Browsing by Subject "quinoa"

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  • Sundarrajan, Lakshminarasimhan (Helsingfors universitet, 2014)
    Amaranth, quinoa, kañiwa and lupine are good sources of protein, fat, dietary fibre and bioactive compounds. The literature review deals with the nutritional properties and the stability of bioactive compounds and the effect of extrusion cooking on amaranth, quinoa, kañiwa and lupine. The main aim of this study was to (1) chemically characterize amaranth, quinoa, kañiwa and lupine, and (2) to determine the effect of extrusion cooking on the nutritional properties and the stability of bioactive compounds. Extrudates were processed using twin screw extruder at two different extrusion temperatures (140 and 160 °C) containing two different contents of tested flour mixtures (20 and 50%). The raw materials and the extrudates were stored at -18 °C and chemically characterized to determine fatty acid composition, tocopherol composition and total phenolic acid content. Fatty acid composition was determined using GC while tocopherol composition was detected using HPLC. The total phenolic acid content was analyzed using Folin-Ciocalteu method. The protein and dietary fibre content in lupine accounted for 29 and 50 g/100 g d.m., respectively. The extrudates containing 50% lupine and processed at 140 °C possessed higher content of oleic, linoleic and linolenic fatty acids. At higher content of tested flours, extrusion cooking at 160 °C resulted in better retention of unsaturated fatty acids in the extrudates of amaranth, kañiwa and quinoa. Higher extrusion temperatures resulted in lower retention of tocopherols in all the extrudates. The total phenolic acid resulted in higher contents in the extrudates of kañiwa when compared to other extrudates. At higher seed contents of tested flours (%), higher retention of total phenolic acid was achieved during extrusion cooking at 140 °C in the extrudates of amaranth, quinoa and kañiwa. This study showed that extrusion conditions could be optimized in order to obtain lesser effects on the nutritional properties and better retention of bioactive compounds. The research study provides supportive information for obtaining gluten-free cereal snack products with lower glycemic index.
  • Mariotti, Lorenzo; Huarancca Reyes, Thais; Ramos-Diaz, Jose Martin; Jouppila, Kirsi; Guglielminetti, Lorenzo (2021)
    Increased ultraviolet-B (UV-B) due to global change can affect plant development and metabolism. Quinoa tolerates extreme conditions including high UV levels. However, the physiological mechanisms behind its abiotic stress tolerance are unclear, especially those related to UV-B. We previously demonstrated that 9.12 kJ m−2 d−1 may induce UV-B-specific signaling while 18.24 kJ m−2 d−1 promotes a UV-B-independent response. Here, we explored the effects of these UV-B doses on hormonal regulation linked to plant morphology and defense among diverse varieties. Changes in fluorescence parameters of photosystem II, flavonoids and hormones (indoleacetic acid (IAA), jasmonic acid (JA), abscisic acid (ABA) and salicylic acid (SA)) were surveyed under controlled conditions. Here, we showed that the sensitivity to short acute UV-B doses in varieties from different habitats is influenced by their parental lines and breeding time. UV-B sensitivity does not necessarily correlate with quinoa’s geographical distribution. The role of flavonoids in the UV-B response seems to be different depending on varieties. Moreover, we found that the extent of changes in JA and SA correlate with UV-B tolerance, while the increase of ABA was mainly related to UV-B stress.
