Browsing by Subject "prophylaxis"

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  • Maseide, Ragnhild J.; Berntorp, Erik; Astermark, Jan; Hansen, Jessica; Olsson, Anna; Bruzelius, Maria; Frisk, Tony; Aspdahl, Magnus; Nummi, Vuokko; Tjonnfjord, Geir E.; Holme, Pal A. (2021)
    Introduction Detection of early arthropathy is crucial for the management of haemophilia, but data on moderate haemophilia are limited. Therefore, we evaluated joint health and treatment modalities in Nordic patients with moderate haemophilia A (MHA) and B (MHB). Aim To explore and compare the Haemophilia Early Arthropathy Detection with Ultrasound (HEAD-US) and Haemophilia Joint Health Score (HJHS) to detect early arthropathy in moderate haemophilia. Methods A cross-sectional, multicentre study covering Nordic patients with MHA and MHB. Arthropathy was evaluated by HEAD-US and HJHS 2.1. Results We assessed 693 joints in 118 patients. HEAD-US scores (medians [interquartile ranges]) were as follows: elbows 0 points (0-0), knees 0 (0-0) and ankles 0 (0-1). Respectively, by HJHS: elbows 0 (0-1), knees 0 (0-1) and ankles 0 (0-1). Cartilage (14%) and bone (13%) were most commonly affected by HEAD-US. Frequent HJHS findings were crepitus on motion in knees (39%), and loss of flexion (23%) and extension (13%) in ankles. HEAD-US correlated strongly with HJHS (elbows r = .70, knees r = .60 and ankles r = .65), but 24% had discordant scores. Joints with HJHS zero points, 5% captured HEAD-US >= 1 point. Moreover, 26% had HJHS findings without HEAD-US pathology. Notably, 31% of knees had crepitus on motion and normal HEAD-US. Conclusion Overall, the joints attained low scores implying good joint health. HEAD-US correlated strongly with HJHS. In 5%, HEAD-US detected subclinical pathology. Crepitus on motion was frequently reported despite normal HEAD-US, thus not necessarily reflecting arthropathy. HEAD-US therefore improves the joint assessment in moderate haemophilia.
  • Måseide, Ragnhild J.; Berntorp, Erik; Astermark, Jan; Olsson, Anna; Bruzelius, Maria; Frisk, Tony; Nummi, Vuokko; Lassila, Riitta; Tjonnfjord, Geir E.; Holme, Pål A. (2020)
    Introduction The prevalence of arthropathy in moderate haemophilia A (MHA) and B (MHB) is not well known. Aim We evaluated joint health in Nordic patients in relation to their treatment modality. Methods A cross-sectional, multicentre study covering MHA and MHB in Sweden, Finland and Norway. Arthropathy was evaluated by ultrasound (HEAD-US) and Haemophilia Joint Health Score (HJHS). Results We report on 145 patients: median age 28 years (IQR 13-52) and 61% MHA. Baseline factor VIII/factor IX activity (FVIII/FIX:C) was 2 IU/dL (median) (IQR 2-4): lower for MHB (2 IU/dL, IQR 1-2) than MHA (3 IU/dL, IQR 2-4) (P <.01). Eighty-five per cent of MHA and 73% MHB had a history of haemarthrosis (P = .07). Age at first joint bleed was lower for MHA (5 years [median], IQR 3-7) than MHB (7 years, IQR 5-12) (P = .01). Thirty-eight per cent received prophylaxis, started at median 10 years of age (IQR 4-24). Median joint bleeds and serious other bleeds during the last 12 months were both zero (IQR 0-1). Total HEAD-US captured 0/48 points (median) (IQR 0-2) and HJHS 4/120 points (IQR 1-10) with strong correlation between them (r = .72). FVIII/FIX:C
  • Vepsalainen, K.; Riikonen, P.; Lassila, R.; Arola, M.; Huttunen, P.; Lähteenmäki, P.; Mottonen, M.; Selander, T.; Martikainen, J. (2018)
    AimFor previously untreated patients (PUPs) with severe haemophilia A in Finland for the past 2 decades, the standard practice has been to start early primary prophylaxis. We evaluated the long-term clinical outcomes and costs of treatment with high-dose prophylaxis in PUPs from birth to adolescence, including immune tolerance induction (ITI). MethodsFrom the medical records of all PUPs born between June 1994 and May 2013 in Finland, we retrospectively extracted data on clinical outcomes and healthcare use. Using linear mixed models, we analysed longitudinal clinical outcome data. To analyse skewed cost data, including zero costs, we applied hurdle regression. ResultsAll 62 patients received early regular prophylaxis; totally, they have had treatment for nearly 700 patient-years. The median age of starting home treatment was 1.1years. The mean (SD) annual treatment costs (Europerkg) were 4391Euro (3852). For ages 1-3, ITI comprised over half of the costs; in other groups, prophylactic FVIII treatment dominated. With these high costs, however, clinical outcomes were desirable; median (IQR) ABR was low at 0.19 (0.07-0.46) and so was AJBR at 0.06 (0-0.24). Thirteen (21%) patients developed a clinically significant inhibitor, 10 (16%) with a high titre. All ITIs were successful. The mean costs for ITI were 383448Euro (259085). The expected ITI payback period was 1.81 (95% CI 0.62-12.12) years. ConclusionsEarly high-dose prophylaxis leads to excellent long-term clinical outcomes, and early childhood ITI therapy seems to turn cost-neutral generally already in 2years.
