Browsing by Subject "professionalization"

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  • Kattan, Anna (2005)
    Genetic modification (GM) of food crops is one of the most innovative and controversial technologies of current times. While the use of GM food is accepted in many countries such as the United States, these products have been largely prohibited within the European Union. The differences in policies have had numerous effects on international relations, and have even resulted in a so-called trade war between the two regions. Consequently, a debate involving the use, release, and labeling of these goods touching upon several noteworthy subjects including health matters, economics, environmental concerns, hunger crises, public opinion, and the sovereignty of nations has resulted. This study is composed of two parallel aims and research methods. First, factors which may have influenced the distinct GM food policies in the EU and the US are discussed. Specifically, a two case study comparison using the most similar systems design is employed. This analysis provides insight into this subject by considering significant similarities and differences of the two regulatory atmospheres. After such a discussion, focus is placed on the second aim of this research which asks if professional power struggles have played a demonstrable role in the transgenic food policies formulated in the EU. Such an inquiry is carried out within the framework of professionalization and considers system disturbances, conflicts, and transformations in its analysis. Furthermore, abstract knowledge is viewed as a key tool in professional contests. After thorough examination, it is concluded that, although several factors may contribute to the strict transgenic food policies seen within the EU, conflict for professional power has been intrinsic in the development of such regulations.
  • Kehn, Carolyn (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Gender in the military is a critical yet controversial topic both socially and scholastically. However, in review of the literature regarding servicemembers’ transitions out of the military organization, the experience of women is often excluded or generalized from the experience of their male peers. This thesis applies a gender constructivist lens to military sociology and explores the narratives of women officers who have served in the Finnish Defence Forces. It adapted the Critical Incident Technique, as well as graphic elicitation, to conduct qualitative interviews with five respondents. Subsequent analysis revealed four types of critical events that illustrate entry into and exit from the Finnish Defence Forces during a career: prompting, retaining, bridging, and affirming events. These events, as well as participants’ descriptions of identity work, cannot be understood merely through factors relating to the Institutional/Occupational Thesis, but necessitate an understanding of the negotiation of gender throughout a career in the Finnish Defence Forces. The conclusions of this work refute the simplified perspective of gender equality in Finland and demand a gender-nuanced approach to future theoretical conceptualizations of military organizations, as well as the identities of individual servicemembers.