  • Rauma, Asta (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    The literature review focused on quinoa saponins, on their extraction, isolation and chromatographic analysis. The aim of this study was to develop a quantitative and qualitative analysis method for saponins in quinoa. Gas chromatograph (GC) was used for separation. Saponin aglycones were indentified by mass spectrometry (MS) and quantified by flame ionization detector (FID). Sample pretreatment included extraction of fat soluble compounds and saponins by accelerated solvent extraction (Dionex ASE). Saponin aglycones liberated by acid hydrolysis followed by liquid-liquid extraction. Aglycones were derivatised to silylethers and analysed with GC-MS/FID. Finally this method was used to analyse saponins in washed and pearled quinoa seeds. Method evaluation included repeatability test (4 separate days, total n = 14). Average, standard deviation, relative standard deviation and Horrat(r) - value were calculated for the results. Method realability was evaluated by recovery test. Known amount of saponin was added to flour samples (n = 3). Additions responded 6, 4 µg, 12, 8 µg and 32 µg hederagenin aglycone. Four saponin aglycones, oleanolic acid (ole), hederagenin (hed), serjanic acid (ser) and phytolaccagenic acid (phy), were successfully identified in all samples by method prescribed. Method was repeatabale for ole and ser quantition but not for hed and phy. Satisfactory recovery, 80 %, was achieved on 32 µg addition level. Recoveries for 6, 4 µg and 12, 3 µg addition levels were 76 and 66 %. Results could be explained by aglycones pH dependent solubility combined to inaccurate pH adjustment after hydrolysis. In the future neutralization step should be revaluated. Washing reduced saponins 20–58 % and pearling reduced 58 % saponins in quinoa seeds. However pearling caused loss of protein from 12, 3 % to 5, 8 %.
  • Oksa, Vilma (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Abstract Licorice is traditionally made from sugar, molasses, water, wheat flour, and licorice extract. In the literature review, the focus was on the properties of quinoa, licorice extrusion, sensory and physical properties of licorice and the basis behind sensory evaluation and instrumental testing in product development. In the experimental part, gluten-free quinoa and rice licorice were made and their properties were studied with multiple sensory and instrumental measurements, and the self-made samples were also compared to commercial samples to see the possible differences between them. The hypothesis was that the changes in the recipes and process parameters would result in significant differences between the products. The sensory evaluations included a generic descriptive analysis with the first batch and two separate consumer tests with the two batches. The instrumental testing conducted of compression and extension tests with Instron and the determination of water activity. The data were analyzed with one- and three-way analyses of variance, as well as principal component analysis for the descriptive analysis. The manufacturing of the quinoa and rice licorice with the twin-screw extrusion was achieved. The generic descriptive analysis revealed that all the self-made samples were described similarly to each other, while the commercial gluten-free samples differed significantly from these. The quinoa licorice was seen sticky and not homogenous in appearance or texture, while the commercial samples were described as more homogenous and more intense in their taste. The consumer tests showed that both panels preferred the commercial samples over the self-made ones and that the quinoa licorice was preferred over the rice licorice. Commercial samples were seen as soft and chewy, while all the self-made samples from both tests were described as hard and grainy. The hypothesis was overruled since the quinoa licorice samples did not have significantly different properties despite the variation in the process parameters and ingredients. The study revealed that at least with these parameters there are no noticeable, significant differences in the sensory or physical properties of quinoa licorice. The commercial samples, however, remain significantly different from the self-made samples.
