Browsing by Subject "prognosis"

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  • Kuhle, J.; Hardmeier, M.; Disanto, G.; Gugleta, K.; Ecsedi, M.; Lienert, C.; Amato, M. P.; Baum, K.; Buttmann, M.; Bayas, A.; Brassat, D.; Brochet, B.; Confavreux, C.; Edan, G.; Färkkilä, Markus; Fredrikson, S.; Frontoni, M.; D'Hooghe, M.; Hutchinson, M.; De Keyser, J.; Kieseier, B. C.; Kuempfel, T.; Rio, J.; Polman, C.; Roullet, E.; Stolz, C.; Vass, K.; Wandinger, K. P.; Kappos, L.; European Long Term Follow Up Study (2016)
    Objectives: To explore long-term effects of treatment and prognostic relevance of variables assessed at baseline and during the European secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS) trial of interferon beta 1b (IFNB-1b). Methods: We assessed 362 patients (60% female; median age 41 years; Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS): 5.5; 51% randomized to IFNB-1b) for their EDSS and treatment history after 10 years. Non-parametric analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and multivariate linear regression models were applied. Results: Median EDSS was 6.0 at the end of the randomized controlled trial (RCT), in the IFNB-1b and placebo groups, and 7.0 in long-term follow-up patients (those receiving IFNB-1b in the RCT were 6.5 and those receiving placebo in the RCT were 7.0; p = 0.086). 24 patients (6.6%) were deceased. The EDSS at baseline and the EDSS change during the RCT were the most important predictors of the EDSS 10 years later (partial R-2: 0.47). The ability to predict changes in EDSS 10 years after the RCT was limited (R-2: 0.12). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measures remained in the predictive models, but explained <5% of the variability. Conclusions: The results from this analysis did not provide convincing evidence to support a favorable long-term outcome in those patients allocated IFNB-1b during the RCT, in our SPMS cohort. The progressive stage of the disease remains largely unpredictable by clinical and conventional MRI measures, so better prognostic markers are needed.
  • Salminen, Liina; Braicu, Elena Ioana; Laaperi, Mitja; Jylha, Antti; Oksa, Sinikka; Hietanen, Sakari; Sehouli, Jalid; Kulbe, Hagen; du Bois, Andreas; Mahner, Sven; Harter, Philipp; Carpen, Olli; Huhtinen, Kaisa; Hynninen, Johanna; Hilvo, Mika (2021)
    Simple Summary Most ovarian cancer patients initially show a response to primary treatments, but the development of refractory disease is a major problem. Currently, there are no blood-based prognostic biomarkers, and the prognosis of a patient is determined by the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage and residual disease after cytoreductive surgery. In this study, we developed and validated a novel test based on the ratio of two circulatory lipids that enables the prognostic stratification of ovarian cancer patients at the time of diagnosis, prior to any oncological treatments. The translational relevance of this test is to find those patients with poor prognosis early on, and to identify patients that are at high risk of recurrence despite complete cytoreduction. Thus, the test enables the early direction of novel targeted therapies to those ovarian cancer patients at greatest risk of recurrence and death. Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) generally responds well to oncological treatments, but the eventual development of a refractory disease is a major clinical problem. Presently, there are no prognostic blood-based biomarkers for the stratification of EOC patients at the time of diagnosis. We set out to assess and validate the prognostic utility of a novel two-lipid signature, as the lipidome is known to be markedly aberrant in EOC patients. The study consisted of 499 women with histologically confirmed EOC that were prospectively recruited at the university hospitals in Turku (Finland) and Charite (Berlin, Germany). Lipidomic screening by tandem liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was performed for all baseline serum samples of these patients, and additionally for 20 patients of the Turku cohort at various timepoints. A two-lipid signature, based on the ratio of the ceramide Cer(d18:1/18:0) and phosphatidylcholine PC(O-38:4), showed consistent prognostic performance in all investigated study cohorts. In the Turku cohort, the unadjusted hazard ratios (HRs) per standard deviation (SD) (95% confidence interval) were 1.79 (1.40, 2.29) for overall and 1.40 (1.14, 1.71) for progression-free survival. In a Charite cohort incorporating only stage III completely resected patients, the corresponding HRs were 1.59 (1.08, 2.35) and 1.53 (1.02, 2.30). In linear-mixed models predicting progression of the disease, the two-lipid signature showed higher performance (beta per SD increase 1.99 (1.38, 2.97)) than cancer antigen 125 (CA-125, 1.78 (1.13, 2.87)). The two-lipid signature was able to identify EOC patients with an especially poor prognosis at the time of diagnosis, and also showed promise for the detection of disease relapse.
