Browsing by Subject "quasars: supermassive black holes"

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  • Rantala, Antti; Pihajoki, Pauli; Mannerkoski, Matias; Johansson, Peter H.; Naab, Thorsten (2020)
    We present the novel algorithmically regularized integration method MSTAR for high-accuracy (vertical bar Delta E/E vertical bar greater than or similar to 10(-14)) integrations of N-body systems using minimum spanning tree coordinates. The twofold parallelization of the O(N-part(2)) force loops and the substep divisions of the extrapolation method allow for a parallel scaling up to N-CPU = 0.2 x N-part. The efficient parallel scaling of MSTAR makes the accurate integration of much larger particle numbers possible compared to the traditional algorithmic regularization chain (AR-CHAIN) methods, e.g. N-part = 5000 particles on 400 CPUs for 1 Gyr in a few weeks of wall-clock time. We present applications of MSTAR on few particle systems, studying the Kozai mechanism and N-body systems like star clusters with up to N-part = 10(4) particles. Combined with a tree or fast multipole-based integrator, the high performance of MSTAR removes a major computational bottleneck in simulations with regularized subsystems. It will enable the next-generation galactic-scale simulations with up to 109 stellar particles (e.g. m(star) = 100 M-circle dot) for an M-star = 10(11) M-circle dot galaxy), including accurate collisional dynamics in the vicinity of nuclear supermassive black holes.
  • Cappelluti, N.; Arendt, R.; Kashlinsky, A.; Li, Y.; Hasinger, G.; Helgason, K.; Urry, M.; Natarajan, P.; Finoguenov, A. (2017)
    We present new measurements of the large-scale clustering component of the cross-power spectra of the source-subtracted Spitzer-IRAC cosmic infrared background and Chandra-ACIS cosmic X-ray background surface brightness fluctuations Our investigation uses data from the Chandra Deep Field South, Hubble Deep Field North, Extended Groth Strip/AEGIS field, and UDS/SXDF surveys, comprising 1160 Spitzer hours and similar to 12 Ms of Chandra data collected over a total area of 0.3 deg(2). We report the first (> 5 sigma) detection of a cross-power signal on large angular scales > 20" between [0.5-2] keV and the 3.6 and 4.5 mu m bands, at similar to 5 sigma and 6.3 sigma significance, respectively. The correlation with harder X-ray bands is marginally significant. Comparing the new observations with existing models for the contribution of the known unmasked source population at z <7, we find an excess of about an order of magnitude at 5 sigma confidence. We discuss possible interpretations for the origin of this excess in terms of the contribution from accreting early black holes (BHs), including both direct collapse BHs and primordial BHs, as well as from scattering in the interstellar medium and intra-halo light.
  • Cappelluti, Nico; Li, Yanxia; Ricarte, Angelo; Agarwal, Bhaskar; Allevato, Viola; Ananna, Tonima Tasnim; Ajello, Marco; Civano, Francesca; Comastri, Andrea; Elvis, Martin; Finoguenov, Alexis; Gilli, Roberto; Hasinger, Guenther; Marchesi, Stefano; Natarajan, Priyamvada; Pacucci, Fabio; Treister, E.; Urry, C. Megan (2017)
    Using Chandra observations in the 2.15 deg(2) COSMOS-legacy field, we present one of the most accurate measurements of the Cosmic X-ray Background (CXB) spectrum to date in the [0.3-7] keV energy band. The CXB has three distinct components: contributions from two Galactic collisional thermal plasmas at kT similar to 0.27 and 0.07 keV and an extragalactic power law with a photon spectral index Gamma = 1.45 +/- 0.02. The 1 keV normalization of the extragalactic component is 10.91 +/- 0.16 keV cm(-2) s(-1) sr(-1) keV(-1). Removing all X-ray-detected sources, the remaining unresolved CXB is best fit by a power law with normalization 4.18 +/- 0.26 keV cm(-2) s(-1) sr(-1) keV(-1) and photon spectral index Gamma = 1.57 +/- 0.10. Removing faint galaxies down to i(AB) similar to 27-28 leaves a hard spectrum with Gamma similar to 1.25 and a 1 keV normalization of similar to 1.37 keV cm(-2) s(-1) sr(-1) keV(-1). This means that similar to 91% of the observed CXB is resolved into detected X-ray sources and undetected galaxies. Unresolved sources that contribute similar to 8%-9% of the total CXB show marginal evidence of being harder and possibly more obscured than resolved sources. Another similar to 1% of the CXB can be attributed to still undetected star-forming galaxies and absorbed active galactic nuclei. According to these limits, we investigate a scenario where early black holes totally account for non-source CXB fraction and constrain some of their properties. In order to not exceed the remaining CXB and the z similar to 6 accreted mass density, such a population of black holes must grow in Compton-thick envelopes with N-H > 1.6 x 10(25) cm(-2) and form in extremely low-metallicity environments (Z(circle dot)) similar to 10(-3).
