics of several taxa and host characteristics to model potential interactions in intestinal community. These results provide new hypothesis for interactions between and among parasites and bacterial microbiota to be tested further with experimental studies.