Browsing by Subject "psykoosi"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-5 of 5
  • Haimala, Maija (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Aims: Previous studies have shown, that being in a romantic relationship in adolescence is associated with increase in depressive symptoms. The major aim of this study was to determine whether the association can also be found between romantic relationship and anxiety and psychotic symptoms. The linkages between being in a romantic relationship and depressive, anxiety and psychotic symptoms were examined in this study. It was hypothesized that being in a romantic relationship would predict increase at least in depressive and anxiety symptoms. Besides that this study also examined the linkages between the quality of romantic relationship and depressive, anxiety and psychotic symptoms. It was assumed that the good quality would be associated with increase in symptoms whereas the bad quality would be associated with fewer symptoms. This was also seen to explain the possible associations between romantic relationship and psychic symptoms. Methods: The data of this study was a part of a wider Pathways to Desistance –study which followed serious juvenile offenders' psychological development, behaviour, social relationships, mental health, and experiences in the juvenile or criminal justice system. The subjects were 14–19 years old adolescents and the number of subjects fluctuated between 699–1262 adolescents depending on analysis. The linkages between romantic relationship and symptoms were examined both in a cross-sectional and longitudinal studies whereas the associations between the quality of relationship and symptoms were studied only cross-sectionally. The analyses were done by Poisson Regression. Results and conclusions: This study showed no associations between being in a romantic relationship in adolescence and depression, anxiety and psychotic symptoms. Thus, being in a relationship does not seem to be a risk factor for depression, anxiety or psychotic symptoms according to this study. The quality of romantic relationship does not either seem to be associated with the amount of symptoms. Therefore the bad quality of romantic relationship does not seem to predispose adolescents to more symptoms and respectively the good quality does not seem to promote psychological wellbeing. According to this study only adolescent's partner's antisocial influence was a significant risk factor to an adolescent's psychological wellbeing; It was associated with more depressive, anxiety and psychotic symptoms.
  • Kujanpää, Lea (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    Tutkin kahdeksan sairaalapapin näkemystä psykoottisten sielunhoidosta haastattelemalla heitä teemahaastattelumenetelmällä. Tutkimuskysymykseni olivat 1) miten sairaalapapit kokevat psykoottisten potilaiden kohtaamisen sielunhoitotilanteessa ja 2) mitkä ovat sairaalapappien käsitykset sielunhoidon auttamismahdollisuuksista psykoottisten potilaiden kohdalla. Litteroin haastatteluaineiston ja analysoin sen sisällönanalyysimenetelmällä. Esiin nousi kolme pääteemaa, joiden alle tutkimustulokset jakautuivat. Kaksi ensimmäistä teemaa liittyivät ensimmäiseen tutkimuskysymykseen, ja ne olivat sairaalapapin sisäinen maailma eli heidän omat ajatuksensa ja tunteensa, sekä psykoottisen potilaan hengellisyyden rooli sielunhoitotyössä. Kolmas teema oli sielunhoidon tuoma konkreettinen apu, ja se liittyi toiseen tutkimuskysymykseen. Tutkimuksen perusteella tein neljä johtopäätöstä. Ensinnäkin psykoottisten sielunhoidolle on kova tarve, sillä sen tuoma apu voi olla hyvin konkreettista. Toiseksi sairaalapapeille on näin ollen kova tarve, eikä heitä voi korvata muiden alojen asiantuntijoilla. Kolmanneksi psykoottisten sielunhoidolle on kuitenkin vaikea määritellä tavoitteita, eikä sillä siten ole myöskään mittareita vaikuttavuuden arviointiin. Neljäs johtopäätös on, että psykoottisten sielunhoidon suurimmat haasteet eivät ole itse sielunhoitotilanteessa vaan sitä ympäröivissä rakenteissa, joihin liittyvät liian pienet resurssit ja joissain tapauksissa myös puutteellinen yhteistyö hoitohenkilökunnan kanssa. Mitä tiiviimmin sairaalalappi koetaan hoitotiimin osana, sitä enemmän siitä hyötyy potilas. Johtopäätöksillä on toisiinsa nähden riippuvuussuhde. Esitän, että jos sielunhoidon tutkimus lähestyisi asiaa tavoitteiden ja vaikuttavuuden näkökulmasta, psykoottisten sielunhoidon tarpeellisuus voitaisiin nähdä yhteiskunnallisessa ja kirkollisessa keskustelussa paremmin. Tällä voitaisiin vaikuttaa ympäröiviin rakenteisiin, eli saada sairaalapapit aidosti osaksi hoitotiimiä ja tukea heidän työnsä olemassaolon oikeutusta. Kun työn vaikuttavuus voitaisiin paremmin todentaa, saattaisi se tuoda sairaalasielunhoidolle lisäresursseja, jolloin suurin haaste poistuisi. Kaikki tämä vastaisi psykoottisten sielunhoidon huutavaan tarpeeseen. Lisäksi tutkielma kiinnitti huomiota siihen, että sielunhoidon teorioiden ja käytännön välillä on ristiriita: sielunhoidon teoriassa tärkeää näkökulmaa näyttelevä toivo ja sen merkitys eivät muodostaneet merkittävää osaa sielunhoidon käytännön työssä. Sielunhoidon tavoitteiden ja vaikuttavuuden tutkiminen ja toivon merkityksen analysointi suhteessa niihin saattaisi tuoda uutta näkemystä sekä sielunhoidon teoriaan että yhteiskunnalliseen ja kirkolliseen arvostukseen, ja sitä kautta myös käytäntöön.