  • LaMassa, Stephanie M.; Glikman, Eilat; Brusa, Marcella; Rigby, Jane R.; Ananna, Tonima Tasnim; Stern, Daniel; Lira, Paulina; Urry, C. Megan; Salvato, Mara; Alexandroff, Rachael; Allevato, Viola; Cardamone, Carolin; Civano, Francesca; Coppi, Paolo; Farrah, Duncan; Komossa, S.; Lanzuisi, Giorgio; Marchesi, Stefano; Richards, Gordon; Trakhtenbrot, Benny; Treister, Ezequiel (2017)
    We present results of a ground-based near-infrared campaign with Palomar TripleSpec, Keck NIRSPEC, and Gemini GNIRS to target two samples of reddened active galactic nucleus (AGN) candidates from the 31 deg(2) Stripe 82 X-ray survey. One sample, which is similar to 89% complete to K <16 (Vega), consists of eight confirmed AGNs, four of which were identified with our follow-up program, and is selected to have red R - K colors (> 4, Vega). The fainter sample (K > 17, Vega) represents a pilot program to follow-up four sources from a parent sample of 34 that are not detected in the single-epoch SDSS catalog and have WISE quasar colors. All 12 sources are broad-line AGNs (at least one permitted emission line has an FWHM exceeding 1300 km s(-1)) and span a redshift range 0.59 <z <2.5. Half the (R - K)-selected AGNs have features in their spectra suggestive of outflows. When comparing these sources to a matched sample of blue Type 1 AGNs, we find that the reddened AGNs are more distant (z > 0.5), and a greater percentage have high X-ray luminosities (L-X,L- full > 10(44) erg s(-1)). Such outflows and high luminosities may be consistent with the paradigm that reddened broad-line AGNs represent a transitory phase in AGN evolution as described by the major merger model for black hole growth. Results from our pilot program demonstrate proof of concept that our selection technique is successful in discovering reddened quasars at z > 1 missed by optical surveys.
  • Paolillo, M.; Papadakis, I.; Brandt, W. N.; Luo, B.; Xue, Y. Q.; Tozzi, P.; Shemmer, O.; Allevato, V.; Bauer, F. E.; Comastri, A.; Gilli, R.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Liu, T.; Vignali, C.; Vito, F.; Yang, G.; Wang, J. X.; Zheng, X. C. (2017)
    We study the X-ray variability properties of distant active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in the Chandra Deep Field-South region over 17 yr, up to z similar to 4, and compare them with those predicted by models based on local samples. We use the results of Monte Carlo simulations to account for the biases introduced by the discontinuous sampling and the low-count regime. We confirm that variability is a ubiquitous property of AGNs, with no clear dependence on the density of the environment. The variability properties of high-z AGNs, over different temporal time-scales, are most consistent with a power spectral density (PSD) described by a broken (or bending) power law, similar to nearby AGNs. We confirm the presence of an anticorrelation between luminosity and variability, resulting from the dependence of variability on black hole (BH) mass and accretion rate. We explore different models, finding that our acceptable solutions predict that BH mass influences the value of the PSD break frequency, while the lambda(Edd) ington ratio lambda(Edd) affects the PSD break frequency and, possibly, the PSD amplitude as well. We derive the evolution of the average.Edd as a function of redshift, finding results in agreement with measurements based on different estimators. The large statistical uncertainties make our results consistent with a constant Eddington ratio, although one of our models suggest a possible increase of lambda(Edd) with lookback time up to z similar to 2-3. We conclude that variability is a viable mean to trace the accretion history of supermassive BHs, whose usefulness will increase with future, wide-field/large effective area X-ray missions.