Browsing by Subject "prosody"

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  • Wiklund, Mari; Ihaksinen, Kia; Vainio, Martti (2021)
    Autismikirjon häiriö on aivojen neurobiologinen kehityshäiriö, jota luonnehtivat mm. sosiaalisen vuorovaikutuksen ongelmat, aistiyliherkkyydet sekä rajoittuneet kiinnostuksen kohteet (APA, 2013). Autismikirjon henkilöillä puheen prosodiaan liittyy usein epätyypillisiä piirteitä. Tässä artikkelissa tarkastellaan autismikirjon poikien puheen lausumanloppuista nousevaa intonaatiota ja sen käyttöä kysymys- ja kerrontavuoroissa spontaanissa vuorovaikutuksessa. Aihe on tärkeä, koska vaikka autismikirjoon liittyviä prosodisia piirteitä onkin jo tutkittu aiemmin melko paljon, spontaania puheaineistoa, joka mahdollistaisi autismikirjon henkilöiden intonaation käytön havainnoimisen, ei ole aiemmin juurikaan tutkittu. Tutkimuksen aineistona käytetään autenttisia ryhmäkuntoutuskeskusteluja, joissa 11–13-vuotiaat autismikirjon pojat (n = 7) keskustelevat kuntouttajiensa kanssa. Tutkimuksessa käytetään fonetiikan ja keskustelunanalyysin menetelmiä. Tutkimuksen tulokset viittaavat siihen, että autismikirjon pojat osaavat käyttää nousevaa loppuintonaatiota vuorovaikutuskeinona sekä tuottaa että tulkita oikein päättyvyyttä ilmaisevia prosodisia piirteitä spontaanissa vuorovaikutuksessa. He osaavat myös käyttää prosodisia piirteitä korostuskeinoina, kutsua intonaation loppunousun avulla reaktioita muilta osallistujilta sekä ilmaista vastaanottajan huomioonottamista. Autismikirjon pojat vaikuttaisivat siis pystyvän käyttämään hyväkseen intonaatiota vuorovaikutuksellisena resurssina, vaikka vastavuoroinen vuorovaikutus on yleisesti ottaen autismikirjon henkilöille vaikeaa (APA, 2013).
  • Pareyon, Gabriel (Universidad de Zacatecas, 2007)
    Lecture about the teponaztli (a specific type of slit drum), traditionally used by the Aztec (or Mexica) people, and its associated repertoire. Special attention is paid to the usage of this instrument in the Cantares Mexicanos (a song compilation from the 16th century) accompaniment.
  • Suni, Antti; Simko, Juraj; Aalto, Daniel; Vainio, Martti (2017)
    Prominences and boundaries are the essential constituents of prosodic struc- ture in speech. They provide for means to chunk the speech stream into linguis- tically relevant units by providing them with relative saliences and demarcating them within utterance structures. Prominences and boundaries have both been widely used in both basic research on prosody as well as in text-to-speech syn- thesis. However, there are no representation schemes that would provide for both estimating and modelling them in a unified fashion. Here we present an unsupervised unified account for estimating and representing prosodic promi- nences and boundaries using a scale-space analysis based on continuous wavelet transform. The methods are evaluated and compared to earlier work using the Boston University Radio News corpus. The results show that the proposed method is comparable with the best published supervised annotation methods.
  • Wiklund, Mari (2018)
    In certain languages and in certain types of data, prosodic features are used to group prosodic units called by some scholars spoken sentences into larger units, often called speech paragraphs. The onsets of the first spoken sentences of these units are marked by a raised pitch level compared to the beginning of the preceding spoken sentence. The prosodic units that are formed typically correspond to topical entities. Prosodic means are also used to indicate relationships between spoken sentences belonging to the same speech paragraph. A new spoken sentence generally starts at a higher pitch compared to the end of the preceding spoken sentence. However, if two consecutive spoken sentences are closely related, the second begins at a lower pitch vis-à-vis the end of the previous spoken sentence, but the subsequent syllable of the new spoken sentence displays raised pitch. This phenomenon of sentence-initial lowered pitch indicates, on one hand, a close discourse relationship with the preceding spoken sentence but, on the other, the beginning of a grammatically independent spoken sentence. The data are in Finnish, and they come from conference-like, monologous presentations that are translated by speech-to-text interpreters to allow the speech to be accessed by the deaf and hard-of-hearing. The analyses are performed using instrumental phonetics methodology.