  • Int CVT Consortium; Silvis, S. M.; Reinstra, E.; Hiltunen, S.; Putaala, J.; Tatlisumak, T.; Coutinho, J. M. (2020)
    Background and purpose Anaemia is associated with poor clinical outcome after ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke. The association between anaemia and outcome in patients with cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) was examined. Methods Consecutive adult patients with CVT were included from seven centres. Anaemia at admission was scored according to World Health Organization definitions. Poor clinical outcome was defined as a modified Rankin Scale score 3-6 at last follow-up. A multiple imputation procedure was applied for handling missing data in the multivariable analysis. Using binary logistic regression analysis, adjustments were made for age, sex, cancer and centre of recruitment (model 1). In a secondary analysis, adjustments were additionally made for coma, intracerebral haemorrhage, non-haemorrhagic lesion and deep venous system thrombosis (model 2). In a sensitivity analysis, patients with cancer were excluded. Results Data for 952 patients with CVT were included, 22% of whom had anaemia at admission. Patients with anaemia more often had a history of cancer (17% vs. 7%, P <0.001) than patients without anaemia. Poor clinical outcome (21% vs. 11%, P <0.001) and mortality (11% vs. 6%, P = 0.07) were more common amongst patients with anaemia. After adjustment, anaemia at admission increased the risk of poor outcome [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 2.4, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.5-3.7, model 1]. Model 2 revealed comparable results (aOR 1.9, 95% CI 1.2-3.2), as did the sensitivity analysis excluding patients with cancer (aOR 2.3, 95% CI 1.3-3.8, model 1). Conclusion The risk of poor clinical outcome is doubled in CVT patients presenting with anaemia at admission.
  • Deneau, Mark R.; Valentino, Pamela L.; Mack, Cara; Alqoaer, Khaled; Amin, Mansi; Amir, Achiya Z.; Aumar, Madeleine; Auth, Marcus; Broderick, Annemarie; DiGuglielmo, Matthew; Draijer, Laura G.; El-Matary, Wael; Ferrari, Federica; Furuya, Katryn N.; Gottrand, Frederic; Gupta, Nitika; Homan, Matjaz; Jensen, M. K.; Kamath, Binita M.; Kim, Kyung Mo; Kolho, Kaija-Leena; Koot, Bart; Iorio, Raffaele; Martinez, Mercedes; Miloh, Tamir; Mohan, Parvathi; Palle, Sirish; Papadopoulou, Alexandra; Ricciuto, Amanda; Saubermann, Lawrence; Sathya, Pushpa; Shteyer, Eyal; Smolka, Vratislav; Tanaka, Atsushi; Varier, Raghu; Venkat, Veena; Vitola, Bernadette; Woynarowski, Marek; Guthery, Stephen (2020)
    Background: Natural history models for primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) are derived from adult patient data, but have never been validated in children. It is unclear how accurate such models are for children with PSC. Methods: We utilized the pediatric PSC consortium database to assess the Revised Mayo Clinic, Amsterdam-Oxford, and Boberg models. We calculated the risk stratum and predicted survival for each patient within each model using patient data at PSC diagnosis, and compared it with observed survival. We evaluated model fit using the c-statistic. Results: Model fit was good at 1 year (c-statistics 0.93, 0.87, 0.82) and fair at 10 years (0.78, 0.75, 0.69) in the Mayo, Boberg, and Amsterdam-Oxford models, respectively. The Mayo model correctly classified most children as low risk, whereas the Amsterdam-Oxford model incorrectly classified most as high risk. All of the models underestimated survival of patients classified as high risk. Albumin, bilirubin, AST, and platelets were most associated with outcomes. Autoimmune hepatitis was more prevalent in higher risk groups, and over-weighting of AST in these patients accounted for the observed versus predicted survival discrepancy. Conclusions: All 3 models offered good short-term discrimination of outcomes but only fair long-term discrimination. None of the models account for the high prevalence of features of autoimmune hepatitis overlap in children and the associated elevated aminotransferases. A pediatric-specific model is needed. AST, bilirubin, albumin, and platelets will be important predictors, but must be weighted to account for the unique features of PSC in children.
