Browsing by Subject "psychometrics"

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  • Laakasuo, Michael; Sundvall, Jukka (2016)
    Utilitarian versus deontological inclinations have been studied extensively in the field of moral psychology. However, the field has been lacking a thorough psychometric evaluation of the most commonly used measures. In this paper, we examine the factorial structure of an often used set of 12 moral dilemmas purportedly measuring utilitarian/deontological moral inclinations. We ran three different studies (and a pilot) to investigate the issue. In Study 1, we used standard Exploratory Factor Analysis and Schmid-Leimann (g factor) analysis; results of which informed the a priori single-factor model for our second study. Results of Confirmatory Factor Analysis in Study 2 were replicated in Study 3. Finally, we ran a weak invariance analysis between the models of Study 2 and 3, concluding that there is no significant difference between factor loading in these studies. We find reason to support a single-factor model of utilitarian/deontological inclinations. In addition, certain dilemmas have consistent error covariance, suggesting that this should be taken into consideration in future studies. In conclusion, three studies, pilot and an invariance analysis, systematically suggest the following. (1) No item needs to be dropped from the scale. (2) There is a unidimensional structure for utilitarian/deontological preferences behind the most often used dilemmas in moral psychology, suggesting a single latent cognitive mechanism. (3) The most common set of dilemmas in moral psychology can be successfully used as a unidimensional measure of utilitarian/deontological moral inclinations, but would benefit from using weighted averages over simple averages. (4) Consideration should be given to dilemmas describing infants.
  • Kunnari, Anton; Sundvall, Jukka R. I.; Laakasuo, Michael (2020)
    The process dissociation procedure (PDP) for moral cognition was created to separately measure two dispositions of moral judgment based on the dual-process theory of moral reasoning: deontological and utilitarian inclinations. In this paper we raise some concerns from a psychometrics perspective regarding the structure, reliability, and validity of the moral PDP as a measure of individual differences. Using two simulation studies as well as a real sample of N = 1,010, we investigate the psychometric properties of the moral PDP. We present novel evidence showing that (1) some correlations between PDP parameters are mathematical artifacts, and as such cannot be taken as evidence in support of a theory, (2) there are severe response inconsistencies within dilemma batteries, and (3) reliability estimates for these scores seem to be far below the accepted standards. We discuss some potential theoretical and content-related reasons for these statistical issues and their implications. We conclude that in their current form, PDP measures of utilitarian and deontological tendencies are sub-optimal for assessing individual differences.
  • Ritola, Ville (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    Background. Knowing what a psychological test measures and if it works the same way in different contexts, i.e. has measurement invariance (MI), is crucial for its valid and reliable use. The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale – Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) was published in Finland in 2012. However, recent research suggests that the factor model given in the WAIS-IV test manual and the information regarding MI between different age groups and levels of education are lacking. Methods. This study employed the normative sample of the Finnish WAIS-IV. First, the factor model in the manual was examined and improved using confirmatory factor analysis with a mixed data-theory approach. Second, the new model was tested for strict residual MI for different age groups and levels of education, in order to study if the test reaches an acceptable level of MI. Results and conclusions. The results indicated that the normative data is best modeled by an oblique non-g model. The study also replicated a Spatial Visualization factor with loadings from Block Design, Visual Puzzles and Picture Completion, and Quantitative Reasoning factor with Figure Weights and Arithmetic. A previously unmentioned link in factor analytic literature on WAIS-IV was found between Block Design and Processing Speed factors. The results questioned the link between Arithmetic and Verbal Comprehension factor and found the underlying source of shared variance to be links between Information and Arithmetic, which was interpreted as Educational Achievement. WAIS-IV reached strict residual MI for both different age groups and levels of education. The study offers a more accurate factor model of WAIS-IV and gives confidence that psychologists can reliably apply it over different ages and levels of education in the normal population of Finland.
