Browsing by Subject "prognosis"

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  • Kuhle, J.; Hardmeier, M.; Disanto, G.; Gugleta, K.; Ecsedi, M.; Lienert, C.; Amato, M. P.; Baum, K.; Buttmann, M.; Bayas, A.; Brassat, D.; Brochet, B.; Confavreux, C.; Edan, G.; Färkkilä, Markus; Fredrikson, S.; Frontoni, M.; D'Hooghe, M.; Hutchinson, M.; De Keyser, J.; Kieseier, B. C.; Kuempfel, T.; Rio, J.; Polman, C.; Roullet, E.; Stolz, C.; Vass, K.; Wandinger, K. P.; Kappos, L.; European Long Term Follow Up Study (2016)
    Objectives: To explore long-term effects of treatment and prognostic relevance of variables assessed at baseline and during the European secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS) trial of interferon beta 1b (IFNB-1b). Methods: We assessed 362 patients (60% female; median age 41 years; Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS): 5.5; 51% randomized to IFNB-1b) for their EDSS and treatment history after 10 years. Non-parametric analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and multivariate linear regression models were applied. Results: Median EDSS was 6.0 at the end of the randomized controlled trial (RCT), in the IFNB-1b and placebo groups, and 7.0 in long-term follow-up patients (those receiving IFNB-1b in the RCT were 6.5 and those receiving placebo in the RCT were 7.0; p = 0.086). 24 patients (6.6%) were deceased. The EDSS at baseline and the EDSS change during the RCT were the most important predictors of the EDSS 10 years later (partial R-2: 0.47). The ability to predict changes in EDSS 10 years after the RCT was limited (R-2: 0.12). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measures remained in the predictive models, but explained <5% of the variability. Conclusions: The results from this analysis did not provide convincing evidence to support a favorable long-term outcome in those patients allocated IFNB-1b during the RCT, in our SPMS cohort. The progressive stage of the disease remains largely unpredictable by clinical and conventional MRI measures, so better prognostic markers are needed.
  • Salminen, Liina; Braicu, Elena Ioana; Laaperi, Mitja; Jylha, Antti; Oksa, Sinikka; Hietanen, Sakari; Sehouli, Jalid; Kulbe, Hagen; du Bois, Andreas; Mahner, Sven; Harter, Philipp; Carpen, Olli; Huhtinen, Kaisa; Hynninen, Johanna; Hilvo, Mika (2021)
    Simple Summary Most ovarian cancer patients initially show a response to primary treatments, but the development of refractory disease is a major problem. Currently, there are no blood-based prognostic biomarkers, and the prognosis of a patient is determined by the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage and residual disease after cytoreductive surgery. In this study, we developed and validated a novel test based on the ratio of two circulatory lipids that enables the prognostic stratification of ovarian cancer patients at the time of diagnosis, prior to any oncological treatments. The translational relevance of this test is to find those patients with poor prognosis early on, and to identify patients that are at high risk of recurrence despite complete cytoreduction. Thus, the test enables the early direction of novel targeted therapies to those ovarian cancer patients at greatest risk of recurrence and death. Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) generally responds well to oncological treatments, but the eventual development of a refractory disease is a major clinical problem. Presently, there are no prognostic blood-based biomarkers for the stratification of EOC patients at the time of diagnosis. We set out to assess and validate the prognostic utility of a novel two-lipid signature, as the lipidome is known to be markedly aberrant in EOC patients. The study consisted of 499 women with histologically confirmed EOC that were prospectively recruited at the university hospitals in Turku (Finland) and Charite (Berlin, Germany). Lipidomic screening by tandem liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was performed for all baseline serum samples of these patients, and additionally for 20 patients of the Turku cohort at various timepoints. A two-lipid signature, based on the ratio of the ceramide Cer(d18:1/18:0) and phosphatidylcholine PC(O-38:4), showed consistent prognostic performance in all investigated study cohorts. In the Turku cohort, the unadjusted hazard ratios (HRs) per standard deviation (SD) (95% confidence interval) were 1.79 (1.40, 2.29) for overall and 1.40 (1.14, 1.71) for progression-free survival. In a Charite cohort incorporating only stage III completely resected patients, the corresponding HRs were 1.59 (1.08, 2.35) and 1.53 (1.02, 2.30). In linear-mixed models predicting progression of the disease, the two-lipid signature showed higher performance (beta per SD increase 1.99 (1.38, 2.97)) than cancer antigen 125 (CA-125, 1.78 (1.13, 2.87)). The two-lipid signature was able to identify EOC patients with an especially poor prognosis at the time of diagnosis, and also showed promise for the detection of disease relapse.