  • Öhman, Jonas; Harjola, Veli-Pekka; Karjalainen, Pasi; Lassus, Johan (2018)
    Background: It is unclear how to optimally monitor acute heart failure (AHF) patients. We evaluated the timely interplay of cardiac filling pressures, brain natriuretic peptides (BNPs), lung ultrasound (LUS) and symptoms during AHF treatment. Methods: We enrolled 60 patients who had been hospitalised for AHF. Patients were examined with a rapid cardiothoracic ultrasound (CaTUS) protocol, combining LUS and focused echocardiographic evaluation of cardiac filling pressures (i.e. medial E/e' and inferior vena cava index [IVCi]). CaTUS was done at 0, 12, 24 and 48 hours (3 hours) and on the day of discharge, alongside clinical evaluation and laboratory samples. Patients free of congestion (Blines or pleural fluid) on LUS at discharge were categorised as responders, whereas the rest were categorised as non-responders. Improvement in congestion parameters was evaluated separately in these groups. The effect of congestion parameters on prognosis was also analysed. Results: Responders experienced a significantly larger decline in E/e' (2.58 vs. 0.38, p=0.037) and dyspnoea visual analogue scale (1-10) score (7.68 vs. 3.57, p=0.007) during the first 12 hours of treatment, while IVCi and BNPs declined later without no such rapid initial decline. Among patients experiencing a >3 U decline in E/e' during the first 12 hours of treatment, 18/21 were to become responders (p Conclusion: E/e' seemed like the most useful congestion parameter for monitoring early treatment response, predicting prognostically beneficial resolution of pulmonary congestion.
  • Zheng, Guoqiao; Chattopadhyay, Subhayan; Sundquist, Kristina; Sundquist, Jan; Forsti, Asta; Hemminki, Akseli; Hemminki, Kari (2020)
    The increased survival in malignant cutaneous melanoma (melanoma) is probably due to early diagnosis combined with improved treatment most recently. National health campaigns and screening programs for melanoma detection were started in Sweden several decades ago. We want to assess the influence of tumor characteristics, based on the TNM classification, and of second primary cancers on overall survival in melanoma. We used the Swedish Cancer Registry to assess all-cause survival in melanoma from 2003 to 2015. Hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated using multivariable Cox regression models. A total of 19,773 melanoma patients were diagnosed with TNM data. Survival showed a strong improving trend over time (p-trend
  • Hänninen, Mikko; Jäntti, Toni; Tolppanen, Heli; Segersvärd, Heli; Tarvasmäki, Tuukka; Lassus, Johan; Vausort, Melanie; Devaux, Yvan; Sionis, Alessandro; Tikkanen, Ilkka; Harjola, Veli-Pekka; Lakkisto, Päivi (2020)
    Cardiogenic shock (CS) is a life-threatening emergency. New biomarkers are needed in order to detect patients at greater risk of adverse outcome. Our aim was to assess the characteristics of miR-21-5p, miR-122-5p, and miR-320a-3p in CS and evaluate the value of their expression levels in risk prediction. Circulating levels of miR-21-5p, miR-122-5p, and miR-320a-3p were measured from serial plasma samples of 179 patients during the first 5-10 days after detection of CS, derived from the CardShock study. Acute coronary syndrome was the most common cause (80%) of CS. Baseline (0 h) levels of miR-21-5p, miR-122-5p, and miR-320a-3p were all significantly elevated in nonsurvivors compared to survivors (p <0.05 for all). Above median levels at 0h of each miRNA were each significantly associated with higher lactate and alanine aminotransferase levels and decreased glomerular filtration rates. After adjusting the multivariate regression analysis with established CS risk factors, miR-21-5p and miR-320a-3p levels above median at 0 h were independently associated with 90-day all-cause mortality (adjusted hazard ratio 1.8 (95% confidence interval 1.1-3.0), p = 0.018; adjusted hazard ratio 1.9 (95% confidence interval 1.2-3.2), p = 0.009, respectively). In conclusion, circulating plasma levels of miR-21-5p, miR-122-5p, and miR-320a-3p at baseline were all elevated in nonsurvivors of CS and associated with markers of hypoperfusion. Above median levels of miR-21-5p and miR-320a-3p at baseline appear to independently predict 90-day all-cause mortality. This indicates the potential of miRNAs as biomarkers for risk assessment in cardiogenic shock.
