Browsing by Subject "protocol"

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  • Gielen, Bert; Acosta, Manuel; Altimir, Nuria; Buchmann, Nina; Cescatte, Alessandro; Ceschia, Eric; Fleck, Stefan; Hortnagal, Lukas; Klumpp, Katja; Kolari, Pasi; Lohile, Annalea; Loustau, Denis; Maranon-Jimenez, Sara; Manisp, Languy; Matteucci, Giorgio; Merbold, Lutz; Metzger, Christine; Moureaux, Christine; Montagnani, Leonardo; Nilsson, Mats B.; Osborne, Bruce; Papale, Dario; Pavelka, Marian; Saunders, Matthew; Simioni, Guillaume; Soudani, Kamel; Sonnentag, Oliver; Tallec, Tiphaine; Tuittila, Eeva-Stiina; Peichl, Matthias; Pokorny, Radek; Vincke, Caroline; Wohljahrt, Georg (2018)
    The Integrated Carbon Observation System is a Pan-European distributed research infrastructure that has as its main goal to monitor the greenhouse gas balance of Europe. The ecosystem component of Integrated Carbon Observation System consists of a multitude of stations where the net greenhouse gas exchange is monitored continuously by eddy covariance measurements while, in addition many other measurements are carried out that are a key to an understanding of the greenhouse gas balance. Amongst them are the continuous meteorological measurements and a set of non-continuous measurements related to vegetation. The latter include Green Area Index, aboveground biomass and litter biomass. The standardized methodology that is used at the Integrated Carbon Observation System ecosystem stations to monitor these vegetation related variables differs between the ecosystem types that are represented within the network, whereby in this paper we focus on forests, grasslands, croplands and mires. For each of the variables and ecosystems a spatial and temporal sampling design was developed so that the variables can be monitored in a consistent way within the ICOS network. The standardisation of the methodology to collect Green Area Index, above ground biomass and litter biomass and the methods to evaluate the quality of the collected data ensures that all stations within the ICOS ecosystem network produce data sets with small and similar errors, which allows for inter-comparison comparisons across the Integrated Carbon Observation System ecosystem network.
  • Sabbatini, Simone; Mammarella, Ivan; Arriga, Nicola; Fratini, Gerardo; Graf, Alexander; Hoertriagl, Lukas; Ibrom, Andreas; Longdoz, Bernard; Mauder, Matthias; Merbold, Lutz; Metzger, Stefan; Montagnani, Leonardo; Pitacco, Andrea; Rebmann, Corinna; Sedlak, Pavel; Sigut, Ladislav; Vitale, Domenico; Papale, Dario (2018)
    The eddy covariance is a powerful technique to estimate the surface-atmosphere exchange of different scalars at the ecosystem scale. The EC method is central to the ecosystem component of the Integrated Carbon Observation System, a monitoring network for greenhouse gases across the European Continent. The data processing sequence applied to the collected raw data is complex, and multiple robust options for the different steps are often available. For Integrated Carbon Observation System and similar networks, the standardisation of methods is essential to avoid methodological biases and improve comparability of the results. We introduce here the steps of the processing chain applied to the eddy covariance data of Integrated Carbon Observation System stations for the estimation of final CO2, water and energy fluxes, including the calculation of their uncertainties. The selected methods are discussed against valid alternative options in tenns of suitability and respective drawbacks and advantages. The main challenge is to warrant standardised processing for all stations in spite of the large differences in e.g. ecosystem traits and site conditions. The main achievement of the Integrated Carbon Observation System eddy covariance data processing is making CO2 and energy flux results as comparable and reliable as possible, given the current micrometeorological understanding and the generally accepted state-of-the-art processing methods.
  • Montagnani, Leonardo; Gruenwald, Thomas; Kowalski, Andrew; Mammarella, Ivan; Merbold, Lutz; Metzger, Stefan; Sedlak, Pavel; Siebicke, Lukas (2018)
    In eddy covariance measureinents, the storage flux represents the variation in time of the dry molar fraction of a given gas in the control volume representative of turbulent flux. Depending on the time scale considered, and on the height above ground of the measurements, it can either be a major component of the overall net ecosystem exchange or nearly negligible. Instrumental configuration and computational procedures must be optimized to measure this change at the time step used for the turbulent flux measurement Three different configurations are suitable within the Integrated Carbon Observation System infrastructure for the storage flux determination: separate sampling, subsequent sampling and mixed sampling. These configurations have their own advantages and disadvantages, and must be carefully selected based on the specific features of the considered station. In this paper, guidelines about number and distribution of vertical and horizontal sampling points are given. Details about suitable instruments, sampling devices, and computational procedures for the quantification of the storage flux of different GHG gases are also provided.
