Browsing by Subject "psychological distress"

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  • Corona Cooking Survey Study Grp; De Backer, Charlotte; Vainio, Annukka; Niva, Mari; Salmivaara, Laura; Mäkelä, Johanna; Torkkeli, Kaisa (2021)
    Objectives: To examine changes in planning, selecting, and preparing healthy foods in relation to personal factors (time, money, stress) and social distancing policies during the COVID-19 crisis. Methods: Using cross-sectional online surveys collected in 38 countries worldwide in April-June 2020 (N = 37,207, Mage 36.7 SD 14.8, 77% women), we compared changes in food literacy behaviors to changes in personal factors and social distancing policies, using hierarchical multiple regression analyses controlling for sociodemographic variables. Results: Increases in planning (4.7 SD 1.3, 4.9 SD 1.3), selecting (3.6 SD 1.7, 3.7 SD 1.7), and preparing (4.6 SD 1.2, 4.7 SD 1.3) healthy foods were found for women and men, and positively related to perceived time availability and stay-at-home policies. Psychological distress was a barrier for women, and an enabler for men. Financial stress was a barrier and enabler depending on various sociodemographic variables (all p <0.01). Conclusion: Stay-at-home policies and feelings of having more time during COVID-19 seem to have improved food literacy. Stress and other social distancing policies relate to food literacy in more complex ways, highlighting the necessity of a health equity lens.
  • Laukkala, Tanja; Suvisaari, Jaana; Rosenström, Tom; Pukkala, Eero; Junttila, Kristiina; Haravuori, Henna; Tuisku, Katinka; Haapa, Toni; Jylhä, Pekka (2021)
    The COVID-19 pandemic has caused an unequally distributed extra workload to hospital personnel and first reports have indicated that especially front-line health care personnel are psychologically challenged. A majority of the Finnish COVID-19 patients are cared for in the Helsinki University Hospital district. The psychological distress of the Helsinki University Hospital personnel has been followed via an electronic survey monthly since June 2020. We report six-month follow-up results of a prospective 18-month cohort study. Individual variation explained much more of the total variance in psychological distress (68.5%, 95% CI 65.2-71.9%) and negative changes in sleep (75.6%, 95% CI 72.2-79.2%) than the study survey wave (1.6%, CI 0.5-5.5%; and 0.3%, CI 0.1-1.2%). Regional COVID-19 incidence rates correlated with the personnel's psychological distress. In adjusted multilevel generalized linear multiple regression models, potentially traumatic COVID-19 pandemic-related events (OR 6.54, 95% CI 5.00-8.56) and front-line COVID-19 work (OR 1.81, 95% CI 1.37-2.39) was associated with personnel psychological distress but age and gender was not. While vaccinations have been initiated, creating hope, continuous follow-up and psychosocial support is still needed for all hospital personnel.
  • Välimäki, Tarja H.; Martikainen, Janne A.; Hongisto, Kristiina; Väätäinen, Saku; Sintonen, Harri Pekka (2016)
  • Hintsa, Taina; Elovainio, Marko; Jokela, Markus; Ahola, Kirsi; Virtanen, Marianna; Pirkola, Sami (2016)
    Burnout has been suggested to be related to depression. We examined the relationship between burnout and allostatic load, and whether this association is independent of psychological distress and depression. We measured burnout psychological distress, depression, and allostatic load in 3283 participants. Higher burnout (=0.06, p=0.003) and cynicism (=0.03, p=0.031) and decreased professional efficacy (=0.03, p=0.007) were related to higher allostatic load independent of age, sex, education, occupation and psychological distress. Depression, however, explained 60percent of the association. Burnout is related to higher allostatic load, and this association partly overlaps with co-occurring depression.