  • Turunen, Antti; Kuuliala, Antti; Mustonen, Harri; Puolakkainen, Pauli; Kylänpää, Leena; Kuuliala, Krista (2021)
    Objectives Clinical practice lacks biomarkers to predict the severity of acute pancreatitis (AP). We studied if intracellular signaling of circulating leukocytes could predict persistent organ dysfunction (OD) and secondary infections in AP. Methods A venous blood sample was taken from 174 patients with AP 72 hours or less from onset of symptoms and 31 healthy controls. Phosphorylation levels (p) of appropriately stimulated signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1), STAT6, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappa B), Akt, and nonstimulated STAT3 in monocytes, neutrophils, and lymphocytes was measured using phosphospecific flow cytometry. Results The patients showed higher pSTAT3 and lower pSTAT1, pSTAT6, pNF-kappa B, and pAkt than healthy controls. pSTAT3 in all leukocyte subtypes studied increased, and pSTAT1 in monocytes and T cells decreased in an AP severity-wise manner. In patients without OD at sampling, high pSTAT3 in monocytes and T lymphocytes were associated with development of persistent OD. In patients with OD, low interleukin-4-stimulated pSTAT6 in monocytes and neutrophils and Escherichia coli-stimulated pNF-kappa B in neutrophils predicted OD persistence. High pSTAT3 in monocytes, CD8(+) T cells, and neutrophils; low pSTAT1 in monocytes and T cells; and low pNF-kappa B in lymphocytes predicted secondary infections. Conclusions Leukocyte STAT3, STAT1, STAT6, and NF-kappa Beta phosphorylations are potential predictors of AP severity.
  • Uusitalo, Elina; Kallionpaa, Roope A.; Kurki, Samu; Rantanen, Matti; Pitkaniemi, Janne; Kronqvist, Pauliina; Harkonen, Pirkko; Huovinen, Riikka; Carpen, Olli; Pöyhönen, Minna; Peltonen, Sirkku; Peltonen, Juha (2017)
    Background: An increased breast cancer incidence and poor survival have been reported for women with neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1). To explain the poor survival, we aimed to link the histopathology and clinical characteristics of NF1-associated breast cancers. Methods: The Finnish Cancer Registry and the Finnish NF Registry were cross-referenced to identify the NF1 patients with breast cancer. Archival NF1 breast cancer specimens were retrieved for histopathological typing and compared with matched controls. Results: A total of 32 breast cancers were diagnosed in 1404 NF1 patients during the follow-up. Women with NF1 had an estimated lifetime risk of 18.0% for breast cancer, and this is nearly two-fold compared with that of the general Finnish female population (9.74%). The 26 successfully retrieved archival NF1 breast tumours were more often associated with unfavourable prognostic factors, such as oestrogen and progesterone receptor negativity and HER2 amplification. However, survival was worse in the NF1 group (P = 0.053) even when compared with the control group matched for age, diagnosis year, gender and oestrogen receptor status. Scrutiny of The Cancer Genome Atlas data set showed that NF1 mutations and deletions were associated with similar characteristics in the breast cancers of the general population. Conclusions: These results emphasise the role of the NF1 gene in the pathogenesis of breast cancer and a need for active follow-up for breast cancer in women with NF1.
  • Myllynen, Chris; Laakso, Sini; Atula, Sari; Strbian, Daniel (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Tausta: Komorbiditeettien eli muiden itsenäisten sairauksien vaikutusta myasthenia graviksen (MG) ennusteeseen ei tunneta. Muut autoimmuuni sairaudet on liitetty MG:een mutta niidrn rooli MG:n taudin kuvaan on kiistanalainen. Menetelmät: Tässä retrospektiivisessä yhden keskuksen kohorttitutkimuksessa seurasimme 154 suomalaista yleistynyttä MG:sta sairastavaa potilasta, joille oli tehty tymektomia eli kateenkorvan poisto. Keskimääräinen seuranta-aika oli 8,6 (±5.0 ) vuotta tymektomian jälkeen. Potilaiden komorbiditeetit oli diagnosoitu miltä tahansa ajanhetkeltä ja tiedot oli peräisin potilasasiakirjoista. Tautitaakka pisteytettiin käyttämällä Charlson comorbidity indexiä (CCI). Potilaat jaettiin alaryhmiin komorbiditeettien mukaan; MG ainoastaan (n=45) ja MG sekä mikä tahansa komorbiditeetti (n=109). Jälkimmäinen ryhmä jaettiin vielä; MG sekä muu autoimmuunitauti (n=33) ja MG sekä ei-autoimmuuni komorbiditeetti -ryhmään(n=76). Tutkimuksen päätetapahtumina oli täydellinen remissio (CSR), minimaalisen lääkityksen tarve (pyridostigmiini max 100mg/vrk) ja sairaalahoidon tarve. Tulokset: Potilaat joilla ainoastaan MG saavutti CSR useammin kuin MG sekä mikä tahansa komorbiditeetti –ryhmä (26.7% vs 8.3%, p = 0.004). Minimaalisen lääkityksen tarpeen saavutettiin useammin MG ainoastaan -ryhmässä kuin MG sekä ei-autoimmuuni komorbiditeetti –ryhmässä (p = 0.047 ). Sairaalahoidon tarve oli alhaisempaa potilailla joilla vain MG kuin potilailla oli MG sekä mikä tahansa komorbiditeetti (p = 0.046). Logistisen regressioanalyysin mukaan matala CCI kasvattaa todennäköisyyttä saavuttaa CSR (p = 0.033). Matala CCI oli yleisempää potilailla, joilla oli minimaalinen lääkitys tarve ja eivätkä tarvinnut sairaalahoitoa (p < 0.001) Johtopäätökset: Lähes 9 vuoden tymektomian jälkeisen seurannan aikana potilailla, joilla on yleistynyt MG ja komorbiditeettejä on huonompi ennuste kuin potilailla jotka sairastavat vain MG:tä. Autoimmuunisairaudet eivät huonontanut MG:n ennustetta enempään kuin muut komorbiditeetit.
