Browsing by Subject "public sector"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-9 of 9
  • Kouvonen, A.; Vahtera, J.; Pentti, J.; Korhonen, M. J.; Oksanen, T.; Salo, P.; Virtanen, M.; Kivimaki, M. (2016)
    Background. Adverse effects of antidepressants are most common at the beginning of the treatment, but possible also later. We examined the association between antidepressant use and work-related injuries taking into account the duration of antidepressant use. Method. Antidepressant use and work-related injuries between 2000 and 2011 were measured among 66 238 employees (mean age 43.8 years, 80% female) using linkage to national records (the Finnish Public Sector study). We analysed data using time-dependent modelling with individuals as their own controls (self-controlled case-series design). Results. In 2238 individuals who had used antidepressants and had a work-related injury during a mean follow-up of 7.8 years, no increase in the risk of injury was observed in the beginning of antidepressant treatment. However, an increased injury risk was seen after 3 months of treatment (rate ratio, compared with no recent antidepressant use, 1.27, 95% confidence interval 1.10-1.48). This was also the case among those who had used only selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (n = 714; rate ratio 1.41, 95% confidence interval 1.08-1.83). Conclusions. Antidepressant use was not associated with an increased risk of work-related injury at the beginning of treatment. Post-hoc analyses of antidepressant trials are needed to determine whether long-term use of antidepressants increases the risk of work-related injury.
  • Oksanen, Tuula; Kawachi, Ichiro; Subramanian, S. V.; Kim, Daniel; Shirai, Kokoro; Kouvonen, Anne; Pentti, Jaana; Salo, Paula; Virtanen, Marianna; Vahtera, Jussi; Kivimaki, Mika (2013)
  • Higuera Ornelas, Adriana (Helsingin yliopisto, 2022)
    AI-driven innovation offers numerous possibilities for the public sector. The potential of digital advancements is already palpable within the tax administrations. Automation is efficiently used for tax assessments, to perform compliance management, to enhance revenue collection and to provide services to taxpayers. A digital transformation encompassing Big Data, advanced analytics and ADM systems promises significant benefits and efficiencies for the tax administrations. It is essential that public organizations meet the necessary legal framework and safeguards to expand the use of these automated systems since its sources of information, technical capacity, and extent of application have evolved. Using Finland as a case study, this research assesses the use of automated decision-making systems within the public sector. Constitutional and administrative legal principles serve as guidelines and constraints for the administrative activity and decision-making. This study examines the lawfulness of the deployment of ADM systems in the field of taxation by looking its compatibility with long-standing legal principles. Focus if given to the principles of the rule of law, due process, good administration, access to information, official accountability, confidentiality, and privacy. Numerous public concerns have been raised regarding the use of ADM systems in the public sector. Scholars, academics and journalists have justifiably pointed out the risks and limitations of ADM systems. Despite the legal challenges posed by automation, this research suggests that ADM systems used to pursue administrative objectives can fit with long-standing legal principles with appropriate regulation, design and human capacity.
  • Cosens, Barbara; Ruhl, J. B.; Soininen, Niko; Gunderson, Lance; Belinskij, Antti; Blenckner, Thorsten; Camacho, Alejandro E.; Chaffin, Brian C.; Craig, Robin Kundis; Doremus, Holly; Glicksman, Robert; Heiskanen, Anna-Stiina; Larson, Rhett; Similä, Jukka (National Academy of Sciences, 2021)
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Sep 2021, 118 (36) e2102798118
    The speed and uncertainty of environmental change in the Anthropocene challenge the capacity of coevolving social–ecological–technological systems (SETs) to adapt or transform to these changes. Formal government and legal structures further constrain the adaptive capacity of our SETs. However, new, self-organized forms of adaptive governance are emerging at multiple scales in natural resource-based SETs. Adaptive governance involves the private and public sectors as well as formal and informal institutions, self-organized to fill governance gaps in the traditional roles of states. While new governance forms are emerging, they are not yet doing so rapidly enough to match the pace of environmental change. Furthermore, they do not yet possess the legitimacy or capacity needed to address disparities between the winners and losers from change. These emergent forms of adaptive governance appear to be particularly effective in managing complexity. We explore governance and SETs as coevolving complex systems, focusing on legal systems to understand the potential pathways and obstacles to equitable adaptation. We explore how governments may facilitate the emergence of adaptive governance and promote legitimacy in both the process of governance despite the involvement of nonstate actors, and its adherence to democratic values of equity and justice. To manage the contextual nature of the results of change in complex systems, we propose the establishment of long-term study initiatives for the coproduction of knowledge, to accelerate learning and synergize interactions between science and governance and to foster public science and epistemic communities dedicated to navigating transitions to more just, sustainable, and resilient futures.