  • Virtanen, Marianna; Jokela, Markus; Madsen, Ida E. H.; Hanson, Linda L. Magnusson; Lallukka, Tea; Nyberg, Solja T.; Alfredsson, Lars; Batty, G. David; Bjorner, Jakob B.; Borritz, Marianne; Burr, Hermann; Dragano, Nico; Erbel, Raimund; Ferrie, Jane E.; Heikkila, Katriina; Knutsson, Anders; Koskenvuo, Markku; Lahelma, Eero; Nielsen, Martin L.; Oksanen, Tuula; Pejtersen, Jan H.; Pentti, Jaana; Rahkonen, Ossi; Rugulies, Reiner; Salo, Paula; Schupp, Jurgen; Shipley, Martin J.; Siegrist, Johannes; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Suominen, Sakari B.; Theorell, Tores; Vahtera, Jussi; Wagner, Gert G.; Wang, Jian Li; Yiengprugsawan, Vasoontara; Westerlund, Hugo; Kivimaki, Mika (2018)
    Objectives This systematic review and meta-analysis combined published study-level data and unpublished individual-participant data with the aim of quantifying the relation between long working hours and the onset of depressive symptoms. Methods We searched PubMed and Embase for published prospective cohort studies and included available cohorts with unpublished individual-participant data. We used a random-effects meta-analysis to calculate summary estimates across studies. Results We identified ten published cohort studies and included unpublished individual-participant data from 18 studies. In the majority of cohorts, long working hours was defined as working >= 55 hours per week. In multivariable-adjusted meta-analyses of 189 729 participants from 35 countries [96 275 men, 93 454 women, follow-up ranging from 1-5 years, 21 747 new-onset cases), there was an overall association of 1.14 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03-1.25] between long working hours and the onset of depressive symptoms, with significant evidence of heterogeneity (I-2 = 45.1%, P=0.004). A strong association between working hours and depressive symptoms was found in Asian countries (1.50, 95% CI 1.13-2.01), a weaker association in Europe (1.11, 95% CI 1.00-1.22), and no association in North America (0.97, 95% CI 0.70-1.34) or Australia (0.95, 95% CI 0.70-1.29). Differences by other characteristics were small. Conclusions This observational evidence suggests a moderate association between long working hours and onset of depressive symptoms in Asia and a small association in Europe.
  • Puuskari, Varpu; Aalto-Setälä, Terhi; Komulainen, Erkki; Marttunen, Mauri (2017)
    Background: Increasing psychiatric disorders and alcohol intoxication challenge the pediatric emergency departments (PEDs) to which adolescents are referred owing to acute alcohol intoxication. Objective: This study examined the degree to which adolescents presenting to PED with alcohol intoxication or deliberate self-harm report symptoms of depression and how they differed from non-depressed patients in terms of alcohol use, perceived social support, psychological distress, self-esteem, and suicidal thoughts. Methods: In a sample of 138 adolescents, 12- to 16-years old (62 % females), we assessed the patients' psychiatric status using self-report scales and analyzed blood samples for alcohol. Before discharge, a consulting psychiatrist interviewed each patient to evaluate possible suicidality and organized aftercare when necessary. The mediating data-driven hypothesis was examined. Adolescents scoring >= 10 on the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) were deemed as screening positive for depression. Results: In 55% of participants, intoxication was by alcohol consumption. Deliberate self-harm was found in 17% of the participants. Of the 138 adolescents, 39 % scored positive on the BDI for depressive symptoms, occurring more commonly in girls. Logistic regression showed that the most significant variables associated with depressive symptoms were female gender, high psychological distress, and low self-esteem. Symptoms of depression served as a mediator between gender and self-esteem and the blood alcohol level. Conclusions: Our findings underscore the importance of identifying mood disorders, suicidality, and self-esteem among adolescents with acute alcohol intoxication at the PED. Intensive psychiatric evaluation in an emergency department is necessary in order to detect those adolescents requiring additional treatment and support.