  • Almangush, Alhadi; Bello, Ibrahim O.; Keski-Santti, Harri; Mäkinen, Laura; Kauppila, Joonas H.; Pukkila, Matti; Hagstrom, Jaana; Laranne, Jussi; Tommola, Satu; Nieminen, Outi; Soini, Ylermi; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Koivunen, Petri; Grenman, Reidar; Leivo, Ilmo; Salo, Tuula (2014)
  • Borssen, Magnus; Haider, Zahra; Landfors, Mattias; Noren-Nystrom, Ulrika; Schmiegelow, Kjeld; Asberg, Ann E.; Kanerva, Jukka; Madsen, Hans O.; Marquart, Hanne; Heyman, Mats; Hultdin, Magnus; Roos, Goran; Forestier, Erik; Degerman, Sofie (2016)
    Background. Despite increased knowledge about genetic aberrations in pediatric T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL), no clinically feasible treatment-stratifying marker exists at diagnosis. Instead patients are enrolled in intensive induction therapies with substantial side effects. In modern protocols, therapy response is monitored by minimal residual disease (MRD) analysis and used for postinduction risk group stratification. DNA methylation profiling is a candidate for subtype discrimination at diagnosis and we investigated its role as a prognostic marker in pediatric T-ALL. Procedure. Sixty-five diagnostic T-ALL samples from Nordic pediatric patients treated according to the Nordic Society of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology ALL 2008 (NOPHO ALL 2008) protocol were analyzed by HumMeth450K genome wide DNA methylation arrays. Methylation status was analyzed in relation to clinical data and early T-cell precursor (ETP) phenotype. Results. Two distinct CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) groups were identified. Patients with a CIMP-negative profile had an inferior response to treatment compared to CIMP-positive patients (3-year cumulative incidence of relapse (CIR3y) rate: 29% vs. 6%, P = 0.01). Most importantly, CIMP classification at diagnosis allowed subgrouping of high-risk T-ALL patients (MRD >= 0.1% at day 29) into two groups with significant differences in outcome (CIR3y rates: CIMP negative 50% vs. CIMP positive 12%; P = 0.02). These groups did not differ regarding ETP phenotype, but the CIMP-negative group was younger (P = 0.02) and had higher white blood cell count at diagnosis (P = 0.004) compared with the CIMP-positive group. Conclusions. CIMP classification at diagnosis in combination with MRD during induction therapy is a strong candidate for further risk classification and could confer important information in treatment decision making. (C) 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
  • Fleischer, Thomas; Klajic, Jovana; Aure, Miriam Ragle; Louhimo, Riku; Pladsen, Arne V.; Ottestad, Lars; Touleimat, Nizar; Laakso, Marko; Halvorsen, Ann Rita; Alnaes, Grethe I. Grenaker; Riis, Margit L. H.; Helland, Aslaug; Hautaniemi, Sampsa; Lonning, Per Eystein; Naume, Bjorn; Borresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Tost, Joerg; Kristensen, Vessela N. (2017)
    Breast cancer patients with Luminal A disease generally have a good prognosis, but among this patient group are patients with good prognosis that are currently overtreated with adjuvant chemotherapy, and also patients that have a bad prognosis and should be given more aggressive treatment. There is no available method for subclassification of this patient group. Here we present a DNA methylation signature (SAM40) that segregates Luminal A patients based on prognosis, and identify one good prognosis group and one bad prognosis group. The prognostic impact of SAM40 was validated in four independent patient cohorts. Being able to subdivide the Luminal A patients may give the two-sided benefit of identifying one subgroup that may benefit from a more aggressive treatment than what is given today, and importantly, identifying a subgroup that may benefit from less treatment.
