Browsing by Subject "protein kinase C"

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  • Jantti, Maria H.; Talman, Virpi; Räsänen, Kati; Tarvainen, Ilari; Koistinen, Hannu; Tuominen, Raimo K. (2018)
    Prostate cancer is one of the most common cancers in men. Although it has a relatively high 5-year survival rate, development of resistance to standard androgen-deprivation therapy is a significant clinical problem. Therefore, novel therapeutic strategies are urgently needed. The protein kinase C (PKC) family is a putative prostate cancer drug target, but so far no PKC-targeting drugs are available for clinical use. By contrast to the standard approach of developing PKC inhibitors, we have developed isophthalate derivatives as PKC agonists. In this study, we have characterized the effects of the most potent isophthalate, 5-(hydroxymethyl) isophthalate 1a3 (HMI-1a3), on three prostate cancer cell lines (LNCaP, DU145, and PC3) using both 2D and 3D cell culture models. In 2D cell culture, HMI-1a3 reduced cell viability or proliferation in all cell lines as determined by the metabolic activity of the cells (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide assay) and thymidine incorporation. However, the mechanism of action in LNCaP cells was different to that in DU145 or PC3 cells. In LNCaP cells, HMI-1a3 induced a PKC-dependent activation of caspase 3/7, indicating an apoptotic response, whereas in DU145 and PC3 cells, it induced senescence, which was independent of PKC. This was observed as typical senescent morphology, increased beta-galactosidase activity, and upregulation of the senescence marker p21 and downregulation of E2F transcription factor 1. Using a multicellular spheroid model, we further showed that HMI-1a3 affects the growth of LNCaP and DU145 cells in a 3D culture, emphasizing its potential as a lead compound for cancer drug development.
  • Pohjolainen, Lotta; Easton, Julia; Solanki, Reesha; Ruskoaho, Heikki; Talman, Virpi (2021)
    Background: Hypertrophy of cardiomyocytes (CMs) is initially a compensatory mechanism to cardiac overload, but when prolonged, it leads to maladaptive myocardial remodeling, impairing cardiac function and causing heart failure. A key signaling molecule involved in cardiac hypertrophy is protein kinase C (PKC). However, the role of different PKC isoforms in mediating the hypertrophic response remains controversial. Both classical (cPKC) and novel (nPKC) isoforms have been suggested to play a critical role in rodents, whereas the role of PKC in hypertrophy of human CMs remains to be determined. Here, we aimed to investigate the effects of two different types of PKC activators, the isophthalate derivative HMI-1b11 and bryostatin-1, on CM hypertrophy and to elucidate the role of cPKCs and nPKCs in endothelin-1 (ET-1)-induced hypertrophy in vitro. Methods and Results: We used neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (NRVMs) and human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs) to study the effects of pharmacological PKC modulators and ET-1. We used quantitative reverse transcription PCR to quantify hypertrophic gene expression and high-content analysis (HCA) to investigate CM morphology. In both cell types, ET-1, PKC activation (bryostatin-1 and HMI-1b11) and inhibition of cPKCs (Gö6976) increased hypertrophic gene expression. In NRVMs, these treatments also induced a hypertrophic phenotype as measured by increased recognition, intensity and area of α-actinin and F-actin fibers. Inhibition of all PKC isoforms with Gö6983 inhibited PKC agonist-induced hypertrophy, but could not fully block ET-1-induced hypertrophy. The mitogen-activated kinase kinase 1/2 inhibitor U0126 inhibited PKC agonist-induced hypertrophy fully and ET-1-induced hypertrophy partially. While ET-1 induced a clear increase in the percentage of pro-B-type natriuretic peptide-positive hiPSC-CMs, none of the phenotypic parameters used in HCA directly correlated with gene expression changes or with phenotypic changes observed in NRVMs. Conclusions: This work shows similar hypertrophic responses to PKC modulators in NRVMs and hiPSC-CMs. Pharmacological PKC activation induces CM hypertrophy via activation of novel PKC isoforms. This pro-hypertrophic effect of PKC activators should be considered when developing PKC-targeted compounds for e.g. cancer or Alzheimer’s disease. Furthermore, this study provides further evidence on distinct PKC-independent mechanisms of ET-1-induced hypertrophy both in NRVMs and hiPSC-CMs.
  • Julku, Ulrika H.; Jäntti, Maria; Svarcbahs, Reinis; Myöhänen, Timo T. (2021)
    Prolyl oligopeptidase (PREP) is a serine protease that binds to alpha-synuclein (aSyn) and induces its aggregation. PREP inhibitors have been shown to have beneficial effects in Parkinson's disease models by enhancing the clearance of aSyn aggregates and modulating striatal dopamine. Additionally, we have shown that PREP regulates phosphorylation and internalization of dopamine transporter (DAT) in mice. In this study, we clarified the mechanism behind this by using HEK-293 and PREP knock-out HEK-293 cells with DAT transfection. We tested the effects of PREP, PREP inhibition, and alpha-synuclein on PREP-related DAT regulation by using Western blot analysis and a dopamine uptake assay, and characterized the impact of PREP on protein kinase C (PKC) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) by using PKC assay and Western blot, respectively, as these kinases regulate DAT phosphorylation. Our results confirmed our previous findings that a lack of PREP can increase phosphorylation and internalization of DAT and decrease uptake of dopamine. PREP inhibition had a variable impact on phosphorylation of ERK dependent on the metabolic state of cells, but did not have an effect on phosphorylation or function of DAT. PREP modifications did not affect PKC activity either. Additionally, a lack of PREP elevated a DAT oligomerization that is associated with intracellular trafficking of DAT. Our results suggest that PREP-mediated phosphorylation, oligomerization, and internalization of DAT is not dependent on PKC or ERK.