Browsing by Subject "public policy"

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  • Kirveennummi, Anna; Mäkelä, Johanna; Saarimaa, Riikka (2013)
  • Mostýnová, Michaela (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    In Finland, entrepreneurs (both employers and self-employed) are, compared to salaried employees, free to increase their compulsory retirement insurance contributions to the public pension fund; this being an alternative to additional saving for retirement in private pension funds. This thesis seeks to identify and further examine factors which supposedly influence entrepreneurs‘ perceived sufficiency of their retirement insurance payments . The purpose is to subsequently recommend retirement policy designs which would incentivize Finnish entrepreneurs to increase their contributions to the public pension fund. The empirical section of this work was conducted on a sample of 2 294 entrepreneurs (1 533 self-employed and 761 employers) who took part in the 2017 Labor Force Ad hoc Survey on Entrepreneurship carried out by Statistics Finland. The initial hypotheses gave rise to four categories of variables, presumably affecting sufficiency of retirement insurance contributions perceived by the study sample; namely, ’Personal characteristics & Business background’, ’Motivation’, ’Future perspectives’ and ’Job satisfaction & excitement’. The obtained results suggest that the majority of the selected variables have an effect on entrepreneurs’ perceived sufficiency of their pension insurance contributions. Besides, the factors identified as negatively affecting the perceived sufficiency of retirement insurance payments were more frequently present in the group of self-employed compared to the group of entrepreneurs (employers). Therefore, it is expected that the self-employed are more prone to pay themselves insufficient pension insurance contributions. However, all these factors are considered as incorrigible since they stem from the very nature of complex human behaviour. In this sense, the behavioural approach seems to be highly relevant when forming retirement insurance policies seeking to encourage prudent saving behaviour. This study applies an alternative approach of behavioural economics to the problematics of retirement saving. The first part of the thesis outlines foundations of behavioural economics which serve as a theoretical background for further analyses. For instance, propositions of procrastination, self-control and mental accounting are discussed.
  • Krivy, Maros (Helsingin yliopisto, 2012)
    The thesis analyses transformation of obsolete industrial space as a contested socio-spatial process of urban restructuring and examines the way 'culture' becomes a planning instrument of the transformation. The thesis studies social practices that have influenced the process and examines the main actors, conflicts, and perceptions of obsolete industrial space. The main argument is the following. Artistic practices challenged negative perceptions of obsolete industrial space and represented and practised it as a space of the everyday. The practices have recognized and defended obsolete space in its present reality of obsolescence and their success has influenced urban planning and policies. Artistic practices have been labelled as 'culture' and 'culture' has become a planning instrument of regenerating obsolete industrial spaces. Case studies of the Cable Factory and the Suvilahti in Helsinki and the influence of the former on the latter give empirical evidence to the argument. The main body of the thesis consists of four articles published in peer-reviewed scientific journals. Drawing on discussions from critical economic geography, art history, and urban semiology, the first article analyses speculative redevelopment, conservation, and speculative conservation as ideal-typical practices of transforming obsolete industrial space. In these practices, obsolescence of industrial space is understood as a 'problem to be fixed'. The role of architecture as signifying a static notion of time is discussed. By representing architectural object as situated in the future or in the past, respectively, the analysed practices obscure social and political context of the architectural process. The second article presents a study of art works by Gordon Matta-Clark, Robert Smithson and Bernd and Hilla Becher and introduces the concept of negativity in industrial architecture. Rather than representing and practising obsolete industrial space as a 'problem to be fixed', these works acknowledge obsolete industrial space in its present reality of obsolescence. The notion of representing negativity in industrial space is theorized in contrast to representing obsolete space as 'negative'. The third article studies the Pro Kaapeli movement and its role in the transformation of the Cable Factory in Helsinki during the years 1989-1991. The conflict between the Helsinki city administration and the Pro Kaapeli is examined. Introducing the concept of empty space, the article studies how the Pro Kaapeli made use of the emptiness of obsolete industrial space. The Pro Kaapeli did not contest the perception of obsolete space as empty; rather, it contested the interpretation of emptiness as negative. The movement challenged the planned demolition and redevelopment of the factory by appealing to its emptiness, not to its use or function. For the Pro Kaapeli, the emptiness of space was not something to be 'fixed'. Empty space, in its emptiness, was accepted as the starting point in the spatial practice of continuous alterations. The fourth article is a case study of the ongoing transformation of Suvilahti in Helsinki. The transformation of the industrial premises of Suvilahti has been a planning project of the city of Helsinki and 'culture' has been the main instrument used. The article introduces the concepts of culture factory and cultural governmentality and examines the influence of the Cable Factory case on the planning of Suvilahti. The success of the Pro Kaapeli movement's defence of the Cable Factory contested negative perceptions of obsolete industrial spaces, but, unintentionally, it laid foundation for using 'culture' as an instrument of regenerating the obsolete spaces. Spontaneous practices of the Pro Kaapeli have been recognized as 'culture' and 'culture' has been employed as a planning instrument in the regeneration of the Suvilahti. The article discusses culture factory as a model of regenerated obsolete industrial space, which is the objective of planning in the Suvilahti. The planners encourage spontaneous 'cultural' practices for their perceived effects on regenerating obsolete industrial space. A form of planning practice that withdraws from planning the content of culture and instead plans or wishes for the social and urban effects of culture is conceptualized as cultural governmentality.