  • European Soc Blood Marrow Transpla; Lawitschka, Anita; Lucchini, Giovanna; Vettenranta, Kim; Corbacioglu, Selim (2020)
    Pediatric allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) practices differ from those of adults, particularly the heterogeneity of transplantable nonmalignant diseases and the lower incidence of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Several guidelines regarding the management of acute (a) GVHD in adult HCT have been published. We aimed to capture the real-life approaches for pediatric aGVHD prophylaxis/treatment, and data from 75/193 (response rate 39%) EBMT centers (26 countries) were included, representing half (48%) of the pediatric EBMT-HCT activity. Results with >= 75% approval from respondents (74/75) for GVHD prophylaxis after myeloablative HCT for malignancies partially contradict published guidelines: Single-agent cyclosporine A (CsA) was used for matched sibling donor HCT in 47%; blood CsA levels were reported lower; the relapse risk in malignant diseases influenced GVHD prophylaxis with early withdrawal of CsA; distinct longer duration of CsA was employed in nonmalignant diseases. Most centers used additional anti-thymocyte globulin for matched unrelated and mismatched donor HCT, but not for matched siblings. Regarding prophylaxis in nonmyeloablative conditioning (mainly for nonmalignant diseases), responses showed broad heterogeneity. High conformity was found for first-line treatment; however, results regarding steroid-refractory aGVHD indicate an earlier diagnosis in children. Our findings highlight the need for standardized pediatric approaches toward aGVHD prophylaxis/treatment differentiated for malignant and nonmalignant underlying diseases.
  • Carcao, Manuel; Altisent, Carmen; Castaman, Giancarlo; Fukutake, Katsuyuki; Kerlin, Bryce A.; Kessler, Craig; Lassila, Riitta; Nugent, Diane; Oldenburg, Johannes; Garly, May-Lill; Rosholm, Anders; Inbal, Aida (2018)
    Recombinant factor XIII-A(2) (rFXIII-A(2)) was developed for prophylaxis and treatment of bleeds in patients with congenital FXIII A-subunit deficiency.mentor (TM) 2 (NCT00978380), a multinational, open-label, single-arm, multiple-dosing extension to the pivotal mentor (TM) 1 trial, assessed long-term safety and efficacy of rFXIII-A(2) prophylaxis in eligible patients (patients with severe [<0.05 IU/mL] congenital FXIII subunit A deficiency) aged >= 6 years. Patients received 35IU/kgrFXIII-A(2) (exactdosing) every 28 +/- 2 days for >= 52 weeks. Primary endpoint was safety (adverse events including immunogenicity); secondary endpoints were rate of bleeds requiring FXIII treatment, haemostatic response after one 35 IU/kg rFXIII-A(2) dose for breakthrough bleeds and withdrawals due to lack of rFXIII-A(2) efficacy. Steady-state pharmacokinetic variables were also summarized. Elective surgery was permitted during the treatment period. Sixty patients were exposed to rFXIII-A(2); their median age was 26.0 years (range: 7.0-77.0). rFXIII-A(2) was well tolerated without any safety concerns. No non-neutralizing or neutralizing antibodies (inhibitors) against FXIII were detected. Mean annualized bleeding rate (ABR) was 0.043/patient-year. Mean spontaneous ABR was 0.011/patient-year. No patients withdrew due to lack of efficacy. Geometric mean FXIII trough levelwas 0.17 IU/mL. Geometric terminal half-life was 13.7 days. rFXIII-A(2) prophylaxis provided sufficient haemostatic coverage for 12 minor surgeries without the need for additional FXIII therapy; eight procedures were performed within 7 days of the patient's last scheduled rFXIII-A(2) dose, and four were performed 10 to 21 days after the last dose.