  • Nousiainen, Niina; Riekkinen, Venla; Meriläinen, Teemu (IOP Publishing, 2022)
    Environmental Research Communications
    Both climate communication and place branding are familiar concepts, whose potentials have been recognized. Cities have engaged in communication and climate work for several years, yet studies linking municipal climate action and communication are scarce. We conducted targeted interviews and a broader survey of climate workers and communicators of forerunner municipalities in Finland and found gaps between climate action and communication. Synergies could be achieved if the two functioned in synchronicity rather than separate tasks, as words require actions, but full impacts of actions fall short without communication. Municipalities have progressed on both fronts but are hindered by lacking time and human resources. Results revealed several opportunities of climate communication in amplifying local climate action and strengthening municipal brand image, but many remain underexploited. Sufficient resources and stronger legitimacy are still needed for climate matters to be better integrated into everything the municipality does and communicates.
  • Salin, Denise (Emerald, 2009)
    Purpose – The aim of this paper is to explore what kind of measures personnel managers have taken to intervene in workplace harassment and to explore how organisational characteristics and the characteristics of the personnel manager affect the choice of response strategies. Design/methodology/approach – The study was exploratory and used a survey design. A web-based questionnaire was sent to the personnel managers of all Finnish municipalities and data on organisational responses and organisational characteristics were collected. Findings – The study showed that the organisations surveyed relied heavily on reconciliatory measures for responding to workplace harassment and that punitive measures were seldom used. Findings indicated that personnel manager gender, size of municipality, use of “sophisticated” human resource management practices and having provided information and training to increase awareness about harassment all influence the organisational responses chosen. Research limitations/implications – Only the effects of organisational and personnel manager characteristics on organisational responses were analysed. Future studies need to include perpetrator characteristics and harassment severity. Practical implications – The study informs both practitioners and policy makers about the measures that have been taken and that can be taken in order to stop harassment. It also questions the effectiveness of written anti-harassment policies for influencing organisational responses to harassment and draws attention to the role of gendered perceptions of harassment for choice of response strategy. Originality/value – This paper fills a gap in harassment research by reporting on the use of different response strategies and by providing initial insights into factors affecting choice of responses.
  • Hiilamo, Aapo; Huttu, Anna; Overland, Simon; Pietiläinen, Olli; Rahkonen, Ossi; Lallukka, Tea (2021)
    This study investigates to what extent pain in multiple sites and common risk factors related to work environment, occupational class and health behaviours are associated with cause-specific work disability (WD) development clusters. The study population was derived from the Finnish Helsinki Health Study (n = 2878). Sequence analysis created clusters of similar subsequent cause-specific WD development in an eight-year follow-up period. Cross-tabulations and multinomial logistic regression were used to analyze the extent to which baseline factors, including pain in multiple sites, were associated with the subsequent WD clusters. A solution with five distinct WD clusters was chosen: absence of any WD (40%), low and temporary WD due to various causes (46%), WD due to mental disorders (3%), WD due to musculoskeletal (8%) and WD due to other causes (4%). Half of the employees in the musculoskeletal WD cluster had pain in multiple locations. In the adjusted model the number of pain sites, low occupational class and physical working conditions were linked to the musculoskeletal WD. The identified characteristics of the different WD clusters may help target tailored work disability prevention measures for those at risk.
  • Salin, Denise (Scandinavian Journal of Management, 2008)
    The aim of this study has been to analyze measures adopted to counteract workplace bullying from the perspective of human resource management. First, the kind of measures that are adopted to prevent bullying were examined. Second, factors affecting the extent of such measures were explored. The introduction of written anti-bullying policies and the provision of information were found to be the most common measures adopted. The policies strongly emphasized the role of supervisors and the immediate superior. Measures to counteract bullying were positively related to the adoption of ‘sophisticated’ human resource practices, previous negative publicity concerning bullying and the presence of a young human resource manager. The results, however, also indicated that imitation seemed to provide an important impetus behind anti-bullying efforts.
  • Ghosh, Bipashyee; Kivimaa, Paula; Ramirez, Matias; Schot, Johan; Torrens, Jonas (Oxford University Press, 2021)
    Science and Public Policy, 48, 5, October 2021, 739–756
    The impending climate emergency, the Paris agreement and Sustainable Development Goals demand significant transformations in economies and societies. Science funders, innovation agencies, and scholars have explored new rationales and processes for policymaking, such as transformative innovation policy (TIP). Here, we address the question of how to orient the efforts of science, technology, and innovation policy actors to enable transformations. We build on sustainability transitions research and a 4-year co-creation journey of the TIP Consortium to present twelve transformative outcomes that can guide public policy agencies in evaluating and reformulating their projects, programmes, and policies. We illustrate the transformative outcomes in two empirical cases: transitions towards mobility-as-a-service in the Finnish transport system and the emergence of speciality coffee in Colombia. We argue that the twelve transformative outcomes can guide public policy agents to fundamentally transform their ways of thinking and operation in advancing transformative change.