  • Pensola, Tiina (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    Objectives. There is a lack of knowledge concerning the contribution of the character traits to the association of work stress and over-commitment with common mental health problems. Primary school teachers are a large, homogenous occupational group that has been related to higher work stress levels and common mental health problems, although to a lesser amount of actual mental disorders. The aim of the study is to examine the extent to which the association between work stress, over-commitment and their interaction with common mental health problems can be attributed to the character traits among primary school teachers. Methods. The data consists of 76 (87% females) primary school teachers from 34 schools randomly selected to a study taking part in the capital area of Finland in 2013-14. There were 1-6 teachers who responded from each school (participation rate 4-33%). Common mental health problems were measured by GHQ-12 (psychological distress) and cognitive anxiety from a state anxiety scale of EMAS (highest tertile vs. two lowest). Work stress and over-commitment (the upper tertile vs. the rest) were measured according to original Siegrist's Effort-Reward-Imbalance Questionnaire. Character traits Self-directness, Cooperativeness, and Self-Transcendence were measured by Cloninger's TCI-questionnaire and each character was dichotomized at median to indicate a higher and lower category of the trait. The control variables were age, working hours and job contract type. The data were analyzed by means of Poisson regression (prevalence ratios, PR, and 90% confidence intervals) and relative rates. Results. Of teachers 30% had common mental health problems. The teachers with high over-commitment in comparison with those with low over-commitment had more often psychological distress (PR=2.5, p=0.018) and cognitive anxiety (PR=2.8, p=0.004). Although work stress was not independently associated with common mental health problems, it was related to the increased psychological distress among those with high over-commitment. Controlling for self-directedness attenuated the association of over-commitment with psychological distress and cognitive anxiety by 29% and 47%, respectively. After all adjustments, an independent association of Self-Directness with cognitive anxiety remained (PR=0.3, p=0.024). The other two character traits didn't have an independent impact on common mental health problems among the primary school teachers, but with the concurrent low self-directedness, low cooperativeness and low Self-Transcendence were related to over-commitment and increased level of cognitive anxiety. Both low cooperativeness and low self-transcendence were related to psychological symptoms. Conclusions: The primary school teachers had higher prevalence of common mental health problems, if they had low self-directedness and were over-committed to their work. Enhancing self-directedness may help in decreasing common mental health problems among overcommitted teachers. In the future the associations of the trait profiles with over-commitment and mental health symptoms should be studied with the larger longitudinal data.
  • Mullola, Sari; Hakulinen, Christian; Gimeno Ruiz de Porras, David; Presseau, Justin; Jokela, Markus; Vänskä, Jukka; Paunio, Tiina Maria; Elovainio, Marko (2019)
    We examined whether physicians' personality traits moderate the association between medical specialty and well-being at work. Nationally representative sample of Finnish physicians (n = 2,815; 65% women; aged 25-72 years in 2015) was used. Personality was assessed with the shortened Big Five Inventory. Indicators of well-being at work were measured with scales from Work Ability Index, General Health Questionnaire, Jenkins' Sleep Problems Scale and Suicidal Ideation. Higher extraversion, openness to experience and agreeableness showed as personality traits beneficial for higher well-being at work among person-oriented specialties whereas higher conscientiousness but lower openness and agreeableness showed as personality traits beneficial for higher well-being at work among technique-oriented specialties. The role of neuroticism remains minor in general. Physicians' personality traits may moderate the association between medical specialty and well-being at work.
  • Pekurinen, Virve; Willman, Laura; Virtanen, Marianna; Kivimaki, Mika; Vahtera, Jussi; Valimaki, Maritta (2017)
    Wellbeing of nurses is associated with patient aggression. Little is known about the differences in these associations between nurses working in different specialties. We aimed to estimate and compare the prevalence of patient aggression and the associations between patient aggression and the wellbeing of nurses in psychiatric and non-psychiatric specialties (medical and surgical, and emergency medicine). A sample of 5288 nurses (923 psychiatric nurses, 4070 medical and surgical nurses, 295 emergency nurses) participated in the study. Subjective measures were used to assess both the occurrence of patient aggression and the wellbeing of nurses (self-rated health, sleep disturbances, psychological distress and perceived work ability). Binary logistic regression with interaction terms was used to compare the associations between patient aggression and the wellbeing of nurses. Psychiatric nurses reported all types of patient aggression more frequently than medical and surgical nurses, whereas nurses working in emergency settings reported physical violence and verbal aggression more frequently than psychiatric nurses. Psychiatric nurses reported poor self-rated health and reduced work ability more frequently than both of the non-psychiatric nursing groups, whereas medical and surgical nurses reported psychological distress and sleep disturbances more often. Psychiatric nurses who had experienced at least one type of patient aggression or mental abuse in the previous year, were less likely to suffer from psychological distress and sleep disturbances compared to medical and surgical nurses. Psychiatric nurses who had experienced physical assaults and armed threats were less likely to suffer from sleep disturbances compared to nurses working in emergency settings. Compared to medical and surgical nurses, psychiatric nurses face patient aggression more often, but certain types of aggression are more common in emergency settings. Psychiatric nurses have worse subjective health and work ability than both of the non-psychiatric nursing groups, while their psychiatric wellbeing is better and they have less sleep problems compared to medical and surgical nurses. Psychiatric nurses maintain better psychiatric wellbeing and experience fewer sleep problems than non-psychiatric nurses after events of exposure to patient aggression. This suggest that more attention should be given to non-psychiatric settings for maintaining the wellbeing of nurses after exposure to patient aggression.