  • Johansson, Katarina; Kaprio, Tuomas; Nieminen, Heini; Lehtimäki, Tiina E.; Lantto, Eila; Haglund, Caj; Seppänen, Hanna (2022)
    Background and objective: The growing number of identified intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) patients places greater pressure on healthcare systems. Only a minority of patients have IPMN-related symptoms. Thus, more precise surveillance is required. Methods: In this retrospective single-center cross-sectional study, patients with an active diagnosis of branch duct IPMN (BD-IPMN) and >6 months of surveillance were classified as follows: presence/absence of worrisome features (WF) or high-risk stigmata (HRS), newly developed WF/HRS, under/over 15 mm cyst, growing/not growing
  • Mascitti, Marco; Zhurakivska, Khrystyna; Togni, Lucrezia; Caponio, Vito C. A.; Almangush, Alhadi; Balercia, Paolo; Balercia, Andrea; Rubini, Corrado; Lo Muzio, Lorenzo; Santarelli, Andrea; Troiano, Giuseppe (2020)
    Aims One of the objectives of current research is to customise the treatment of cancer patients. The achievement of this objective requires stratification of patients based on the most significant prognostic factors. The aims of this study were to evaluate the prognostic value of the tumour-stroma ratio (TSR), defined as the proportion of tumour cells relative to surrounding stroma, in patients with oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (OTSCC), and to develop a prognostic nomogram based on the most significant clinicopathological features. Methods and results Clinicopathological data of 211 patients treated at 'Ospedali Riuniti' General Hospital (Ancona, Italy) for OTSCC were collected. One hundred and thirty-nine patients were restaged according to the 8th edition American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) staging system. Evaluation of the TSR was performed on haematoxylin and eosin-stained slides, and correlation with survival outcomes was evaluated. In addition, with the aim of integrating the independent value of the TSR with the 8th edition AJCC staging system, a prognostic nomogram for OTSCC has been developed. OTSCC with a low TSR (i.e. a high proportion of stroma and a low proportion of tumour cells) was shown to have negative prognostic value in terms of disease-specific survival, with a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.883 and a 95% confidence interval (CI) of 1.033-3.432 (P = 0.039), and overall survival (HR = 1.747, 95% CI 0.967-3.154;P = 0.044), independently of other histological and clinical parameters. For the cohort of 139 patients restaged according to the 8th edition AJCC staging system, variables correlating with a poor prognosis were: the TSR, perineural invasion, and sex. The nomogram built on these parameters showed good predictive capacity, outperforming the 8th edition AJCC staging system in stratifying disease-specific survival in OTSCC patients. Conclusions Including the TSR in the predictive model could improve risk stratification of OTSCC patients and aid in making treatment decisions.
