Browsing by Subject "qualitative study"

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  • Rautamo, Maria M; Kvarnström, Kirsi; Siven, Mia; Airaksinen, Marja; Lahdenne, Pekka Olavi; Sandler, Niklas (2020)
    Oral drug administration to pediatric patients is characterized by a lack of age-appropriate drug products and the off-label use of medicines. However, drug administration practices at hospital wards is a scarcely studied subject. The aim of this study was to explore the oral drug administration practices at pediatric hospital wards, with a focus on experiences and challenges faced, methods used to mitigate existing problems, drug manipulation habits, perceptions about oral dosage forms and future needs of oral dosage forms for children. This was a qualitative study consisting of focus group discussions with physicians, nurses and clinical pharmacists in a tertiary university hospital with the objective of bringing forward a holistic view on this research topic. These healthcare professionals recognized different administration challenges that were classified as either dosage form-related or patient-related ones. A lack of depot formulations developed especially for children as well as oral pediatric dosage forms of drug substances currently available as intravenous dosage forms was recognized. The preferred oral dosage forms were oral liquids and orodispersible tablets. Patient-centered drug administration practices including factors facilitating drug administration both at hospital wards and at home after patient discharge were identified. Among all healthcare professionals, the efficient cooperation in drug prescribing and administration as well as in educating the child's caregivers in correct administration techniques before discharge and improving the overall discharge process of patients was emphasized. This study complements the prevalent understanding that new dosage forms for children of varying ages and stages of development are still needed. It also brings a holistic view on different aspects of oral drug administration to pediatric patients and overall patient-centered drug administration practices.
  • Hilden, Hanna-Mari; Hautamäki, Lotta; Korkeila, Jyrki (2021)
    Purpose Psychiatric patients' awareness of treatments options and their possibilities to influence their care has increased. For the clinicians, the management of evidence-based care, as well as organizational and resource aspects, set different goals for the clinical encounter. In this article we are focusing on the clinicians' experiences and ask: How do the clinicians view situations in which there is a conflict between patients' individual needs and goals and other aspects in decision-making? Materials and methods We implemented a qualitative study of 13 thematic semi-structured interviews with clinicians working in psychiatry. We used discourse analysis to investigate how the clinician view the doctor-patient interaction. Results We identified three discources which were termed the medical standpoint, the psychodynamic standpoint and the standpoint of the patient's experience. Conclusions In their talk, the clinicians use the three discources to make sense of the diverse expectations from both the patient and the mental health care system. The three discources also reflect different aspects in psychiatric treatment cultures, such as evidence-based medicine, the ideal of patient-centeredness, therapeutic interaction and organizational requirements.
  • Hyvönen, Aliisa (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Infant undernutrition with associated diseases is a leading cause of under-five deaths globally, causing 45% of child deaths. A critical point for the nutritional status of the infant is the time when the first foods are introduced in addition to breastfeeding, i.e. complementary feeding. Based on prior research, complementary feeding practices are inadequate in East Africa, including Uganda. Particular concerns are the not timely introduction of complementary foods and low dietary diversity of children under two years. Complementary feeding is a complex set of behaviours. Good complementary feeding comprises, in addition to nutritious food itself, the feeding moment, technique and style. The promotion of good complementary feeding practices therefore demands multiple approaches. The aim of this study was to explore complementary feeding perceptions and practices in the context of the Health Belief Model (HBM) and to gain understanding on how to promote health behaviour change for better complementary feeding. The study was carried out in the rural area of Kirewa, Uganda. All together 9 focus group discussions (FGD) were held for caretakers of children under two: mothers, fathers, grandfathers and grandmothers. A set of educational videos on infant care and feeding practices, the GloCal-videos, were used as a projective tool in the FGDs. In addition, one individual interview with the local health care worker was conducted. The data from the FGDs and the interview were analysed with a deductive content analysis method based on the HBM. The findings from this research demonstrate that complementary feeding practices among the study participants were suboptimal in relation to timing, dietary diversity, consistency and feeding frequency. The importance of complementary feeding as a health behaviour preventing malnutrition and stunting was not understood among these Kirewan caretakers. The findings from the HBM based analysis suggest messages about the susceptibility of children to detrimental consequences of poor feeding and their seriousness should be targeted to caretakers. Based on this study, the GloCal-videos may work as cues to action for better complementary feeding practices.