  • Multanen, J.; Ylinen, J.; Karjalainen, T.; Kautiainen, H.; Repo, J. P.; Häkkinen, A. (2020)
    Background and Aims: The Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire is the most commonly used outcome measure in the assessment of carpal tunnel syndrome. The purpose of this study was to translate the original Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire into Finnish and validate its psychometric properties. Materials and Methods: We translated and culturally adapted the Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire into Finnish. Subsequently, 193 patients completed the Finnish version of the Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire, 6-Item CTS Symptoms Scale, and EuroQol 5 Dimensions 12 months after carpal tunnel release. The Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire was re-administered after a 2-week interval. We calculated construct validity, internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and coefficient of repeatability. We also examined floor and ceiling effects. Results: The cross-cultural adaptation required only minor modifications to the questions. Both subscales of the Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire (Symptom Severity Scale and Functional Status Scale) correlated significantly with the CTS-6 and EuroQol 5 Dimensions, indicating good construct validity. The Cronbach's alpha was 0.93 for both the Symptom Severity Scale and Functional Status Scale, indicating high internal consistency. Test-retest reliability was excellent, with an intraclass correlation coefficient greater than 0.8 for both scales. The coefficient of repeatability was 0.80 for the Symptom Severity Scale and 0.68 for the Functional Status Scale. We observed a floor effect in the Functional Status Scale in 28% of participants. Conclusion: Our study shows that the present Finnish version of the Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire is reliable and valid for the evaluation of symptom severity and functional status among surgically treated carpal tunnel syndrome patients. However, owing to the floor effect, the Functional Status Score may have limited ability to detect differences in patients with good post-operative outcomes.
  • Repo, Jussi Petteri; Piitulainen, Kirsi; Häkkinen, Arja; Roine, Risto Paavo; Kautiainen, Hannu; Becker, Paju; Tukiainen, Erkki Juhani (2018)
    Background: Thus far there have been no specific patient-reported outcome instrument in Finnish for health-related quality of life (HRQoL) assessment after major lower extremity amputation and successful prosthesis fitting.Methods: The prosthesis evaluation questionnaire (PEQ) was translated and cross-culturally adapted into Finnish. Participants completed a questionnaire package including the Finnish version of the PEQ and the 15D HRQoL instrument. Scales (n=10) were tested for internal consistency, floor-ceiling effect, and reproducibility for which participants completed the PEQ twice within a 2-week interval. Validity was tested by estimating the correlation between the 15D index and the scales. The authors included 122 participants who had completed the questionnaire on two separate occasions in the final analysis.Results: Mean scale scores of the 10 scales varied from 52 to 83. Cronbach's alphas ranged from 0.67 to 0.96. The total score showed no floor-ceiling effect. Reproducibility of the scales was good (intraclass correlation coefficient, 0.78-0.87; coefficient of repeatability, 19-36). Significant correlations were observed between the 15D index and the scales for ambulation, social burden, usefulness, and well-being.Conclusions: This study provided evidence of the reliability and validity of the Finnish version of the PEQ in assessing the HRQoL among major lower extremity amputated patients who have been fitted with prosthesis.Implications for rehabilitationMeasurement of quality of life during rehabilitation can provide important information on patients' well-being.The prosthesis evaluation questionnaire (PEQ) is a valid instrument for assessing health-related quality of life (HRQoL) after major lower extremity amputation.This study provided evidence of the reliability and validity of the Finnish version of the PEQ for assessing HRQoL among patient who have undergone major lower extremity amputation.
  • Ponkilainen, Ville T.; Häkkinen, Arja H.; Uimonen, Mikko M.; Tukiainen, Erkki; Sandelin, Henrik; Repo, Jussi P. (2019)
    The Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) is a patient-reported outcome measure (PROM) that is widely used to evaluate the pain, stiffness, and physical function of patients with osteoarthritis of the hip and knee. Although the WOMAC has also been used for patients after foot and ankle surgery, it has not been validated for this purpose. A total of 130 patients with surgically treated ankle fractures completed the WOMAC, Visual Analogue Scale Foot and Ankle (VAS FA), Lower Extremity Functional Scale (LEFS), 15D Health-Related Quality-of-Life Questionnaire (15D), and Visual Analog Scale for General Health (VAS general health) after foot and ankle surgery. The structural validity of the WOMAC was assessed by using Cronbach's a, and convergent validity was tested between the WOMAC and reference outcome measures. Cronbach's a for the index score was 0.98 and 0.95, 0.86, and 0.98 for the Pain, Stiffness, and Physical Function subscales, respectively. The Spearman correlation coefficients were -0.84, -0.74, -0.58, and 0.55 for the VAS-FA, LEFS, 15D, and VAS general health, respectively. The relationships with the VAS-FA, LEFS, 15D, and VAS general health were strong. All relationships were statistically significant (p <.001). The WOMAC provides valid scores for assessing pain, stiffness, and physical function in patients having undergone ankle fracture surgery. (C) 2019 by the American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. All rights reserved.