  • Int CVT Consortium; Silvis, S. M.; Reinstra, E.; Hiltunen, S.; Putaala, J.; Tatlisumak, T.; Coutinho, J. M. (2020)
    Background and purpose Anaemia is associated with poor clinical outcome after ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke. The association between anaemia and outcome in patients with cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) was examined. Methods Consecutive adult patients with CVT were included from seven centres. Anaemia at admission was scored according to World Health Organization definitions. Poor clinical outcome was defined as a modified Rankin Scale score 3-6 at last follow-up. A multiple imputation procedure was applied for handling missing data in the multivariable analysis. Using binary logistic regression analysis, adjustments were made for age, sex, cancer and centre of recruitment (model 1). In a secondary analysis, adjustments were additionally made for coma, intracerebral haemorrhage, non-haemorrhagic lesion and deep venous system thrombosis (model 2). In a sensitivity analysis, patients with cancer were excluded. Results Data for 952 patients with CVT were included, 22% of whom had anaemia at admission. Patients with anaemia more often had a history of cancer (17% vs. 7%, P <0.001) than patients without anaemia. Poor clinical outcome (21% vs. 11%, P <0.001) and mortality (11% vs. 6%, P = 0.07) were more common amongst patients with anaemia. After adjustment, anaemia at admission increased the risk of poor outcome [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 2.4, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.5-3.7, model 1]. Model 2 revealed comparable results (aOR 1.9, 95% CI 1.2-3.2), as did the sensitivity analysis excluding patients with cancer (aOR 2.3, 95% CI 1.3-3.8, model 1). Conclusion The risk of poor clinical outcome is doubled in CVT patients presenting with anaemia at admission.
  • Hämetoja, Hanna; Andersson, Leif C.; Mäkitie, Antti; Bäck, Leif; Hagström, Jaana; Haglund, Caj (2021)
    The key regulator of the polyamine biosynthetic pathway is ornithine decarboxylase (ODC). ODC is activated by antizyme inhibitor 1 (AZIN1) and 2 (AZIN2). AZIN1 and recently AZIN2 have been related to cancer; however, their functions in adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) have not been studied. We performed immunohistochemical study on minor salivary and mucous gland ACC tissue samples of patients treated at the Helsinki University Hospital (Helsinki, Finland) during 1974-2012. We scored AZIN1 and 2 immunoexpression in 42 and 45 tumor tissue samples, respectively, and correlated them with clinicopathological factors and survival. Enhanced AZIN2 expression was associated with better survival. In addition, both AZINs were seen more commonly in cribriform and tubular than in solid growth patterns. AZIN1 expression did not correlate with the studied clinicopathological factors. It seems that AZIN2 expression is higher in cancer tissue with secretory functions. In ACC tissue, high AZIN2 expression could be related to well-differentiated histological type which still has a functioning vesicle transportation system. Thus, AZIN2 could be a prognostic factor for better survival of ACC patients.
  • McFadyen, Charles A.; Zeiler, Frederick A.; Newcombe, Virginia; Synnot, Anneliese; Steyerberg, Ewout; Gruen, Russel L.; Rosand, Jonathan; Palotie, Aarno; Maas, Andrew I. R.; Menon, David K. (2021)
    The mortality of traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been largely static despite advances in monitoring and imaging techniques. Substantial variance exists in outcome, not fully accounted for by baseline characteristics or injury severity, and genetic factors likely play a role in this variance. The aims of this systematic review were to examine the evidence for a link between the apolipoprotein E4 (APOE4) polymorphism and TBI outcomes and where possible, to quantify the effect size via meta-analysis. We searched EMBASE, MEDLINE, CINAHL, and gray literature in December 2017. We included studies of APOE genotype in relation to functional adult TBI outcomes. Methodological quality was assessed using the Quality in Prognostic Studies Risk of Bias Assessment Instrument and the prognostic studies adaptation of the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation tool. In addition, we contacted investigators and included an additional 160 patients whose data had not been made available for previous analyses, giving a total sample size of 2593 patients. Meta-analysis demonstrated higher odds of a favorable outcome following TBI in those not possessing an ApoE e4 allele compared with e4 carriers and homozygotes (odds ratio 1.39, 95% confidence interval 1.05 to 1.84; p = 0.02). The influence of APOE4 on neuropsychological functioning following TBI remained uncertain, with multiple conflicting studies. We conclude that the ApoE e4 allele confers a small risk of poor outcome following TBI, with analysis by TBI severity not possible based on the currently available published data. Further research into the long-term neuropsychological impact and risk of dementia is warranted.
