Browsing by Subject "radiometric calibration"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-3 of 3
  • Tian, Wenxin; Tang, Lingli; Chen, Yuwei; Li, Ziyang; Zhu, Jiajia; Jiang, Changhui; Hu, Peilun; He, Wenjing; Wu, Haohao; Pan, Miaomiao; Lu, Jing; Hyyppa, Juha (2021)
    Hyperspectral LiDAR (HSL) is a new remote sensing detection method with high spatial and spectral information detection ability. In the process of laser scanning, the laser echo intensity is affected by many factors. Therefore, it is necessary to calibrate the backscatter intensity data of HSL. Laser incidence angle is one of the important factors that affect the backscatter intensity of the target. This paper studied the radiometric calibration method of incidence angle effect for HSL. The reflectance of natural surfaces can be simulated as a combination of specular reflection and diffuse reflection. The linear combination of the Lambertian model and Beckmann model provides a comprehensive theory that can be applied to various surface conditions, from glossy to rough surfaces. Therefore, an adaptive threshold radiometric calibration method (Lambertian-Beckmann model) is proposed to solve the problem caused by the incident angle effect. The relationship between backscatter intensity and incident angle of HSL is studied by combining theory with experiments, and the model successfully quantifies the difference between diffuse and specular reflectance coefficients. Compared with the Lambertian model, the proposed model has higher calibration accuracy, and the average improvement rate to the samples in this study was 22.67%. Compared with the results before calibration with the incidence angle of less than 70 degrees, the average improvement rate of the Lambertian-Beckmann model was 62.26%. Moreover, we also found that the green leaves have an obvious specular reflection effect near 650-720 nm, which might be related to the inner microstructure of chlorophyll. The Lambertian-Beckmann model was more helpful to the calibration of leaves in the visible wavelength range. This is a meaningful and a breakthrough exploration for HSL.
  • Hakala, Teemu; Markelin, Lauri; Honkavaara, Eija; Scott, Barry; Theocharous, Theo; Nevalainen, Olli; Näsi, Roope; Suomalainen, Juha; Viljanen, Niko; Greenwell, Claire; Fox, Nigel (MDPI, 2018)
    Sensors
    Drone-based remote sensing has evolved rapidly in recent years. Miniaturized hyperspectral imaging sensors are becoming more common as they provide more abundant information of the object compared to traditional cameras. Reflectance is a physically defined object property and therefore often preferred output of the remote sensing data capture to be used in the further processes. Absolute calibration of the sensor provides a possibility for physical modelling of the imaging process and enables efficient procedures for reflectance correction. Our objective is to develop a method for direct reflectance measurements for drone-based remote sensing. It is based on an imaging spectrometer and irradiance spectrometer. This approach is highly attractive for many practical applications as it does not require in situ reflectance panels for converting the sensor radiance to ground reflectance factors. We performed SI-traceable spectral and radiance calibration of a tuneable Fabry-Pérot Interferometer -based (FPI) hyperspectral camera at the National Physical Laboratory NPL (Teddington, UK). The camera represents novel technology by collecting 2D format hyperspectral image cubes using time sequential spectral scanning principle. The radiance accuracy of different channels varied between ±4% when evaluated using independent test data, and linearity of the camera response was on average 0.9994. The spectral response calibration showed side peaks on several channels that were due to the multiple orders of interference of the FPI. The drone-based direct reflectance measurement system showed promising results with imagery collected over Wytham Forest (Oxford, UK).
  • Markelin, Lauri; Suomalainen, Juha; Hakala, Teemu; Alves de Oliveira, Raquel; Viljanen, Niko; Näsi, Roope; Scott, Barry; Theocharous, Theo; Greenwell, Claire; Fox, Nigel; Honkavaara, Eija (ISPRS Council, 2018)
    The International Archives fo the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences
    We study and analyse performance of a system for direct reflectance measurements from a drone. Key instruments of the system are upwards looking irradiance sensor and downwards looking imaging spectrometer. Requirement for both instruments is that they are radiometrically calibrated, the irradiance sensor has to be horizontally stabilized, and the sensors needs to be accurately synchronized. In our system, irradiance measurements are done with FGI Aerial Image Reference System (FGI AIRS), which uses novel optical levelling methodology and can compensate sensor tilting up to 15°. We performed SI-traceable spectral and radiance calibration of FPI hyperspectral camera at the National Physical Laboratory NPL (Teddington, UK). After the calibration, the radiance accuracy of different channels was between ±4% when evaluated with independent test data. Sensors response to radiance proved to be highly linear and was on average 0.9994 for all channels. The spectral response calibration showed side peaks on several channels that were due to the multiple orders of interference of the FPI and highlighted the importance of accurate calibration. The drone-based direct reflectance measurement system showed promising results with imagery collected over Jokioinen agricultural grass test site, Finland. AIRS-based image- and band wise image adjustment provided homogenous and seamless image mosaics even under varying illumination conditions and under clouds.