  • Cresswell-Smith, Johanna; Wahlbeck, Kristian; Kalseth, Jorid (2022)
    Background: Mental wellbeing is formed by our daily environments, which are, in turn, influenced by public policies, such as the welfare state. This paper looks at how different aspects of life conditions may mediate the welfare state effect on mental wellbeing in oldest old age. Methods: Data were extracted from Round 6 of the European Social Survey (2012). The dataset comprised of 2058 people aged 80 years and older from 24 countries. Mediation analyses determined possible links between the welfare state, including eleven intervening variables representing life conditions and five mental wellbeing dimensions. Results: Our study confirms that the higher the level of welfare state, the better mental wellbeing, irrespective of dimension. Although several life conditions were found to mediate the welfare state effect on mental wellbeing, subjective general health, coping with income and place in society were the most important intervening variables. Conclusions: All three variables centre around supporting autonomy in the oldest old age. By teasing out how the welfare state influences mental wellbeing in the oldest old, we can better understand the many drivers of wellbeing and enable evidence informed age-friendly policy making.
  • Landauer, Mia; Goodsite, Michael Evan; Juhola, Sirkku (2018)
    The tourism sector is affected by climate change. Nordic tourism destinations have also experienced changes, such as changing precipitation patterns, lack of snow in winter and shifts in seasons. The sector has to implement adaptation strategies but it is unclear whether the current public climate policy is sufficient to support considering adaptation actions. We reviewed national climate strategies of the Nordic countries from the perspectives of tourism, but excluding the transport sector. We also reviewed Nordic national tourism strategies from the perspective of climate change, particularly the extent to which they address climate adaptation. We found out that the national climate strategies do not pay enough attention to tourism adaptation needs, nor do the national tourism strategies present adaptation actions that tourism actors could consider. To connect these national-level strategies, there is a need to review adaptation actions for tourism within the national adaptation framework supported by research based evidence. Next, by means of Nordic cooperation, guidance for both public and private tourism actors within and across Nordic countries can be provided. This can enhance the competitiveness and resilience of the Nordic tourism supply and contribute to the development of economically, environmentally and socially sustainable tourism in the region.
  • Ellman, Essi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Public policy considerations have had a varying degree of impact in EU competition law. Throughout the years, the European Commission has allowed for certain public policy considerations, such as the protection of the environment and employment, but “the more economic approach” of the early 21st century has marked a turning point in this regard. Economic analysis has since the late 1990s become an increasingly important part of competition analysis and enforcement, and the focus on economic parameters has led to a more cautious attitude towards public policy interests. Despite the advantages that the more economic approach has given to EU competition law, some argue that it has led to an overly price-centric approach to consumer welfare. Competition policies on a global scale are affected by different underlying economic theories. The varying economic and theoretical approaches can be classified into different schools of thought, which affect the underlying presumptions of how competition in the market is achieved. Antitrust law in the United States has been affected mainly by the Chicago and Harvard schools of thought, both of which have also affected the development of EU competition law. However, EU competition law can also be perceived as its own, distinct school of thought, namely the European school of thought. The purpose of this thesis is to assess public policy considerations in light of the European school of thought and its theoretical framework. The research question entails several different themes. Public policy considerations are first studied with case law and sustainability is highlighted as a recent and relevant example. In addition to public policy considerations, another essential theme to this thesis is the different schools of thought affecting competition law and policy. By studying the European school of thought and the social market economy, this thesis aims to emphasise the sui generis features of EU competition law. As the notion of social market economy implies that competition law should consider societal concerns as well, a relevant question in this regard is whether competition law should be interpreted coherently with the totality of EU law. In other words, this is a question of whether competition law should remain independent of the totality of EU law, or whether EU-wide goals and values should be accommodated in competition law as well. This thesis also studies the possibility of a broader conception of consumer welfare, mainly by analysing “the fair share of the benefits” and the concept of consumer well-being. The research question is contemplative by nature, and so are the conclusions of this thesis. A primary issue in studying this topic is that the objectives and priorities of EU competition law remain somewhat unclear. A central notion in this regard is the dichotomy between the Commission and the European Court of Justice, as they have given somewhat differing notions on the objectives of competition law. As for the European school of thought, a central notion is that EU competition law is embedded in a framework that is fundamentally different from the Chicago school of thought. The concept of the social market economy, together with Article 3 TEU and Articles 7 and 11 TFEU, suggest that the theoretical foundations for considering public policy interests in competition law exist. Studying the possibility of long-term consumer welfare, benefits to the society as a whole and the concept of consumer well-being, demonstrate that the economically oriented notion of consumer welfare is perhaps too narrow in the context of the social market economy. All in all, the question of public policy considerations in EU competition law is ultimately perceived as a question of including fundamental values and objectives of the Union in competition law and policy.