  • Arnhold, Anja; Vainio, Martti; Suni, Antti; Järvikivi, Juhani (2010)
    A production experiment investigated the tonal shape of Finnish finite verbs in transitive sentences without narrow focus. Traditional descriptions of Finnish stating that non- focused finite verbs do not receive accents were only partly supported. Verbs were found to have a consistently smaller pitch range than words in other word classes, but their pitch contours were neither flat nor explainable by pure interpolation.
  • Wiklund, Mari; Kurhila, Salla (2021)
    Koodinvaihdolla tarkoitetaan kielen tai kielimuodon vaihtumista toiseksi samassa puhetilanteessa tai tekstissä. Koodinvaihtoja on tutkittu paljon, mutta niiden prosodisten piirteiden käsittely on jäänyt lähinnä maininnan tasolle. Tämä artikkeli tarkastelee lähemmin koodinvaihtojen prosodiaa. Tavoitteena on koodinvaihtoja sisältävää keskusteluaineistoa analysoimalla valottaa prosodian osuutta koodinvaihtojen merkitysten tulkinnassa. Tutkimuksen aineistona on puolen tunnin puhelinkeskustelu, jossa Suomessa syntynyt mutta pitkään Kanadassa asunut rouva keskustelee Suomessa asuvan siskonpoikansa kanssa. Aineistossa on yhteensä 73 koodinvaihtoesiintymää, joissa keskustelun kieli vaihtuu hetkellisesti suomesta englantiin. Menetelmällisesti tutkimus nojautuu keskustelunanalyysiin. Tutkimuksen tulokset osoittavat, että useimmiten koodinvaihtoihin liittyy sävelkorkeuden ja intensiteetin nousu. Tyypillisiä koodinvaihtotapauksia, joissa sävelkorkeus ja intensiteetti nousevat, ovat lainasanat ja referointi. Lainasanojen tapauksessa nousun avulla ohjataan vastaanottajan huomiota ja haetaan hänen reaktiotaan sanoihin, jotka ovat olennaisia vuoron sisällön tai kertomuksen kannalta, mutta joiden tunnistamisessa saattaisi olla ongelmia. Referoinnissa sen sijaan prosodiset muutokset auttavat luomaan “toisen äänen”. Tällöin sävelkorkeuden ja intensiteetin nousemiseen voi liittyä myös värittynyt äänenlaatu. Molemmissa tapauksissa prosodinen kohosteisuus koodinvaihdon kohdalla kutsuu vastaanottajaa terästämään huomiotaan kyseisten sanojen tai ilmausten kohdalla. Nousevan sävelkorkeuden lisäksi aineistossa esiintyi myös vähäisemmässä määrin koodinvaihtoilmausten lausumista ympäristöä matalammalta sävelkorkeudelta ja hiljaisemmalla äänellä. Tällöin koodinvaihdot ovat tyypillisesti vuorovaikutusta jäsentäviä ilmauksia pikemminkin kuin kertomuksen kannalta olennaisia sisältösanoja, ja lisäksi enemmän puhujalle itselle kuin vastaanottajalle suunnattua puhetta. Prosodian vaihtelulla voidaan siis säädellä tarvittavaa vastaanottajuuden astetta ja merkitä käytössä olevien kielten suhdetta toisiinsa.