  • Kuchenbaecker, K.B.; McGuffog, L.; Barrowdale, D.; Lee, Andrew; Soucy, P.; Dennis, J.; Domchek, S.M.; Robson, M.; Spurdle, A.B.; Ramus, S.J.; Mavaddat, N.; Terry, M.B.; Neuhausen, S.L.; Schmutzler, R.K.; Simard, J.; Pharoah, P.D.P.; Offit, K.; Couch, F.J.; Chenevix-Trench, G.; Easton, D.F.; Antoniou, A.C.; Healey, S.; Lush, M.; Hamann, U.; Southey, M.; John, E.M.; Chung, W.K.; Daly, M. B.; Buys, S.S.; Goldgar, D.E.; Dorfling, C.M.; van Rensburg, E.J.; Ding, Y.C.; Ejlertsen, B.; Gerdes, A.-M.; Hansen, T.V.O.; Slager, S.; Hallberg, E.; Benitez, J.; Osorio, A.; Cohen, N.; Lawler, W.; Weitzel, J.N.; Peterlongo, P.; Pensotti, V.; Dolcetti, R.; Barile, M.; Aittomäki, K.; Nevanlinna, H.; Rantala, J. (2017)
    Background: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 94 common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with breast cancer (BC) risk and 18 associated with ovarian cancer (OC) risk. Several of these are also associated with risk of BC or OC for women who carry a pathogenic mutation in the high-risk BC and OC genes BRCA1 or BRCA2. The combined effects of these variants on BC or OC risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers have not yet been assessed while their clinical management could benefit from improved personalized risk estimates. Methods: We constructed polygenic risk scores (PRS) using BC and OC susceptibility SNPs identified through population-based GWAS: for BC (overall, estrogen receptor [ER]-positive, and ER-negative) and for OC. Using data from 15 252 female BRCA1 and 8211 BRCA2 carriers, the association of each PRS with BC or OC risk was evaluated using a weighted cohort approach, with time to diagnosis as the outcome and estimation of the hazard ratios (HRs) per standard deviation increase in the PRS. Results: The PRS for ER-negative BC displayed the strongest association with BC risk in BRCA1 carriers (HR = 1.27, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.23 to 1.31, P = 8.2 × 10-53). InBRCA2 carriers, the strongest association with BC risk was seen for the overall BCPRS (HR = 1.22, 95% CI = 1.17 to 1.28, P = 7.2 × 10-20). The OC PRS was strongly associated with OC risk for both BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers. These translate to differences in absolute risks (more than 10% in each case) between the top and bottom deciles of the PRS distribution; for example, the OC risk was 6% by age 80 years for BRCA2 carriers at the 10th percentile of the OC PRS compared with 19% risk for those at the 90th percentile of PRS. Conclusions: BC and OC PRS are predictive of cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers. Incorporation of the PRS into risk prediction models has promise to better inform decisions on cancer risk management. © The Author 2017.
  • Lahtela, Elisa; Kankainen, Matti; Sinisalo, Juha; Selroos, Olof; Lokki, Marja-Liisa (2019)
    Many sarcoidosis-associating immunological genes have been shown to be shared between other immune-mediated diseases. In Finnish sarcoidosis patients, good prognosis subjects more commonly have HLA-DRB1*03:01 and/or HLA-DRB1*04:01-DPB1*04:01 haplotype, but no marker for persistent disease have been found. The objective was to further pinpoint genetic differences between prognosis subgroups in relation to the HLA markers. Whole-exome sequencing was conducted for 72 patients selected based on disease activity (resolved disease, n = 36; persistent disease, n = 36). Both groups were further divided by the HLA markers (one/both markers, n = 18; neither of the markers, n = 18). The Finnish exome data from the Genome Aggregation Database was used as a control population in the WES sample. Statistical analyses included single-variant analysis for common variants and gene level analysis for rare variants. We attempted to replicate associated variants in 181 Finnish sarcoidosis patients and 150 controls. An association was found in chromosome 1p36.21 (AADACL3 and C1orf158), which has recently been associated with sarcoidosis in another WES study. In our study, variations in these genes were associated with resolved disease (AADACL3, p = 0.0001 and p = 0.0003; C1orf158, p = 7.03E-05). Another interesting chromosomal region also peaked, Leucocyte Receptor Complex in 19q13.42, but the association diminished in the replication sample. In conclusion, this WES study supports the previously found association in the region 1p36.21. Furthermore, a novel to sarcoidosis region was found, but additional studies are warranted to verify this association.