  • Ng, Wai Tong; But, Barton; Choi, Horace C. W.; de Bree, Remco; Lee, Anne W. M.; Lee, Victor H. F.; Lopez, Fernando; Mäkitie, Antti A.; Rodrigo, Juan P.; Saba, Nabil F.; Tsang, Raymond K. Y.; Ferlito, Alfio (2022)
    Introduction: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is endemic to Eastern and South-Eastern Asia, and, in 2020, 77% of global cases were diagnosed in these regions. Apart from its distinct epidemiology, the natural behavior, treatment, and prognosis are different from other head and neck cancers. With the growing trend of artificial intelligence (AI), especially deep learning (DL), in head and neck cancer care, we sought to explore the unique clinical application and implementation direction of AI in the management of NPC. Methods: The search protocol was performed to collect publications using AI, machine learning (ML) and DL in NPC management from PubMed, Scopus and Embase. The articles were filtered using inclusion and exclusion criteria, and the quality of the papers was assessed. Data were extracted from the finalized articles. Results: A total of 78 articles were reviewed after removing duplicates and papers that did not meet the inclusion and exclusion criteria. After quality assessment, 60 papers were included in the current study. There were four main types of applications, which were auto-contouring, diagnosis, prognosis, and miscellaneous applications (especially on radiotherapy planning). The different forms of convolutional neural networks (CNNs) accounted for the majority of DL algorithms used, while the artificial neural network (ANN) was the most frequent ML model implemented. Conclusion: There is an overall positive impact identified from AI implementation in the management of NPC. With improving AI algorithms, we envisage AI will be available as a routine application in a clinical setting soon.
  • Deneau, Mark R.; Valentino, Pamela L.; Mack, Cara; Alqoaer, Khaled; Amin, Mansi; Amir, Achiya Z.; Aumar, Madeleine; Auth, Marcus; Broderick, Annemarie; DiGuglielmo, Matthew; Draijer, Laura G.; El-Matary, Wael; Ferrari, Federica; Furuya, Katryn N.; Gottrand, Frederic; Gupta, Nitika; Homan, Matjaz; Jensen, M. K.; Kamath, Binita M.; Kim, Kyung Mo; Kolho, Kaija-Leena; Koot, Bart; Iorio, Raffaele; Martinez, Mercedes; Miloh, Tamir; Mohan, Parvathi; Palle, Sirish; Papadopoulou, Alexandra; Ricciuto, Amanda; Saubermann, Lawrence; Sathya, Pushpa; Shteyer, Eyal; Smolka, Vratislav; Tanaka, Atsushi; Varier, Raghu; Venkat, Veena; Vitola, Bernadette; Woynarowski, Marek; Guthery, Stephen (2020)
    Background: Natural history models for primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) are derived from adult patient data, but have never been validated in children. It is unclear how accurate such models are for children with PSC. Methods: We utilized the pediatric PSC consortium database to assess the Revised Mayo Clinic, Amsterdam-Oxford, and Boberg models. We calculated the risk stratum and predicted survival for each patient within each model using patient data at PSC diagnosis, and compared it with observed survival. We evaluated model fit using the c-statistic. Results: Model fit was good at 1 year (c-statistics 0.93, 0.87, 0.82) and fair at 10 years (0.78, 0.75, 0.69) in the Mayo, Boberg, and Amsterdam-Oxford models, respectively. The Mayo model correctly classified most children as low risk, whereas the Amsterdam-Oxford model incorrectly classified most as high risk. All of the models underestimated survival of patients classified as high risk. Albumin, bilirubin, AST, and platelets were most associated with outcomes. Autoimmune hepatitis was more prevalent in higher risk groups, and over-weighting of AST in these patients accounted for the observed versus predicted survival discrepancy. Conclusions: All 3 models offered good short-term discrimination of outcomes but only fair long-term discrimination. None of the models account for the high prevalence of features of autoimmune hepatitis overlap in children and the associated elevated aminotransferases. A pediatric-specific model is needed. AST, bilirubin, albumin, and platelets will be important predictors, but must be weighted to account for the unique features of PSC in children.
