Browsing by Subject "qualitative attitude research"

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  • Järvinen, Katriina (2004)
    My research subject was how parents view the relation between knowledge and common sense when raising children. I studied the subject from the point of view of rhetorical social psychology. The study was based on the dilemmatic nature of thinking, which means that a person often ends up talking against one of his values while defending another. I was interested in if the parents under my study experienced a conflict between knowledge and common sense and how a possible dilemma was dealt with in argumentation. In the theoretical part I examined discussions considering the concept of common sense and anti-scientific thinking. I also took a look at the history of Finnish upbringing. I made a connection between the resent discussion about the parents high education in relation to the distress of their children and the tradition of viewing scientific knowledge as some kind of a threat to common sense. My empiric source material was the interviews of 21 parents living in the capital area. In the interviews I used the method of qualitative attitude research. The parents were commenting on seven different sentences with claims, which were formed using research literature and views that have appeared in public discussion. The subject of the analysis was the argumentative speech produced by the interviewees. In the analysis I focused mainly on the processes of arguments and on how the dilemmatic nature of the thoughts provoked by the claims was dealt with. The interviewees were able to consider how their views could be questioned and they used various rhetorical methods in their arguments. A dilemma arose between knowledge and common sense but rhetorical methods led rather to approval of expertise in bringing up of children, than disapproval. Also a picture of the 21st century's sensible bringing up of children was formed, based on the source material. The 'love and limits'-upbringing, as I call it, can be interpreted as a taking of an attitude to the views of previous generations. The underlining of love and respect in relation to the child, that was eminent in the source material, could be interpreted as a counter argument to the discipline and humiliation culture that prevailed until the 1950 -60's and the underlining of limits as a counter argument to the free upbringing of the 60 - 70's. My interviewees considered the balancing of work and family life as the biggest problem of modern parents. My primary sources were the works of Michael Billig (rhetorical social psychology and qualitative attitude research), the works of Kari Vesala and Teemu Rantanen (qualitative attitude research), Benjamin Spock's 'The Common Sense Book Of Baby And Child Care' (the dilemma of knowledge and common sense in bringing up of children) and Janne Kivivuori's book 'Paha tieto' (anti-scientific thinking).
  • Mäkipää, Mia (2001)
    The aim of the study was to explore employee attitudes toward change and change communication. Communication process was exarnined by enquiring employees' perceptions concerning the process in order to see how employee's experienced and understood the change. Another aim was to examine how different perceptions affect the organisational life during a change process. The employee's of two air cargo companies forming an alliance and integrating their sales offices were included. All in all 42 persons were included in the study. The interviews took place at the joint offices in Stockholm and Oslo. The method used was qualitative attitude research. The interviewees were presented five statements that were directly related to the process as well as to the reviewed literature. The statements concerned managerial communication, stress, relationship between the partners, planning and management of the process and integration. The commentary and argumentation interviewees presented was analysed by using attitude as a constructing concept. Attitudes under study were attitudes toward change and change communication. The basic assumption was that these phenomenon are interrelated. Attitudes were also considered a part of communication due to their argumentative nature. Therefore also methodologically attitudes and communication are intertwined. The findings of the study show that communication is an integrative part of change. The employee attitudes toward the change were positive. To this contributed the successful communication of the aims and reasons of forming the alliance, the friendly relationship between the new partners as well as satisfactory communication with the closest manager. However, change communication was experienced to be insufficient, since due to the nature of change not all the information was available. Nevertheless lack of information was not the most critical question but that how these situations were managed Contradictory messages as well as lack of support from top management's part affected the process negatively. People did understand the nature of change, and the most essential factor in communication proved to be the personally relevant information. The perceptions and needs for information differ and it is relevant to provide information according to the specific needs of each individual. Small meetings that offer the possibility for face-to-face communication were preferred. The aim of these meetings was also to ventilate ideas and to reduce uncertainty. Meetings also serve as a forum where the new can be created through interaction. In the previous research the amount of information was emphasised over the quality. According to the findings of this study not everything need to be communicated, but it would be relevant to formulate the message according to the needs of the employees'. It would also be essential to broaden the meaning of communicating change to embrace the change process as a whole in order to meet all the goals set for change communication. Most important references were Kari Vesala: Yrittäjyys ja Individualismi (1996) and Michael Billig: Arguing and Thinking (1987).