  • Matilainen, Anne; Lähdesmäki, Merja (2009)
    Reports 48
    Nature-based tourism is one of the fastest growing tourism sectors at the moment. It is also the form of tourism that often benefits the economy of rural areas. In addition to state owned forests, nature-based tourism is in many countries situated in private forests, which are not owned by entrepreneurs themselves. Therefore, the ownership issues and property rights form central challenges for the business activities. The maintenance of good relationships between private forest owners and entrepreneurs, as well as combining their interests, becomes vital. These relationships are typically exceptionally asymmetrical, granting the forest owner unilateral rights regulating the business activities in their forests. Despite this, the co-operation is typically very informal and the existing economic compensation models do not necessarily cover all the forest owners’ costs. The ownership issues bring their own characteristics to the relationship. Therefore, we argue that different aspects of ownership, especially psychological ones, have to be more critically examined and taken into consideration in order to build truly successful relations between these parties. This is crucial for sustaining the business activities. The core of psychological ownership is the sense of possession. Psychological ownership can be defined as a state, in which individuals perceive the target of ownership, the object or idea, as “theirs”. The concept of psychological ownership has so far been mainly used in the context of professional organizations. In this research, it has been used to explain the relationships between private forest owners and nature-based entrepreneurs. The aim of this study is to provide new information concerning the effect of psychological ownership on the collaboration and to highlight the good practices. To address the complexity of the phenomenon, qualitative case study methods were adopted to understand the role of ownership at the level of subjective experience. The empirical data was based on 27 in-depth interviews with private forest owners and nature-based tourism entrepreneurs. The data was analysed by using the methods of qualitative analysis to construct different typologies to describe the essence of successful collaboration. As a result of the study, the special characteristics and the practical level expressions of the psychological ownership in the privately owned forest context were analysed. Four different strategies to perceive these ownership characteristics in co-operation relationships were found. By taking the psychological ownership into consideration via these strategies, the nature-based entrepreneurs aim to balance the co-operation relationship and minimise the risks in long term activities based on privately owned forests.
  • Rantala, Arja; Jansson, Miia M.; Helve, Otto; Lahdenne, Pekka; Pikkarainen, Minna; Pölkki, Tarja (2020)
    Background: The parents of hospitalized children are often dissatisfied with waiting times, fasting, discharge criteria, postoperative pain relief, and postoperative guidance. Parents' experiences help care providers to provide effective, family-centered care that responds to parents' needs throughout the day surgery pathway. Objective: The objective of our study was to describe parental experiences of the pediatric day surgery pathway and the needs for a digital gaming solution in order to facilitate the digitalization of these pathways. Methods: This was a descriptive qualitative study. The participants (N=31) were parents whose children were admitted to the hospital for the day surgical treatments or magnetic resonance imaging. The data were collected through an unstructured, open-ended questionnaire; an inductive content analysis was conducted to analyze the qualitative data. Reporting of the study findings adheres to the Consolidated Criteria for Reporting Qualitative Research (COREQ) checklist. Results: Parental experiences of the children's day surgery pathway included 3 main categories: (1) needs for parental guidance, (2) needs for support, and (3) child involved in his or her own pathway (eg, consideration of an individual child and preparation of child for treatment). The needs for a digital gaming solution were identified as 1 main category-the digital gaming solution for children and families to support care. This main category included 3 upper categories: (1) preparing children and families for the day surgery via the solution, (2) gamification in the solution, and (3) connecting people through the solution. Conclusions: Parents need guidance and support for their children's day surgery care pathways. A digital gaming solution may be a relevant tool to support communication and to provide information on day surgeries Families are ready for and are open to digital gaming solutions that provide support and guidance and engage children in the day surgery pathways.
  • Jouhikainen, Kaisa (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Objectives The term natural is highly ambiguous and there is no clear definition, what actually is natural food. Nowadays the term is widely used in the food industry, for example in product packaging and marketing. However, as there is no common understanding for the term or any regulations of its use, it could cause confusion amongst consumers. This research was set out to explore consumers’ perceptions of natural food. The main objective of this study was to form an understanding of the meanings consumers give to natural food and how they categorize foods as natural and unnatural. Methodology This research is qualitative in nature. To assess the research topic, ten thematic, semi-structured interviews were conducted with urban Finnish women aged 23-32 years. They were generally open to new foods, hence less neophobic. As part of the interviews a categorization task was presented, in which the participants were asked to categorize 30 different protein sources from natural to unnatural. The purpose of the categorization task was to assist in revealing how consumers categorize foods, or more precisely protein sources, as natural and unnatural. Key findings The main findings were that consumers categorize foods as natural based on three various aspects: 1) processing, 2) additives and 3) packaging. Furthermore, three different meanings were found to be associated with naturalness of food: 1) healthiness, 2) familiarity and 3) locality. The study offers contributions to research concerning the perceived naturalness of food and the definitions of naturalness. It presents insights of the consumer group of urban Finnish women, who are generally open to trying new foods linking the previous research on the perceived naturalness of food to a new consumer group and cultural context. The study offers some interesting insights especially for developers of novel food products. It also offers possibilities for future research; for example there seems to be noteworthy differences between the perceived naturalness of plant-based and animal-derived protein sources. Additionally, the research reveals there is a need to further study the value conflicts concerning the perceived naturalness of food and other ideals.