  • Öhman, Jonas; Harjola, Veli-Pekka; Karjalainen, Pasi; Lassus, Johan (2018)
    Background: It is unclear how to optimally monitor acute heart failure (AHF) patients. We evaluated the timely interplay of cardiac filling pressures, brain natriuretic peptides (BNPs), lung ultrasound (LUS) and symptoms during AHF treatment. Methods: We enrolled 60 patients who had been hospitalised for AHF. Patients were examined with a rapid cardiothoracic ultrasound (CaTUS) protocol, combining LUS and focused echocardiographic evaluation of cardiac filling pressures (i.e. medial E/e' and inferior vena cava index [IVCi]). CaTUS was done at 0, 12, 24 and 48 hours (3 hours) and on the day of discharge, alongside clinical evaluation and laboratory samples. Patients free of congestion (Blines or pleural fluid) on LUS at discharge were categorised as responders, whereas the rest were categorised as non-responders. Improvement in congestion parameters was evaluated separately in these groups. The effect of congestion parameters on prognosis was also analysed. Results: Responders experienced a significantly larger decline in E/e' (2.58 vs. 0.38, p=0.037) and dyspnoea visual analogue scale (1-10) score (7.68 vs. 3.57, p=0.007) during the first 12 hours of treatment, while IVCi and BNPs declined later without no such rapid initial decline. Among patients experiencing a >3 U decline in E/e' during the first 12 hours of treatment, 18/21 were to become responders (p Conclusion: E/e' seemed like the most useful congestion parameter for monitoring early treatment response, predicting prognostically beneficial resolution of pulmonary congestion.
  • Zheng, Guoqiao; Chattopadhyay, Subhayan; Sundquist, Kristina; Sundquist, Jan; Forsti, Asta; Hemminki, Akseli; Hemminki, Kari (2020)
    The increased survival in malignant cutaneous melanoma (melanoma) is probably due to early diagnosis combined with improved treatment most recently. National health campaigns and screening programs for melanoma detection were started in Sweden several decades ago. We want to assess the influence of tumor characteristics, based on the TNM classification, and of second primary cancers on overall survival in melanoma. We used the Swedish Cancer Registry to assess all-cause survival in melanoma from 2003 to 2015. Hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated using multivariable Cox regression models. A total of 19,773 melanoma patients were diagnosed with TNM data. Survival showed a strong improving trend over time (p-trend
  • Hänninen, Mikko; Jäntti, Toni; Tolppanen, Heli; Segersvärd, Heli; Tarvasmäki, Tuukka; Lassus, Johan; Vausort, Melanie; Devaux, Yvan; Sionis, Alessandro; Tikkanen, Ilkka; Harjola, Veli-Pekka; Lakkisto, Päivi (2020)
    Cardiogenic shock (CS) is a life-threatening emergency. New biomarkers are needed in order to detect patients at greater risk of adverse outcome. Our aim was to assess the characteristics of miR-21-5p, miR-122-5p, and miR-320a-3p in CS and evaluate the value of their expression levels in risk prediction. Circulating levels of miR-21-5p, miR-122-5p, and miR-320a-3p were measured from serial plasma samples of 179 patients during the first 5-10 days after detection of CS, derived from the CardShock study. Acute coronary syndrome was the most common cause (80%) of CS. Baseline (0 h) levels of miR-21-5p, miR-122-5p, and miR-320a-3p were all significantly elevated in nonsurvivors compared to survivors (p <0.05 for all). Above median levels at 0h of each miRNA were each significantly associated with higher lactate and alanine aminotransferase levels and decreased glomerular filtration rates. After adjusting the multivariate regression analysis with established CS risk factors, miR-21-5p and miR-320a-3p levels above median at 0 h were independently associated with 90-day all-cause mortality (adjusted hazard ratio 1.8 (95% confidence interval 1.1-3.0), p = 0.018; adjusted hazard ratio 1.9 (95% confidence interval 1.2-3.2), p = 0.009, respectively). In conclusion, circulating plasma levels of miR-21-5p, miR-122-5p, and miR-320a-3p at baseline were all elevated in nonsurvivors of CS and associated with markers of hypoperfusion. Above median levels of miR-21-5p and miR-320a-3p at baseline appear to independently predict 90-day all-cause mortality. This indicates the potential of miRNAs as biomarkers for risk assessment in cardiogenic shock.