  • Ramos Diaz, Jose Martin (Helsingfors universitet, 2012)
    Malnutrition is a common problem in Peruvian highlands and in Bolivia. Amaranth, quinoa and kañiwa are pseudocereals cultivated in these areas and regarded as good sources of protein and non-saturated fatty acids. The literature review deals with the nutritional and technological properties of amaranth, quinoa and kañiwa. The aim of this investigation was to: (1) prepare gluten free corn-based extrudates containing amaranth, quinoa and kañiwa (20% of solids), (2) study the effects of independent extrusion variables on the physical properties of the extrudates and (3) evaluate lipid stability during storage by measuring hexanal production. Extrudates were made in 4 separate trials using a small scale co-rotating twin screw extruder. Experiments were performed using Box-Behnken?s experimental design in which independent extrusion variables were water content of mass (15, 17 and 19%), screw speed (200, 350 and 500 rpm) and temperature of the die (150, 160 and 170 °C). Samples were collected and their physical properties were analyzed (sectional expansion index, hardness and water content). Ground and whole extrudate samples were stored in open headspace vials at 11 and 76% RH for a week (exposure time) before being sealed and stored for 0, 2, 5 and 9 weeks at room temperature in the absence of light. Hexanal content was analyzed using headspace gas chromatography. The highest sectional expansion index (SEI) and the lowest hardness were achieved when the water content of mass was 15%, screw speed 500 rpm and temperature of the die 160 °C. Extrudates containing amaranth had the highest SEI (7.6) while extrudates containing quinoa and kañiwa had SEIs of 6.1 and 5.1, respectively. Pure corn extrudates (reference sample) had the lowest SEI (4.5). Extrudates containing kañiwa and pure corn extrudates presented the lowest (28 N/mm) and highest hardness (89 N/mm), respectively. In storage studies, ground extrudates (except samples containing quinoa) showed comparatively higher hexanal production than whole extrudates exposed to 11 and 76% RH. Whole extrudates exposed to 76% RH showed very low hexanal production during storage. This study proved that it was possible to add amaranth, quinoa and kañiwa to extruded corn snacks and achieve higher expansion than that of pure corn extrudates. Indeed, the results obtained from the evaluation of lipid oxidation during storage suggest a remarkable stability of whole extrudates after being exposed to high relative humidity. Further studies on lipid stability for longer storage would be highly desirable.
  • Ramos Diaz, Jose Martin; Kirjoranta, Satu; Tenitz, Seppo; Penttilä, Paavo A; Serimaa, Ritva; Lampi, Anna-Maija; Jouppila, Kirsi (2013)
    Amaranth (Amaranthus caudatus), quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) and kañiwa (Chenopodium pallidicaule) are pseudocereals regarded as good gluten-free sources of protein and fiber. A co-rotating twin screw extruder was used to obtain corn-based extrudates containing amaranth/quinoa/kañiwa (20% of solids). Box–Behnken experimental design with three independent variables was used: water content of mass (WCM, 15–19%), screw speed (SS, 200–500 rpm) and temperature of the die (TEM, 150–170 °C). Milled and whole samples were stored in open headspace vials at 11 and 76% relative humidity (RH) for a week before being sealed and stored for 9 weeks in the dark. Hexanal content was determined by using headspace gas chromatography. Extrudates containing amaranth presented the highest sectional expansion index (SEI) (p < 0.01) while pure corn extrudates (control) presented the lowest SEI and greatest hardness (p < 0.01). SEI increased with increasing SS and decreasing WCM. In storage, whole extrudates exposed to 76% RH presented the lowest formation of hexanal. This study proved that it was possible to increase SEI by adding amaranth, quinoa and kañiwa to pure corn flour. The evaluation of lipid oxidation suggested a remarkable stability of whole extrudates after exposure to high RH.
  • Lorusso, Anna; Verni, Michela; Montemurro, Marco; Coda, Rossana; Gobbetti, Marco; Rizzello, Carlo (2017)
    Pasta was prepared by replacing 20% of semolina with native and fermented quinoa flour and the effects of substitution on the technological and nutritional characteristics were evaluated. The addition of quinoa reflected the chemical composition of pasta, which had higher fiber, protein, and free amino acids content than semolina pasta, particularly in the case of pasta containing quinoa flour fermented with selected lactic acid bacteria. Furthermore, free amino acids, total phenols, and the antioxidant activity of pasta prepared with fermented quinoa flour were up to twice as high than the other types of pasta. When fermented quinoa flour was used, the water absorption during cooking was the lowest, even though cooking loss was also observed. The use of quinoa flour affected the textural characteristics of pasta, increased the tenacity and, when fermented, also the elasticity. The effects of quinoa fermentation were evident on the nutritional quality of fortified pasta, showing the highest in vitro protein digestibility, protein nutritional indices (Essential Amino Acid Index, Biological Value, Protein Efficiency Ratio, and Nutritional Index), as well as lowest predicted glycemic index. These results indicate the positive effect of fermented quinoa flour on pasta fortification. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.