  • Hellström, Per M.; Hendolin, Panu; Kaihovaara, Pertti; Kronberg, Leif; Meierjohann, Axel; Millerhovf, Anders; Paloheimo, Lea; Sundelin, Heidi; Syrjanen, Kari; Webb, Dominic-Luc; Salaspuro, Mikko (2017)
    Introduction: Helicobacter-induced atrophic gastritis with a hypochlorhydric milieu is a risk factor for gastric cancer. Microbes colonising acid-free stomach oxidise ethanol to acetaldehyde, a recognised group 1 carcinogen. Objective: To assess gastric production of acetaldehyde and its inert condensation product, non-toxic 2-methyl-1,3-thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (MTCA), after alcohol intake under treatment with slow-release L-cysteine or placebo. Methods: Seven patients with biopsy-confirmed atrophic gastritis, low serum pepsinogen and high gastrin-17 were studied in a cross-over single-blinded design. On separate days, patients randomly received 200 mg slow-release L-cysteine or placebo with intragastric instillation of 15% (0.3 g/kg) ethanol. After intake, gastric concentrations of ethanol, acetaldehyde, L-cysteine and MTCA were analysed. Results: Administration of L-cysteine increased MTCA (p <.0004) and decreased gastric acetaldehyde concentrations by 68% (p <.0001). The peak L-cysteine level was 7552 +/- 2687 mu mol/L at 40 min and peak MTCA level 196 +/- 98 mu mol/L at 80 min after intake. Gastric L-cysteine and MTCA concentrations were maintained for 3 h. The AUC for MTCA was 11-fold higher than acetaldehyde, indicating gastric first-pass metabolism of ethanol. With placebo, acetaldehyde remained elevated also at low ethanol concentrations representing 'non-alcoholic' beverages and food items. Conclusions: After gastric ethanol instillation, slow-release L-cysteine eliminates acetaldehyde to form inactive MTCA, which remains in gastric juice for up to 3 h. High acetaldehyde levels indicate a marked gastric first-pass metabolism of ethanol resulting in gastric accumulation of carcinogenic acetaldehyde. Local exposure of the gastric mucosa to acetaldehyde can be mitigated by slow-release L-cysteine capsules.
  • Räihä, Juulia; Ortiz, Fernanda; Mannonen, Laura; Loginov, Raisa; Lempinen, Marko; Lautenschlager, Irmeli; Helanterä, Ilkka (2021)
    Cytomegalovirus continues to be a concern after transplantation despite prophylaxis regimens. Our aim was to analyse post-prophylaxis primary cytomegalovirus infections among kidney transplant recipients after 6-month valganciclovir prophylaxis and to determine the usefulness of surveillance after prophylaxis. Data from all cytomegalovirus D+/R- kidney transplant recipients from January 2004 to October 2018 at our center who received 6-month prophylaxis with valganciclovir were retrospectively analysed (N = 481). Detailed analyses were performed for 136 patients who were monitored every 2-4 weeks for DNAemia after the discontinuation of prophylaxis. Post-prophylaxis primary cytomegalovirus infection occurred in 182/481 (38%) patients median 264 days after transplantation (IQR: 226-367) and median 84 days after the end of prophylaxis (IQR: 46-187). In 49% patients, cytomegalovirus infection occurred over 3 months after the end of prophylaxis. Cytomegalovirus infection was not associated with lower patient or graft survival and no independent risk factors for infection were found. From patients monitored closely, 71/136 (52%) patients developed post-prophylaxis primary cytomegalovirus infection. Altogether, 52/136 (38%) patients were diagnosed with probable post-prophylaxis cytomegalovirus disease and 19/136 (14%) patients had asymptomatic CMV infection. Recurrent infection occurred in 38/71 (39%) patients. The incidence of post-prophylaxis primary cytomegalovirus infection among D+/R- kidney transplant recipients remains high despite 6-month prophylaxis. Surveillance after prophylaxis was challenging as a considerable portion of the infections occurred late and already symptomatic.