  • Almahmoudi, Rabeia; Salem, Abdelhakim; Sievilaeinen, Meri; Sundquist, Elias; Almangush, Alhadi; Toppila-Salmi, Sanna; Paavonen, Timo; Salo, Tuula; Al-Samadi, Ahmed (2018)
    Background Oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is characterized by early metastasis and poor prognosis. Interleukin-17F (IL-17F) plays a protective role in many tumors. However, IL-17F expression in oral tongue SCC tissue has not been investigated. MethodsResultsImmunostaining of 83 oral tongue SCC specimens and blinded-scoring were used to map IL-17F expression, location, and distribution. Survival curves were constructed according to Kaplan-Meier method. The Cox proportional hazard model was applied for univariate and multivariate survival analyses. Mast cells are the major source of IL-17F in oral tongue SCC. In multivariate analysis, only the extracellular mast cell-derived IL-17F at the tumor invasion front was associated with better disease-specific survival in patients with all-stages and early-stages of oral tongue SCC. ConclusionExtracellular mast cell-derived IL-17F is antitumorigenic in oral tongue SCC. It separates patients with early-stage disease who are at high risk from patients who are at low risk. Furthermore, when analyzing tentative prognostic molecules, we conclude that in addition to the staining intensity, attention must be paid to the cellular source, distribution, and location of the molecule.
  • Rodrigues, Priscila Campioni; Sawazaki-Calone, Iris; de Oliveira, Carine Ervolino; Soares Macedo, Carolina Carneiro; Dourado, Mauricio Rocha; Cervigne, Nilva K.; Miguel, Marcia Costa; do Carmo, Andreia Ferreira; Lambert, Daniel W.; Graner, Edgard; da Silva, Sabrina Daniela; Alaoui-Jamali, Moulay A.; Paes Leme, Adriana Franco; Salo, Tuula A.; Coletta, Ricardo D. (2017)
    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) prognosis is related to clinical stage and histological grade. However, this stratification needs to be refined. We conducted a comparative proteome study in microdissected samples from normal oral mucosa and OSCC to identify biomarkers for malignancy. Fascin and plectin were identified as differently expressed and both are implicated in several malignancies, but the clinical impacts of aberrant fascin and plectin expression in OSCCs remains largely unknown. Immunohistochemistry and real-time quantitative PCR were carried out in ex vivo OSCC samples and cell lines. A loss-of-function strategy using shRNA targeting fascin was employed to investigate in vitro and in vivo the fascin role on oral tumorigenesis. Transfections of microRNA mimics were performed to determine whether the fascin overexpression is regulated by miR-138 and miR-145. We found that fascin and plectin are frequently upregulated in OSCC samples and cell lines, but only fascin overexpression is an independent unfavorable prognostic indicator of disease-specific survival. In combination with advanced T stage, high fascin level is also an independent factor of disease-free survival. Knockdown of fascin in OSCC cells promoted cell adhesion and inhibited migration, invasion and EMT, and forced expression of miR-138 in OSCC cells significantly decreased the expression of fascin. In addition, fascin downregulation leads to reduced filopodia formation and decrease on paxillin expression. The subcutaneous xenograft model showed that tumors formed in the presence of low levels of fascin were significantly smaller compared to those formed with high fascin levels. Collectively, our findings suggest that fascin expression correlates with disease progression and may serve as a prognostic marker and therapeutic target for patients with OSCC.
  • Jääskeläinen, Anniina; Roininen, Nelli; Karihtala, Peeter; Jukkola, Arja (2020)
    While breast cancer prognoses are generally good, different molecular subtypes are known to have varying outcomes. Previous studies using breast cancer registries have suggested that high parity may be an adverse prognostic factor in luminal breast cancer, but breast cancer subtype definitions have varied and there have been few prospective studies. We therefore collected prospective data from patients diagnosed with early breast cancer at a single institution and followed them for a median of 8.5 years. All patients (N= 594) were treated according to Finnish national guidelines using modern treatment modalities in a Finnish university hospital. Clinicopathological surrogates of the intrinsic breast cancer subtypes were updated to match European Society for Medical Oncology 2015 Early Breast Cancer Clinical Practice Guidelines. The overall 10-year breast cancer-specific survival (BCSS) was 91.4%, with the longest 10-year BCSS observed in luminal A-like cancers (97.9%) and the worst in luminal B-like (HER2 positive) cancers (80.6%). Parity of >= 5 deliveries was also associated with poor BCSS (univariateP= 0.0020). However, when the subtypes were assessed separately in a multivariate analysis that included tumor size and nodal status, high parity remained significant only in luminal B-like (HER2 negative) cancers (HR = 2.63; 95% confidence interval = 1.04-6.62;P= 0.040). Our results suggest excellent overall 10-year BCSS but indicate that high parity is an adverse prognostic factor in luminal B-like (HER2 negative) breast cancers.
