Browsing by Subject "quiescence"

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  • Lundell, Robin; Hänninen, Heikki; Saarinen, Timo; Åström, Helena; Zhang, Rui (2020)
    Bud dormancy of plants has traditionally been explained either by physiological growth arresting conditions in the bud or by unfavourable environmental conditions, such as non-growth-promoting low air temperatures. This conceptual dichotomy has provided the framework also for developing process-based plant phenology models. Here, we propose a novel model that in addition to covering the classical dichotomy as a special case also allows the quantification of an interaction of physiological and environmental factors. According to this plant-environment interaction suggested conceptually decades ago, rather than being unambiguous, the concept of "non-growth-promoting low air temperature" depends on the dormancy status of the plant. We parameterized the model with experimental results of growth onset for seven boreal plant species and found that based on the strength of the interaction, the species can be classified into three dormancy types, only one of which represents the traditional dichotomy. We also tested the model with four species in an independent experiment. Our study suggests that interaction of environmental and physiological factors may be involved in many such phenomena that have until now been considered simply as plant traits without any considerations of effects of the environmental factors.
  • Jerney, Jacqueline; Ahonen, Salla Annika; Hakanen, Päivi; Suikkanen, Sanna; Kremp, Anke (2019)
    Abstract In seasonal environments, strong gradients of environmental parameters can shape life cycles of phytoplankton. Depending on the rate of environmental fluctuation, specialist or generalist strategies may be favored, potentially affecting life cycle transitions. The present study examined life cycle transitions of the toxin producing Baltic dinoflagellate Alexandrium ostenfeldii and their regulation by environmental factors (temperature and nutrients). This investigation aimed to determine if genetic recombination of different strains is required for resting cyst formation and if newly formed cysts are dormant. Field data (temperature, salinity) and sediment surface samples were collected from a site with recurrent blooms and germination and encystment experiments were conducted under controlled laboratory conditions. Results indicate a lack of seasonal germination pattern, set by an endogenous rhythm, as commonly found with other dinoflagellates from the Baltic Sea. Germination of quiescent cysts was triggered by temperatures exceeding 10°C and combined nutrient limitation of nitrogen and phosphorus or a drop in temperature from 16 to 10°C triggered encystment most efficiently. Genetic recombination was not mandatory for the formation of resting cysts, but supported higher numbers of resistant cysts and enhanced germination capacity after a resting period. Findings from this study confirm that A. ostenfeldii follows a generalist germination and cyst formation strategy, driven by strong seasonality, which may support its persistence and possibly expansion in marginal environments in the future, if higher temperatures facilitate a longer growth season. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
  • Garcia-Corzo, Laura; Calatayud-Baselga, Isabel; Casares-Crespo, Lucia; Mora-Martinez, Carlos; Julian Escribano-Saiz, Juan; Hortigueela, Rafael; Asenjo-Martinez, Andrea; Jordan-Pla, Antonio; Ercoli, Stefano; Flames, Nuria; Lopez-Alonso, Victoria; Vilar, Marcal; Mira, Helena (2022)
    Stem cells in adult mammalian tissues are held in a reversible resting state, known as quiescence, for prolonged periods of time. Recent studies have greatly increased our understanding of the epigenetic and transcriptional landscapes that underlie stem cell quiescence. However, the transcription factor code that actively maintains the quiescence program remains poorly defined. Similarly, alternative splicing events affecting transcription factors in stem cell quiescence have been overlooked. Here we show that the transcription factor T-cell factor/lymphoid enhancer factor LEF1, a central player in canonical beta-catenin-dependent Wnt signalling, undergoes alternative splicing and switches isoforms in quiescent neural stem cells. We found that active beta-catenin and its partner LEF1 accumulated in quiescent hippocampal neural stem and progenitor cell (Q-NSPC) cultures. Accordingly, Q-NSPCs showed enhanced TCF/LEF1-driven transcription and a basal Wnt activity that conferred a functional advantage to the cultured cells in a Wnt-dependent assay. At a mechanistic level, we found a fine regulation of Lef1 gene expression. The coordinate upregulation of Lef1 transcription and retention of alternative spliced exon 6 (E6) led to the accumulation of a full-length protein isoform (LEF1-FL) that displayed increased stability in the quiescent state. Prospectively isolated GLAST + cells from the postnatal hippocampus also underwent E6 retention at the time quiescence is established in vivo. Interestingly, LEF1 motif was enriched in quiescence-associated enhancers of genes upregulated in Q-NSPCs and quiescence-related NFIX transcription factor motifs flanked the LEF1 binding sites. We further show that LEF1 interacts with NFIX and identify putative LEF1/NFIX targets. Together, our results uncover an unexpected role for LEF1 in gene regulation in quiescent NSPCs, and highlight alternative splicing as a post-transcriptional regulatory mechanism in the transition from stem cell activation to quiescence.