  • Rebmann, Corinna; Aubinet, Marc; Schmid, Hape; Arriga, Nicola; Aurela, Mika; Burba, George; Clement, Robert; De Ligne, Anne; Fratini, Gerardo; Gielen, Bert; Grace, John; Graf, Alexander; Gross, Patrick; Haapanala, Sami; Herbst, Mathias; Hortnagl, Lukas; Ibrom, Andreas; Joly, Lilian; Kljun, Natascha; Kolle, Olaf; Kowalski, Andrew; Lindroth, Anders; Loustau, Denis; Mammarella, Ivan; Mauder, Matthias; Merbold, Lutz; Metzger, Stefan; Molder, Meelis; Montagnani, Leonardo; Papale, Dario; Pavelka, Marian; Peichl, Matthias; Roland, Marilyn; Serrano-Ortiz, Penelope; Siebicke, Lukas; Steinbrecher, Rainer; Tuovinen, Juha-Pekka; Vesala, Timo; Wohlfahrt, Georg; Franz, Daniela (2018)
    The Integrated Carbon Observation System Re-search Infrastructure aims to provide long-term, continuous observations of sources and sinks of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and water vapour. At ICOS ecosystem stations, the principal technique for measurements of ecosystem-atmosphere exchange of GHGs is the eddy-covariance technique. The establishment and setup of an eddy-covariance tower have to be carefully reasoned to ensure high quality flux measurements being representative of the investigated ecosystem and comparable to measurements at other stations. To fulfill the requirements needed for flux determination with the eddy-covariance technique, variations in GHG concentrations have to be measured at high frequency, simultaneously with the wind velocity, in order to fully capture turbulent fluctuations. This requires the use of high-frequency gas analysers and ultrasonic anemometers. In addition, to analyse flux data with respect to environmental conditions but also to enable corrections in the post-processing procedures, it is necessary to measure additional abiotic variables in close vicinity to the flux measurements. Here we describe the standards the ICOS ecosystem station network has adopted for GHG flux measurements with respect to the setup of instrumentation on towers to maximize measurement precision and accuracy while allowing for flexibility in order to observe specific ecosystem features.
  • Saunders, Matthew; Dengel, Sigrid; Kolari, Pasi; Moureaux, Christine; Montagnani, Leonardo; Ceschia, Eric; Altimir, Nuria; Lopez-Ballesteros, Ana; Maranon-Jimenez, Sara; Acosta, Manuel; Klumpp, Katja; Gielen, Bert; Op de Beeck, Maarten; Hortnagl, Lukas; Merbold, Lutz; Osborne, Bruce; Grunwald, Thomas; Arrouays, Dominique; Boukir, Hakima; Saby, Nicolas; Nicolini, Giacomo; Papale, Dario; Jones, Michael (2018)
    There are many factors that influence ecosystem scale carbon, nitrogen and greenhouse gas dynamics, including the inherent heterogeneity of soils and vegetation, anthropogenic management interventions, and biotic and abiotic disturbance events. It is important therefore, to document the characteristics of the soils and vegetation and to accurately report all management activities, and disturbance events to aid the interpretation of collected data, and to determine whether the ecosystem either amplifies or mitigates climate change. This paper outlines the importance of assessing both the spatial and temporal variability of soils and vegetation and to report all management events, the import or export of C or N from the ecosystem, and the occurrence of biotic/abiotic disturbances at ecosystem stations of the Integrated Carbon Observation System, a pan-European research infrastructure.
  • Tammelin, Eeva (Helsingfors universitet, 2015)
    Background and Aims Injuries are often missed during the primary and secondary survey in trauma patients. Studies have suggested that a formal tertiary survey protocol lowers the number of missed injuries. Our aim was to determine the number, severity and consequences of injuries missed by a non-formalised trauma tertiary survey (TTS), but detected prior to hospital discharge in trauma patients admitted to a trauma intensive care unit (TICU). Material and Methods We conducted a cohort study of trauma patients admitted to a TICU between 1st January and 17th October 2013. We reviewed the electronic medical records of patients admitted to the in order to register any missed injuries, their delay and possible consequences. We classified injuries into three types: Type 0, injury detected prior to TTS, Type 1, injury detected by TTS, and Type 2, injury missed by TTS but detected prior to discharge. Results During the study period, we identified a total of 838 injuries in 115 patients. Of these injuries, 94% were Type 0 injuries, 3.9% were Type 1 injuries and 2.5% were Type 2 injuries. Even though most of the missed injuries in TTS (Type 2) were fractures (52%), only two of the 21 Type 2 injuries required surgical intervention. Type 2 injuries presumably did not cause extended length of stay (LOS) in the ICU or in hospital and/ or morbidity. Conclusions In conclusion, the missed injury rate in trauma patients admitted to TICU after TTS was very low in our system without formal TTS-protocol. These missed injuries did not lead to prolonged hospital or TICU stay, and did not contribute to mortality. Most of the missed injuries received non-surgical treatment.