  • Broman, Jenna; Aarnio, Karoliina; But, Anna; Marinkovic, Ivan; Rodriguez-Pardo, Jorge; Kaste, Markku; Tatlisumak, Turgut; Putaala, Jukka (2022)
    Objective We examined the association between initiation of antidepressants within the first year after ischaemic stroke (IS) in young adults and long-term fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular events, as well as all-cause mortality. Patients and methods The Helsinki Young Stroke Registry (HYSR) includes patients aged 15-49 years with their first-ever IS occurring 1994-2007. From nationwide registers, we obtained data on prescriptions (1993-2011) and outcomes of interest (1994-2011). Time of initiating post-stroke antidepressants (PSADs) was defined as time of the first filled prescription for antidepressants within the first year from IS. To account for non-random assignment of PSADs, we performed propensity score matching and studied the relationship between PSAD initiation and outcomes using Cox regression models with time-varying coefficients. Results Of all patients (n = 888), 206 (23.2%) initiated PSADs within the first year, of which 203 (98.5%) could be matched to 406 non-initiators. In this matched sample of 609 patients, the median follow-up time was 8.1 (interquartile range [IQR] 5.0-12.6) years and 169 (28.9%) patients had any cardiovascular events, 95 (15.8%) had recurrent ischaemic or haemorrhagic strokes and 106 (17.4%) died. Adjusted for sociodemographics and cardiovascular comorbidities, PSAD initiation was associated with recurrent ischaemic or haemorrhagic stroke 5-10 years after IS (hazard ratio [HR] 3.07, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.32-7.12). No association emerged between PSAD initiation and other outcomes. Conclusions In young adults, PSAD initiation within the first year after IS was associated with a heightened hazard of recurrent ischaemic or haemorrhagic stroke in the long term. Future studies are needed to verify the results and to further study the nature of this finding. KEY MESSAGES Initiation of post-stroke antidepressants (PSADs) within the first year after ischaemic stroke (IS) was associated with a heightened hazard of recurrent ischaemic or haemorrhagic stroke in the long term. Patients starting antidepressants after IS should be followed up more closely in case of recurrent events. Future studies are needed to verify the results and to further study the nature of this finding.
  • Turunen, Antti; Kuuliala, Antti; Mustonen, Harri; Puolakkainen, Pauli; Kylänpää, Leena; Kuuliala, Krista (2021)
    Objectives Clinical practice lacks biomarkers to predict the severity of acute pancreatitis (AP). We studied if intracellular signaling of circulating leukocytes could predict persistent organ dysfunction (OD) and secondary infections in AP. Methods A venous blood sample was taken from 174 patients with AP 72 hours or less from onset of symptoms and 31 healthy controls. Phosphorylation levels (p) of appropriately stimulated signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1), STAT6, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappa B), Akt, and nonstimulated STAT3 in monocytes, neutrophils, and lymphocytes was measured using phosphospecific flow cytometry. Results The patients showed higher pSTAT3 and lower pSTAT1, pSTAT6, pNF-kappa B, and pAkt than healthy controls. pSTAT3 in all leukocyte subtypes studied increased, and pSTAT1 in monocytes and T cells decreased in an AP severity-wise manner. In patients without OD at sampling, high pSTAT3 in monocytes and T lymphocytes were associated with development of persistent OD. In patients with OD, low interleukin-4-stimulated pSTAT6 in monocytes and neutrophils and Escherichia coli-stimulated pNF-kappa B in neutrophils predicted OD persistence. High pSTAT3 in monocytes, CD8(+) T cells, and neutrophils; low pSTAT1 in monocytes and T cells; and low pNF-kappa B in lymphocytes predicted secondary infections. Conclusions Leukocyte STAT3, STAT1, STAT6, and NF-kappa Beta phosphorylations are potential predictors of AP severity.