  • Huotarinen, Nonna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    This Pro gradu -thesis studies social relations of individuals who have some of the non affective psychosis. How does experiences in social relations differ between groups of people where in one group are the individuals who have psychosis and in other group are people who don't have psychosis? In this thesis social relations were divided in three groups, spouse, kin and friend – relations. Hypothesis was, that those who had psychosis, have more negative experiences and less positive experiences in their relations than those who don't have a psychotic disease. NCS-1 survey was carried out in the early 1990s with a household sample of over 8,000 respondents. Non affective psychosis disorder was diagnosed with 66 respondents. Based on previous evidence that survey nonrespondents have higher rates of psychiatric disorder than respondents, a supplemental nonresponse survey was carried out in parallel with the main survey. In this supplemental survey, a random sample of initial nonrespondents were offered a financial incentive to complete a short form of the diagnostic interview. Elevated rates of both lifetime and current psychiatric disorders were found among these initial nonrespondents. A nonresponse adjustment weight was constructed for the main survey data to compensate for this systematic nonresponse. Respondents experiences in their relations with spouses, kin and friends were mapped with twelve questions, six questions comprising positive experiences and six questions comprising negative experiences. In this thesis positive and negative experiences were formulated into two sumvariables for each spouse, kin and friends. Then variables where standardized, after which parameter estimates, confidence intervals and p-value were estimated by One Way Analysis Of Variance. According to the hypothesis those who had a psychotic disorder had less intimate relationships than those who didn't. Individuals with psychotic disorder had more negative experiences and less positive experiences in their intimate relationships than those who had no psychotic disorder. Difference was statistically significant. Outcome was similar with relations to kin. Difference in meeting frequency was not statistically significant with these two groups in relations to kin. In relations to friends statistically significant difference was found in positive experiences, individuals with psychotic disorders had fewer positive experiences. Individuals with psychotic disorders and those close to them need support in their social relations.
  • Isotupa, Mari Annukka (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    Goals: The prevalence of subclinical psychotic symptoms in the normal population is 5–8%. Approximately 8% of the subclinical psychotic symptoms have been shown to predict the onset of later psychotic disorder. It can be assumed that if the number of subclinical psychotic symptoms is related to the locus of control and self-esteem, these connections would appear in the normal population at different stages of the psychosis continuum depending on the severity of the psychotic symptoms. A better understanding of these connections could in the future help distinguish those who report subclinical psychotic symptoms from those who later develop a clinically significant psychotic disorder. Methods: In this study, correlation of psychotic symptoms (UM-CIDI) with the locus of control (I.E. Scale in part) and self-esteem (RSES in part) were studied, as well as through variance analyzes of how the healthy (n = 5279) with little or more reported subclinical psychotic symptoms (n = 141 and n = 84), and persons with non-affective psychotic disorders (SCID) (n = 50) differed in relation to these factors (PSO groups). The study used the NCS-data collected from the normal population in 1990–1992. Results and Conclusions: According to previous research data, the number of psychotic symptoms was related to the external locus of control and the low self-esteem. The PSO groups differed more widely only in the case of external locus of control which based on other’s people power and control. The combined effect of psychotic symptoms and self-esteem explained the differences between groups only in relation to the above-mentioned locus of control. The results support previous findings of a more external locus of control, personalizing bias and low self-esteem related to psychotic disorders, as well as indications of their milder occurrence in the normal population already reported with psychotic symptoms. Exploratory study of causal relationships is still needed.
  • Numminen, Linda (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Aims of the Study. Psychotic like experiences (PLEs) have been identified as risk factors for psychotic and other mental disorders. It has been suggested that PLEs are a sign of a broader psychological vulnerability and may indicate an individual’s susceptibility to mental disorders in general. The role of PLEs as predictors of mental disorders have been studied, but the research has limitations and knowledge of possible mediating factors is still inadequate. The aim of this study is to examine whether PLEs reported in young adulthood predict psychotic or any mental disorders in the general population. In addition, it is examined whether these associations are affected or mediated by general psychological distress. Methods. The data used in the study is from the Mental Health in Early Adulthood in Finland (MEAF) study which is a follow-up study of the Health 2000 young adult sample. The sample (n=1243) included 18–29-year-old Finnish people, selected from the general population, of whom 45.5 % were men. Subjects' PLEs were evaluated with the G-section of the Munich-Composite International Diagnostic Interview (M-CIDI) questionnaire, and general psychological distress with the General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12). Data on diagnoses of mental disorders given in hospital care and specialized health care and inpatient care were obtained from the National Hospital Discharge register until the end of the year 2015, and hence, the follow-up period was 10–12 years. The associations, including the steps of mediation analysis, were examined with Cox regression and logistic regression models. Results and conclusions. This study showed that PLEs of young adults predict subsequent psychotic disorders (HR = 1.23, 95% CI = 1.11–1.36) as well as any mental disorders (HR = 1.09, 95% CI = 1.03–1.17), when the effects of age, gender, education, and marital status were adjusted for. This supports the previous view that PLEs may be a sign of broader psychological vulnerability and indicate an individual’s susceptibility to psychotic and any mental disorders. General psychological distress did not have a significant effect on the associations and did not mediate them. The PLEs of young adults appear to be a risk factor for subsequent psychotic and other mental disorders, independent from general psychological distress.