  • Kasurinen, Aaro (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    Matriksin metalloproteinaasit ovat endopeptidaaseja, joilla on monipuolisia biokemiallisia ominaisuuksia. Ne voivat edistää syövän invaasiota ja metastasointia hajottamalla soluväliainetta. Korkea matriksin metalloproteinaasi 14 (MMP-14) ilmentyvyys mahasyöpäpotilaiden kudosnäytteissä on aiemmin todettu liittyvän huonoon ennusteeseen ja metastaasien läsnäoloon. Tavoitteenamme oli tutkia seerumin MMP-14 pitoisuuden merkitystä ennusteellisena tekijänä mahasyövässä. Aineisto sisälsi 240 Helsingin seudun yliopistollisessa keskussairaalassa vuosien 2000 ja 2009 välillä leikattua mahasyöpäpotilasta. Määritimme seerumin MMP-14 pitoisuudet enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) -menetelmällä. Tutkimme yhteyksiä seerumin MMP-14 pitoisuuden ja kliinispatologisten muuttujien välillä Mann-Whitney U ja Kruskal-Wallis testien avulla. Elossaolokuvaajat muodostettiin Kaplan-Meier menetelmää käyttäen. Korkea seerumin MMP-14 pitoisuus liittyi III-IV asteen tauteihin (p = 0.029) ja elinmetastaasien läsnäoloon (p = 0.022). Matalan seerumin MMP-14 pitoisuuden omaavien potilaiden tautispesifinen 5-vuotiselossaolo oli 49.2 % (95 % confidence interval [CI] 45.5-52.9), kun taas korkean seerumin MMP-14 pitoisuuden omaavilla se oli 22.1 % (95 % CI 15.2-29.0; p = 0.001). Korkea seerumin MMP-14 pitoisuus liittyi huonoon ennusteeseen histologisesti intestinaalista syöpää sairastavien potilaiden keskuudessa (hazard ratio [HR] 3.54; 95 % CI 1.51-8.33; p = 0.004), mutta ei diffuusia syöpää sairastavien potilaiden keskuudessa. Korkea seerumin MMP-14 pitoisuus osoittautui itsenäiseksi ennusteelliseksi tekijäksi monimuuttaja-analyysissä (HR 1.55; 95 % CI 1.02-2.35; p = 0.040). Tämä tutkimus osoittaa, ensimmäistä kertaa, että korkea seerumin MMP-14 pitoisuus mahasyövässä liittyy huonoon ennusteeseen ja metastaasien läsnäoloon.
  • Kasurinen, Aaro; Gramolelli, Silvia; Hagström, Jaana; Laitinen, Alli; Kokkola, Arto; Miki, Yuichiro; Lehti, Kaisa; Yashiro, Masakazu; Ojala, Päivi M.; Böckelman, Camilla; Haglund, Caj (2019)
    Matrix metalloproteinase 14 (MMP14), a membrane-associated matrix metalloproteinase, has been shown to influence the invasion and metastasis of several solid tumors. Prospero homeobox protein 1 (PROX1), involved in the development and cell fate determination, is also expressed in malignant diseases functioning either as a tumor-suppressing or oncogenic factor. In certain cancers PROX1 appears to transcriptionally suppress MMP14 expression. This study, therefore, aimed to explore the association between MMP14 and PROX1 and understand their potential as prognostic biomarkers in gastric cancer. The cohort consisted of 313 individuals operated for gastric adenocarcinoma between 2000 and 2009 in the Department of Surgery, Helsinki University Hospital. MMP14 and PROX1 expressions were studied using immunohistochemistry in the patient sample and using immunoblotting and immunofluorescence in gastric cancer cell lines. We generated survival curves using the Kaplan-Meier method, determining significance via the log-rank test. A high MMP14 expression associated with being >= 67 years (P = .041), while a positive nuclear PROX1 expression associated with tumors of a diffuse histological type (P = .041) and a high cytoplasmic PROX1 expression (P <.001). Five-year disease-specific survival among patients with a high MMP14 expression was 35.9% (95% confidence interval [CI] 24.9-46.9), compared to 45.3% (95% CI 38.0-52.6) for patients with a low MMP14 (P = .030). Survival was worse specifically among those with a high MMP14 and absent nuclear PROX1 expression (hazard ratio [HR] 1.65; 95% CI 1.09-2.51; P = .019). Thus, this study confirms that a high MMP14 expression predicts a worse survival in gastric cancer, revealing for the first time that survival is particularly worse when PROX1 is low.