  • Salo, Laura (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Goals. This thesis explores what are the convincing prosodic features of Finnish speech, concen-trating on two main features, fundamental frequency and speech rate. Earlier studies into the pro-sodic features of speech have shown listeners perceive speakers with lower fundamental frequen-cy (f0) and higher speech rate to be more convincing. I am also trying to establish whether there can be found an interaction between speaker’s gender and credibility. However, at the point of publication and to the best of the author’s knowledge, there has not been any published research regarding what are the convincing parameters in Finnish speech prosody. In light of the above, the hypothesis of this research is: The prosodic features of a convincing speech in the Finnish language do not differ from the prosodic features to be convincing (proven by published re-search) in other western and European languages. The purpose of this study is to provide addi-tional information to the field of speech research in Finnish language. Methods. This was a quantitative study and involved the use of both listening experiments and statistical tests. The listening experiment was used to examine the prosodic features of convincing speech, with 16 statements being collected from European Parliament's plenary website, two statements each from four Finnish male MEPs and 4 Finnish female MEPs. Each statement was first delexicalized, and out of each delexicalized statement, eight new manipulations were creat-ed, for a total of 64 manipulated statements. These manipulations involved raising and lowering the fundamental frequency by ±4 semitones and both speeding up and speeding down the speech rate by ±1.5 seconds. This resulted in the eight manipulated statements for each lexicalized state-ment being classified as: high, low, fast, slow, high-fast, high-slow, low-fast and low-slow. During the listening experiment, each manipulated statement was compared to a non-modified statement. Twelve native Finnish-speaking subjects participated in the experiment; during which they lis-tened to sounds in pairs of two (manipulated vs. non-manipulated), after which the subjects an-swered the question “Which of the statements is more convincing: the first or second one?” Results and conclusions. In conclusion, it was observed that a lower fundamental frequency and higher speech rate were perceived as more convincing than a higher fundamental frequency and lower speech rate. This matches previous research findings on other European languages and due to the statistically significant results we saw between lower f0, faster speech rate and convincing speech, this allows us to prove this thesis’ hypothesis, that convincing prosodic features in the Finnish language are the same as those identified in English language.
  • Torppa, Ritva; Huotilainen, Minna (2010)
    We review the possible mechanisms by which music may enhance the evelopment of spoken language, and report preliminary results from our studies with cochlear implant (CI) children. One important finding in these studies is a connection of exposure to parental singing with better ability to perceive contrastive focus and stress in speech. Our preliminary conclusions are that being sung to maintains the child’s attention for extended periods, and that the larger differences in pitch, intensity and duration in song in comparison to speech may help direct attention towards cues in song that also have a role in the perception of speech prosody. This may be of crucial importance for children with hearing impairment, because it may help them to segment the continuous speech stream into words and thus enhance learning of spoken language. Thus, music seems able to play animportant part in the rehabilitation of children with hearing impairment.
  • Molander, Mikaela (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Faculty Faculty of Medicine Department Department of Psychology and Logopedics Author Mikaela Molander Title Development of syllable stress perception and word finding in children with cochlear implant during speech-music -intervention Subject Logopedics Level/Instruct Master’s Thesis / Ritva Torppa, Eila Lonka Month and year April 2020 Number of pages 59 pages + 9 appendices Abstract Aims. Phonological and lexical development of children with a cochlear implant (CI-children) is often poorer compared to children with normal hearing. There have been only a few studies on word finding (WF) skills of CI-children. As the time frame of childhood language development is narrow and language development of prelingually deaf children is often delayed, it is important to study how to support early speech perception and production of these children. The aim of this study is to find out whether syllable stress perception and WF skills of CI-children develop during a speech-music -intervention. Methods. In this multicase study, four CI-children, aged 5–7 years, were followed through a group intervention with methods and procedures from music and speech therapy. The group was chosen by a public hospital hearing center. Children performed tasks on discrimination