  • Loustau, Denis; Altimir, Nuria; Barbaste, Mireille; Gielen, Bert; Maranon Jimenez, Sara; Klumpp, Katja; Linder, Sune; Matteucci, Giorgio; Merbold, Lutz; Op de Beek, Marteen; Soule, Patrice; Thimonier, Anne; Vincke, Caroline; Waldner, Peter (2018)
    The nutritional status of plant canopies in terms of nutrients (C, N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn) exerts a strong influence on the carbon cycle and energy balance of terrestrial ecosystems. Therefore, in order to account for the spatial and temporal variations in nutritional status of the plant species composing the canopy, we detail the methodology applied to achieve consistent time-series of leaf mass to area ratio and nutrient content of the foliage within the footprint of the Integrated Carbon Observation System Ecosystem stations. The guidelines and definitions apply to most terrestrial ecosystems.
  • Pavelka, Marian; Acosta, Manuel; Kiese, Ralf; Altimir, Nuria; Bruemmer, Christian; Crill, Patrick; Darenova, Eva; Fuss, Roland; Gielen, Bert; Graf, Alexander; Klemedtsson, Leif; Lohila, Annalea; Longdoz, Bernhard; Lindroth, Anders; Nilsson, Mats; Jimenez, Sara Maranon; Merbold, Lutz; Montagnani, Leonardo; Peichl, Matthias; Pihlatie, Mari; Pumpanen, Jukka; Ortiz, Penelope Serrano; Silvennoinen, Hanna; Skiba, Ute; Vestin, Patrik; Weslien, Per; Janous, Dalibor; Kutsch, Werner (2018)
    Chamber measurements of trace gas fluxes between the land surface and the atmosphere have been conducted for almost a century. Different chamber techniques, including static and dynamic, have been used with varying degrees of success in estimating greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4, N2O) fluxes. However, all of these have certain disadvantages which have either prevented them from providing an adequate estimate of greenhouse gas exchange or restricted them to be used under limited conditions. Generally, chamber methods are relatively low in cost and simple to operate. In combination with the appropriate sample allocations, chamber methods are adaptable for a wide variety of studies from local to global spatial scales, and they are particularly well suited for in situ and laboratory-based studies. Consequently, chamber measurements will play an important role in the portfolio of the Pan-European long-term research infrastructure Integrated Carbon Observation System. The respective working group of the Integrated Carbon Observation System Ecosystem Monitoring Station Assembly has decided to ascertain standards and quality checks for automated and manual chamber systems instead of defining one or several standard systems provided by commercial manufacturers in order to define minimum requirements for chamber measurements. The defined requirements and recommendations related to chamber measurements are described here.
  • Nemitz, Eiko; Mammarella, Ivan; Ibrom, Andreas; Aurela, Mika; Burba, George G.; Dengel, Sigrid; Gielen, Bert; Grelle, Achim; Heinesch, Bernard; Herbst, Mathias; Hörtnagl, Lukas; Klemedtsson, Leif; Lindroth, Anders; Lohila, Annalea; McDermitt, Dayle K.; Meier, Philip; Merbold, Lutz; Nelson, David; Nicolini, Giacomo; Nilsson, Mats B.; Peltola, Olli; Rinne, Janne; Zahniser, Mark (2018)
    Commercially available fast-response analysers for methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) have recently become more sensitive, more robust and easier to operate. This has made their application for long-term flux measurements with the eddycovariance method more feasible. Unlike for carbon dioxide (CO2) and water vapour (H2O), there have so far been no guidelines on how to optimise and standardise the measurements. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art of the various steps of the measurements and discusses aspects such as instrument selection, setup and maintenance, data processing as well as the additional measurements needed to aid interpretation and gap-filling. It presents the methodological protocol for eddy covariance measurements of CH4 and N2O fluxes as agreed for the ecosystem station network of the pan-European Research Infrastructure Integrated Carbon Observation System and provides a first international standard that is suggested to be adopted more widely. Fluxes can be episodic and the processes controlling the fluxes are complex, preventing simple mechanistic gap-filling strategies. Fluxes are often near or below the detection limit, requiring additional care during data processing. The protocol sets out the best practice for these conditions to avoid biasing the results and long-term budgets. It summarises the current approach to gap-filling.
  • Dengel, Sigrid; Graf, Alexander; Gruenwald, Thomas; Hehn, Markus; Kolari, Pasi; Lofvenius, Mikaell Ottosson; Merbold, Lutz; Nicolini, Giacomo; Pavelka, Marian (2018)
    Precipitation is one of the most important abiotic variables related to plant growth. Using standardised measurements improves the comparability and quality of precipitation data as well as all other data within the Integrated Carbon Observation System network. Despite the spatial and temporal variation of some types of precipitation, a single point measurement satisfies the requirement as an ancillary variable for eddy covariance measurements. Here the term precipitation includes: rain, snowfall (liquid water equivalent) and snow depth, with the latter two being of interest only where occurring. Weighing gauges defined as Integrated Carbon Observation System standard with the capacity of continuously measuring liquid and solid precipitation are installed free-standing, away from obstacles obstructing rain or snowfall. In order to minimise wind-induced errors, gauges are shielded either naturally or artificially to reduce the adverse effect of wind speed on the measurements. Following standardised methods strengthens the compatibility and comparability of data with other standardised environmental observation networks while opening the possibility for synthesis studies of different precipitation measurement methodologies and types including a wide range of ecosystems and geolocations across Europe.