Browsing by Subject "punishment"

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  • Halmesvaara, Otto (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    Socio-functional approach to shame suggests that displaying shame after norm violation communicates that a person is ready to conform to the group’s standards, which in turn prevents social isolation and punishments. Previous research gives support for this theory, showing that a perpetrator’s verbal expressions of shame increase forgiveness and reduce observers’ punitive intentions. However, only one experimental study has investigated the hypothesized effects of nonverbal shame displays, manipulating solely the transgressor’s head orientation. This is a serious shortcoming given the functional approach assumption that human shame is evolutionarily rooted in submissive behavior established in shrunken body posture. In addition, so far no comparison has been made between shame and other closely related emotions, making it premature to conclude that shame would have an unique social function not possessed by other emotions. Two experimental studies were conducted to investigate the communicative and social effects of shame displays. In Study 1, participants read vignettes of mild norm violations, after which they were asked to select a picture of emotional expression most suitable to convey the transgressor’s understanding of her/his transgression. Bodily displays of shame were selected as the most suitable for this communicative task, but expressions of sadness were also found appropriate. In Study 2, the social functions of shame and sadness were compared to further investigate the social consequences and mediating socio-cognitive mechanisms underlying the consolidating influence of shame displays. Again, a vignette approach was used, but now the expressions were systematically manipulated while measuring the perceiver’s moral judgements, empathy, and cooperative and punitive intentions. Both shame and sadness expressions increased observers’ empathy and willingness to cooperate with the transgressor compared to a neutral expression condition. However, contrary to the uniqueness assumption, the effects of shame on empathy and cooperative intentions were identical to those of sadness. Also, none of the expressions reduced the perceiver’s punitive intentions. The presented results partially support the functional account, showing that bodily shame induces empathy and prevent from social isolation. The similarity of shame and sadness suggests, however, that general empathy driven mechanism may underlie the obtained consolidating influence of submissive bodily displays.
  • Airaksinen, Timo (2019)
    Abstract: In this paper, I study conspiracy theories as two novelists handle them: Kafka and Sade. Kafka’s depiction of guilt depends on anxiety that refers to nameless accusations. His protagonists may well assume that a conspiracy targets them in a way they can never understand. I explain the logic of the law that embodies such anxiety, in his novels The Trial and The Process. My second example is the Marquis de Sade who gives many examples of conspiracies on his major novels Justine and Juliette. I study two of them, first, the group of murderous monks in Justine and the Parisian secret society called Sodality in Juliette. Both are successful organizations and Sade helps us understand why this is so. I discuss some real life examples of conspiracies. Finally, I compare Kafka, Sade, and their viewpoints: Kafka’s is that of the victim and Sade’s that of the victor.
  • Kääriäinen, Juha Tapio (2019)
    The aim of this study was to examine the empirical connections of three phenomena among the Finnish population: (1) the level of knowledge on the crime situation and the criminal justice system; (2) the general punitive attitude and (3) sentence decisions in certain concrete crime cases using vignettes. The same vignettes were shown to professional judges to study the punitive gap between laypeople and judges. The research subjects are a representative sample of the population (N = 1251) and district court judges (N = 192). The research resulted in four main findings: (1) a higher level of knowledge among laypeople mitigates their punitive attitudes, (2) information included in the case vignettes is associated with the sentence decisions of laypeople in different ways, depending on the characteristics of the case; punitive gap varies greatly, (3) level of knowledge is, in general, a poor predictor for the severity of the sentence decisions of laypeople and (4) the general punitive attitude is, at best, a weak predictor for the severity of sentence decisions of laypeople. In conclusion, laypeople’s decisions are probably affected partly by the same legal factors as the professional judges’ decisions and partly by attitudes that are expressly related to features of the cases in question.
  • Vuorela, Miikka Harri Johannes (2018)
    The purpose of the article is to provide an overview to the trends in crime and crime control in Finland and Sweden during the past 150 years, systematically comparing the two countries. The secondary objective of the study is to introduce a Nordic data collection project aiming to compile coherent comparative criminal justice time series from the early nineteenth century to the present, and to present the first collection of data, the Finnish justice statistics 1842–2015. The study examines the long-term development of homicide, assault, rape, defamation, prison population, and penal severity. Historical statistics provide opportunities to examine the crime trends and the society’s responses to them keeping in mind that the statistics do not necessarily reflect changes in total criminality. As such, the study does not provide conclusive explanations on the development of crime and punishment but rather opens new questions to be answered in future research.
  • Lindqvist, Riku (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    Environmental crime has grown into people's awareness in the 21st century through the reporting of major environmental cases. Environmental crime is often the subject of economic savings and environmental crime in Finland is categorized as part of economic crime. The aim of this thesis is to examine how profitable environmental crime is in Finland, how much environmental crime causes social loss to society and how to tackle environmental crime effectively. This thesis explores environmental crime from an economic point of view based on eight environmental case reports. The assessment is mainly made by using economist Gary S. Becker's theoretical framework. Becker has examined crime and the importance of punishment for crime in his article "Crime and Punishment". Gary Becker's article of an optimal punishment for a crime has been seen as the starting point of an economic approach to crime and punishment. It has been estimated that there is far more environmental crime in Finland than what the authorities are aware of. In 2011-2015, the number of environmental crime reported to the police is over 600 per annum. A certain amount of these cases lead to prosecution and only a few are condemned. Preventing environmental crime causes significant costs for society. Social loss of society can be affected by raising the risk of being caught or the punishment from an offense. The prevailing crime prevention system with low risk of capture and minor penalties does not create enough deterrent effect on environmental crime offenders. There is a need for societal consideration of the way in which environmental crime can be tackled more effectively. Increasing the rate for apprehension could be a costly solution to society, since the costs added to the authorities and supervision will increase. Harsher penalties may be more cost-effective for society, but on the other hand, the fear of punishment could increase.