of fundamental frequency (F0) and duration four times (at 0, 3, 7 and 12 months) and a test of word finding (accuracy and speed) two times (at 3 and 12 months) during the 12 months follow-up. Quantitative results were compared with previous research data on syllable stress perception of Finnish CI-children and with Finnish background data on the normative WF test used in the follow-up. Results and conclusions. Perception of fundamental frequency (F0) and duration of CI-children improved in almost every task and comparison during the follow-up period. WF skills improved at least in one part-task per child, however individual variation was evident. Only one child showed (both positive and negative) changes quicker than expected according to WF normative data. Changes in WF performance of other children fell within normal variation. There was more positive development in WF accuracy than in WF speed. The reported changes, coincided with the speech-music -intervention, support the assumption that music may have positive effects on syllable stress perception and further on language development of CI-children. Music in family rehabilitation coaching and as part of speech therapy of young CI-children should be encouraged. Keywords cochlear implant, music, prosody, word stress/syllable stress, word finding, children Where deposited Helsingin yliopiston kirjasto – Helda / E-thesis (opinnäytteet) ethesis.helsinki.fi
  • Wiklund, Satu Mari-Anna; Vainio, Martti Tapani (Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2019)
    It is known that persons afflicted with autism often have deviant prosodic features in their speech. For example, they may have a limited range of intonation, their speech can be overly fast, jerky or loud, or it can be characterized by large pitch excursions, quiet voice, inconsistent pause structure, prominent word stress and/or by creaky or nasal voice (Paul et al. 2005a; Paul et al. 2005b; Shriberg et al. 2001; Provonost et al. 1966; Rutter & Lockyer 1967; Ornitz & Ritvo 1976; Fay & Schuler 1980; Tager-Flusberg 1981; Baltaxe & Simmons 1985, 1992; Paul 1987; McPartland & Klin 2006; Tager-Flusberg 2000). Moreover, it has been shown that people afflicted with autism have difficulties to produce affective prosodic patterns (Scott 1985). Fine et al. (1991) have however reported that autistic subjects are able to employ useful prosodic patterns for communication. Producing appropriate stress patterns can nevertheless be difficult for them (Paul et al. 2005a, Paul et al. 2005b). Shriberg et al. (2001) report that persons with autism have notable deficits in pragmatic and affective use of prosody, but they do not have difficulties with the grammatical functions of prosody. Deviant prosodic features of speech do not, however, concern every individual afflicted with autism (Simmons & Baltaxe 1975; Paul et al. 2005b). Nevertheless, when these features occur, they constitute a significant obstacle to the social acceptance of the individual (Paul et al. 2005a: 205). Indeed, deviant prosodic features may create an immediate impression of “oddness” (VanBourgondien & Woods 1992), and they affect autistic speakers’ ratings of social and communicative competence (Paul et al. 2005b). The aim of this paper is to present different salient prosodic features occurring in slightly autistic preadolescents’ speech. The data come from authentic group therapy sessions where 11–13-year-old Finnish-speaking boys (N = 7) and French-speaking boys (N = 4) speak with each other and with their two therapists. The paper will focus on the following features: large pitch excursions, bouncing pitch, flat pitch, jerky rhythm, slow speech rate and fast speech rate. Some of these features occur only in Finnish or in French, whereas some others can be found in both languages. It is also interesting that some of them occur all the time in the speech of an individual, whereas some others occur only in certain types of contexts. The analyses have been carried out using methods of phonetics.
  • Weiste, Elina; Peräkylä, Anssi (2014)
    Objective: To investigate the prosodic aspects of therapists’ empathic communication. Method: 70 audio-recorded sessions of cognitive psychotherapy and psychoanalysis were analysed using conversation analysis. Results: Two interactional trajectories where the therapists either validated the clients’ emotions or challenged them were identified. The difference between these trajectories was not evident in the lexical composition of the therapists’ formulations that initiated the trajectory. However, the prosodic features of the formulation already anticipated the direction of the trajectory. The formulations leading up to the validating trajectory were characterized by prosodic continuity and formulations leading up to the challenging trajectory by prosodic disjuncture. The choice between continuous and disjunctive prosody was a key resource for therapists in the construction of formulations as either validating or challenging. Conclusions: The present article emphasizes the relational aspects of psychotherapy communication by considering the prosodic features of the therapist’s talk in relation to the prosody of the client.