  • Uusitalo, Elina; Kallionpaa, Roope A.; Kurki, Samu; Rantanen, Matti; Pitkaniemi, Janne; Kronqvist, Pauliina; Harkonen, Pirkko; Huovinen, Riikka; Carpen, Olli; Pöyhönen, Minna; Peltonen, Sirkku; Peltonen, Juha (2017)
    Background: An increased breast cancer incidence and poor survival have been reported for women with neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1). To explain the poor survival, we aimed to link the histopathology and clinical characteristics of NF1-associated breast cancers. Methods: The Finnish Cancer Registry and the Finnish NF Registry were cross-referenced to identify the NF1 patients with breast cancer. Archival NF1 breast cancer specimens were retrieved for histopathological typing and compared with matched controls. Results: A total of 32 breast cancers were diagnosed in 1404 NF1 patients during the follow-up. Women with NF1 had an estimated lifetime risk of 18.0% for breast cancer, and this is nearly two-fold compared with that of the general Finnish female population (9.74%). The 26 successfully retrieved archival NF1 breast tumours were more often associated with unfavourable prognostic factors, such as oestrogen and progesterone receptor negativity and HER2 amplification. However, survival was worse in the NF1 group (P = 0.053) even when compared with the control group matched for age, diagnosis year, gender and oestrogen receptor status. Scrutiny of The Cancer Genome Atlas data set showed that NF1 mutations and deletions were associated with similar characteristics in the breast cancers of the general population. Conclusions: These results emphasise the role of the NF1 gene in the pathogenesis of breast cancer and a need for active follow-up for breast cancer in women with NF1.
  • Myllynen, Chris; Laakso, Sini; Atula, Sari; Strbian, Daniel (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Tausta: Komorbiditeettien eli muiden itsenäisten sairauksien vaikutusta myasthenia graviksen (MG) ennusteeseen ei tunneta. Muut autoimmuuni sairaudet on liitetty MG:een mutta niidrn rooli MG:n taudin kuvaan on kiistanalainen. Menetelmät: Tässä retrospektiivisessä yhden keskuksen kohorttitutkimuksessa seurasimme 154 suomalaista yleistynyttä MG:sta sairastavaa potilasta, joille oli tehty tymektomia eli kateenkorvan poisto. Keskimääräinen seuranta-aika oli 8,6 (±5.0 ) vuotta tymektomian jälkeen. Potilaiden komorbiditeetit oli diagnosoitu miltä tahansa ajanhetkeltä ja tiedot oli peräisin potilasasiakirjoista. Tautitaakka pisteytettiin käyttämällä Charlson comorbidity indexiä (CCI). Potilaat jaettiin alaryhmiin komorbiditeettien mukaan; MG ainoastaan (n=45) ja MG sekä mikä tahansa komorbiditeetti (n=109). Jälkimmäinen ryhmä jaettiin vielä; MG sekä muu autoimmuunitauti (n=33) ja MG sekä ei-autoimmuuni komorbiditeetti -ryhmään(n=76). Tutkimuksen päätetapahtumina oli täydellinen remissio (CSR), minimaalisen lääkityksen tarve (pyridostigmiini max 100mg/vrk) ja sairaalahoidon tarve. Tulokset: Potilaat joilla ainoastaan MG saavutti CSR useammin kuin MG sekä mikä tahansa komorbiditeetti –ryhmä (26.7% vs 8.3%, p = 0.004). Minimaalisen lääkityksen tarpeen saavutettiin useammin MG ainoastaan -ryhmässä kuin MG sekä ei-autoimmuuni komorbiditeetti –ryhmässä (p = 0.047 ). Sairaalahoidon tarve oli alhaisempaa potilailla joilla vain MG kuin potilailla oli MG sekä mikä tahansa komorbiditeetti (p = 0.046). Logistisen regressioanalyysin mukaan matala CCI kasvattaa todennäköisyyttä saavuttaa CSR (p = 0.033). Matala CCI oli yleisempää potilailla, joilla oli minimaalinen lääkitys tarve ja eivätkä tarvinnut sairaalahoitoa (p < 0.001) Johtopäätökset: Lähes 9 vuoden tymektomian jälkeisen seurannan aikana potilailla, joilla on yleistynyt MG ja komorbiditeettejä on huonompi ennuste kuin potilailla jotka sairastavat vain MG:tä. Autoimmuunisairaudet eivät huonontanut MG:n ennustetta enempään kuin muut komorbiditeetit.