  • Haravuori, Henna; Junttila, Kristiina; Haapa, Toni; Tuisku, Katinka; Kujala, Anne; Rosenstrom, Tom; Suvisaari, Jaana; Pukkala, Eero; Laukkala, Tanja; Jylhä, Pekka (2020)
    In March 2020, strict measures took place in Finland to limit the COVID-19 pandemic. Majority of Finnish COVID-19 patients have been located in southern Finland and consequently cared for at the Hospital District of Helsinki and Uusimaa (HUS) Helsinki University Hospital. During the pandemic, HUS personnel's psychological symptoms are followed via an electronic survey, which also delivers information on psychosocial support services. In June 2020, the baseline survey was sent to 25,494 HUS employees, 4804 (19%) of whom answered; altogether, 62.4% of the respondents were nursing staff and 8.9% were medical doctors. While the follow-up continues for a year and a half, this report shares the sociodemographic characteristics of the respondents and the first results of psychological symptoms from our baseline survey. Out of those who were directly involved in the pandemic patient care, 43.4% reported potentially traumatic COVID-19 pandemic-related events (PTEs) vs. 21.8% among the others (p <0.001). While over a half of the personnel were asymptomatic, a group of respondents reported PTEs and concurrent depression, insomnia, and anxiety symptoms. This highlights the need to ensure appropriate psychosocial support services to all traumatized personnel; especially, nursing staff may require attention.
  • Ajantaival, Teo (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    Objectives. Renewed clinical research finds treatment effects from psychedelic (psilocybin or LSD)-assisted therapy sustained at 12 month follow-up. Population studies find the association between lifetime psychedelic use (even once, Yes/No) and current mental health absent or protective after adjusting for sociodemographics, risk-taking tendency, and non-medical use of other drugs. This study aimed to investigate whether the recency of psychedelic use (>12, 1–12, or <1 months ago) is associated with past month psychological distress, past year suicidality, or everyday impairment. This study also addressed a previously expressed concern that the previous results stem from overadjustment for non-medical use of other drugs, explored how such adjustments should be done, and compared use of psilocybin, LSD, and psilocybin and/or LSD. All code was published. Methods. The analysis was based on combined data of adult respondents of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) years 2008–2014 randomly selected to be representative of the population of the United States. Comparison groups by the psychedelic used and its recency of use were inferred from the data. Weighted odds ratios were calculated adjusting for sociodemographics, risk-taking tendency, and non-medical use of other drugs. Adjustments for other drug use were compared between a minimally adjusted model, a lifetime use-adjusting model, and a recency of use-adjusting model. Mirroring adjustments were made in order to see whether crack cocaine and heroin use recency would associate to psychological distress in an unexpectedly protective way, indicating overadjustment in the psychedelic recency associations. Results. No independent association between any recency of any psychedelic use and increased likelihood of past month psychological distress, past year suicidality, or everyday impairment was found. A decreased likelihood for past year suicidal thinking was found among all groups that had last used psychedelics >12 months ago or psilocybin <1 month ago, as well as for past year suicide plans and past month serious psychological distress among those whose last psychedelic use was psilocybin >12 months ago. More recent crack cocaine or heroin use was still associated with a higher risk for past month serious psychological distress after adjusting for lifetime non-medical use of other drugs. LSD and psilocybin could not be properly intercompared due to surprisingly small LSD-only recency groups. Adjusting for non-medical use of other drugs made a big difference, but adjustments for their lifetime use or recency of use did not mutually differ. Conclusions. This study strongly supports the results of previous population studies, as no independent risk from psychedelic use was found even when considering their recency of use. The results are also consistent with research indicating that psychedelics may have long-lasting beneficial effects for anxiety, depression, neuroticism, substance dependence, cognitive flexibility, and meaningfulness, and do not lead to dependence.