  • Ruokolainen, Otto; Ollila, Hanna; Patja, Kristiina; Borodulin, Katja; Laatikainen, Tiina; Korhonen, Tellervo (2018)
    Aims: Finland has implemented a gradually tightening tobacco control policy for decades. Recently the objective of a tobacco-free Finland was introduced. Still, the population's acceptance of tobacco control policy has not been measured. More knowledge is needed on differences in attitudes and factors associated with tobacco control opinions for future policy-making. Methods: A population-based study with quantitative analysis. Attitudes on smoking and tobacco control policy were assessed within the National FINRISK 2012 Study in Finland involving 25-74-year-old adults (N = 4905). In analyses, smoking status groups were compared. Results: In general, attitudes differed systematically by smoking status. Differences increased or decreased when moving from never smokers to other smoking groups. Similarities in attitudes were found particularly on youth smoking, while differences between smoking groups were notable on statements regarding smoking on balconies and availability of tobacco products. The adjusted analysis showed that smoking status was most strongly associated with attitudes on different tobacco control policy measures. Daily smokers viewed stricter tobacco control policy and workplace smoking bans more negatively than others, though they viewed societal support for quitters and sufficiency of tobacco control policy more positively compared with others. Differences were vast compared with non-smokers, but also occasional smokers differed from daily smokers. Conclusions: Tightening tobacco control and workplace smoking bans were supported by the Finnish adult population, but societal support for quitters to a lesser extent. Attitude change, where smokers are seen as deserving help to quit smoking, is important.
  • Meriluoto, Taina Maria (2021)
    There is growing concern among democracy scholars that participatory innovations pose a depoliticizing threat to democracy. This article tackles this concern by providing a more nuanced understanding of how politicization and depoliticization take shape in participatory initiatives. Based on ethnographic research on participatory projects with marginalized people who are invited to act as experiential experts, the article examines how actors limit and open up possibilities to participate. By focusing on struggles concerning the definition of expertise, the article identifies a threefold character of politicization as a practice within participatory innovations. It involves (1) illuminating the boundaries that define the actors' possibilities; (2) making a connection between these boundaries and specific value bases; and (3) imagining an alternative normative basis for participation.
  • Talebian, Sara (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    This study aims to explore the possible scenarios for the future of broadcasting media policy in Iran in a 10 years’ time horizon. To explore the futures alternatives, this research reviews the historical patterns and deconstructs the present situation of broadcasting media policy in Iran. Moreover, the key parameters shaping the possible futures and the alternative conditions of every key parameter are identified as the main blocks for constructing the futures scenarios. The current study reviews the relevant literature about public policy, media policy, and broadcasting media policy. The theoretical framework covers controversial debates about different conceptions of public policy and different practices of policy-making for media platforms. In addition, different models of policy process are illustrated in the literature review, as they are used to understand different policy-making procedures in different futures scenarios. This study also reviews the history of policy-making for broadcast media in Iran, from the beginning days till the present time. Futures Studies (FS) methodology is utilized in the methodological framework of this study because exploring the possible futures is the main goal of this research. In the first phase, Environmental Scanning as a Futures method, along with thematic coding are used to explore the present situation of broadcasting media policy in Iran. The data is based on all the laws, regulations and legislation reinforcing public policies concerning broadcast media and the broadcasting system. In the second phase, Delphi method is used to collect experts’ opinions on the key parameters of the possible futures and their conditions. The experts are chosen based on their expertise in the fields of Futures Studies, media studies, policy studies and relevant study areas. In the final stage, the process of scenario construction is accomplished by General Morphological Analysis as a scenario method. The data for scenario building is based on the results of the previous phases. The results of this study indicate the main characteristics of the present situation and the possible scenarios for the future of broadcasting media policy in Iran. The present themes of broadcasting media policy in Iran include rigid state ownership, promoting political and cultural discourses, unification, using state secured budgets, focusing on mass audience, and developing air broadcasting technology. The key parameters of the future of broadcasting media policy in Iran, identified among a total number of 19 parameters, consist of ownership, fundamental goal, market situation, budgets, target audience, and technology. Based on the key parameters and their conditions, four possible scenarios for the future of broadcasting media policy in Iran are constructed. The path-dependent policy scenario illustrates the continuity of the status quo and reinforcement of the present situation. In this scenario, broadcasting market remains monopolized and controlled by Iran’s state regime. The transformative policy scenario shows a possible alternative in which all the crucial aspects of broadcasting media policy change and transform to a more liberal, diverse and less regulated situation with a competitive media market and various actors and participants. The control-based policy scenario and the mixed policy scenario are the median possible scenarios. In both these scenarios, some policy changes emerge, while the state regime is still eager to be the main actor in the process of policy-making for the broadcasting system. The main difference between these two scenarios is the extent of change and stability.
  • Gelman, Vladimir (Издательство Европейского университета в Санкт-Петербурге, 2018)
    препринты Центра исследований модернизации ЕУСПб