  • Almangush, Alhadi; Bello, Ibrahim O.; Keski-Santti, Harri; Mäkinen, Laura; Kauppila, Joonas H.; Pukkila, Matti; Hagstrom, Jaana; Laranne, Jussi; Tommola, Satu; Nieminen, Outi; Soini, Ylermi; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Koivunen, Petri; Grenman, Reidar; Leivo, Ilmo; Salo, Tuula (2014)
  • Borssen, Magnus; Haider, Zahra; Landfors, Mattias; Noren-Nystrom, Ulrika; Schmiegelow, Kjeld; Asberg, Ann E.; Kanerva, Jukka; Madsen, Hans O.; Marquart, Hanne; Heyman, Mats; Hultdin, Magnus; Roos, Goran; Forestier, Erik; Degerman, Sofie (2016)
    Background. Despite increased knowledge about genetic aberrations in pediatric T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL), no clinically feasible treatment-stratifying marker exists at diagnosis. Instead patients are enrolled in intensive induction therapies with substantial side effects. In modern protocols, therapy response is monitored by minimal residual disease (MRD) analysis and used for postinduction risk group stratification. DNA methylation profiling is a candidate for subtype discrimination at diagnosis and we investigated its role as a prognostic marker in pediatric T-ALL. Procedure. Sixty-five diagnostic T-ALL samples from Nordic pediatric patients treated according to the Nordic Society of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology ALL 2008 (NOPHO ALL 2008) protocol were analyzed by HumMeth450K genome wide DNA methylation arrays. Methylation status was analyzed in relation to clinical data and early T-cell precursor (ETP) phenotype. Results. Two distinct CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) groups were identified. Patients with a CIMP-negative profile had an inferior response to treatment compared to CIMP-positive patients (3-year cumulative incidence of relapse (CIR3y) rate: 29% vs. 6%, P = 0.01). Most importantly, CIMP classification at diagnosis allowed subgrouping of high-risk T-ALL patients (MRD >= 0.1% at day 29) into two groups with significant differences in outcome (CIR3y rates: CIMP negative 50% vs. CIMP positive 12%; P = 0.02). These groups did not differ regarding ETP phenotype, but the CIMP-negative group was younger (P = 0.02) and had higher white blood cell count at diagnosis (P = 0.004) compared with the CIMP-positive group. Conclusions. CIMP classification at diagnosis in combination with MRD during induction therapy is a strong candidate for further risk classification and could confer important information in treatment decision making. (C) 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
  • Fleischer, Thomas; Klajic, Jovana; Aure, Miriam Ragle; Louhimo, Riku; Pladsen, Arne V.; Ottestad, Lars; Touleimat, Nizar; Laakso, Marko; Halvorsen, Ann Rita; Alnaes, Grethe I. Grenaker; Riis, Margit L. H.; Helland, Aslaug; Hautaniemi, Sampsa; Lonning, Per Eystein; Naume, Bjorn; Borresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Tost, Joerg; Kristensen, Vessela N. (2017)
    Breast cancer patients with Luminal A disease generally have a good prognosis, but among this patient group are patients with good prognosis that are currently overtreated with adjuvant chemotherapy, and also patients that have a bad prognosis and should be given more aggressive treatment. There is no available method for subclassification of this patient group. Here we present a DNA methylation signature (SAM40) that segregates Luminal A patients based on prognosis, and identify one good prognosis group and one bad prognosis group. The prognostic impact of SAM40 was validated in four independent patient cohorts. Being able to subdivide the Luminal A patients may give the two-sided benefit of identifying one subgroup that may benefit from a more aggressive treatment than what is given today, and importantly, identifying a subgroup that may benefit from less treatment.
  • Puetz, Volker; Strbian, Daniel; Nguyen, Thanh N.; Nagel, Simon (2021)